ZOO502 GDB Sprig 2021 – GDB – Solution VU

ZOO502 GDB Sprig 2021 – GDB – Solution VU

ZOO502 GDB Sprig 2021

ZOO502 GDB Sprig 2021 solution idea:


What happens to people who get covid 19? How could we differentiate between different strains of covid -19 

Signs and symptoms include respiratory symptoms and include fever, cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome and sometimes death. Standard recommendations to prevent the spread of COVID-19 include frequent cleaning of hands using alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water; covering the nose and mouth with a flexed elbow or disposable tissue when coughing and sneezing; and avoiding close contact with anyone that has a fever and cough. virus infects your body by entering healthy cells. There, the invader makes copies of itself and multiplies throughout your body. The new coronavirus latches its spiky surface proteins to receptors on healthy cells, especially those in your lungs.

Specifically, the viral proteins bust into cells through ACE2 receptors. Once inside, the coronavirus hijacks healthy cells and takes command. Eventually, it kills some of the healthy cells. The pathology of SARS-CoV-2 is not yet completely understood; most of our Eknowledge has been based on research into SARS-CoV and MERS, which previously caused epidemics of acute respiratory syndromes.

Disease in some particular groups of patients Similar to all infectious diseases, the immune system plays an essential role in virus suppression. Therefore, it can be assumed that suppression of the immune defense system will make the situation worse, but it is not as simple as it sounds There has not yet been enough scientific evidence to generally employ immunosuppressive drugs in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis On the other hand, the hyper-inflammatory and cytokine release syndrome typical of COVID-19 causes tissue damage to the lung epithelium and ARDS therefore, immunosuppressive drugs may be useful as there is some evidence that an anti-IL-6 approach is effective in critically ill patients in the ICU . Another high-risk group for COVID-19 is cancer patients, who are administered cytotoxic drugs. Although their immune function may be at an acceptable level, some cytotoxic drugs such as 6-MP used in chemotherapy, have shown destructive effects on virus replication in vitro. On the other hand, the high number of critically ill patients and increased mortality in patients with underlying diseases has been proven. Diabetes mellitus type II can include a hyperinflammatory state with a low-grade inflammatory activity that causes long-term immune system stimulation, along with adipose tissue side effects on the immune system, which ultimately drives an immune imbalance. Also, due to the overexpression of ACE2 in islet cells of the pancreas, SARS-CoV-2 may be a diabetogenic virus that causes severe instability in the blood glucose levels of diabetes patients, which worsens the inflammatory imbalance. As a consequence, the condition of diabetic patients can be worsened after COVID-19 infection, as evidenced by the higher levels of multiple enzymes and inflammatory cytokines compared to nondiabetic individuals with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can infect a range of hosts. They are known to cause diseases including the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans.


In January 2020, China saw an outbreak of a new coronavirus strain now named SARS- CoV-2. 

Although the animal reservoir for the SARS and MERS viruses are known, this has yet to have been confirmed for SARS-CoV-2. All three strains are transmissible between humans.


To allow the widest possible distribution of relevant research, the Microbiology Society has brought together articles from across our portfolio and made this content freely available.


Other human coronaviruses

Three additional coronaviruses originated as animal infectionsTrusted Source. Over time, these viruses evolved and were eventually transmitted to humans. These coronaviruses pose more serious risks to human health. They’re described below.



SARS-CoV causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). According to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source, the first human cases appeared in southern China in November 2002.

SARS-CoV may have originated in bats and were transmitted to other animals before infecting humans.

During the 2002-2003 epidemic, more than 8,000 people in 26 countriesTrusted Source around the world contracted SARS. There were 774Trusted

Source reported deaths.

The outbreak was contained in mid-2003 with the implementation of infection control practices such as isolation and quarantine. Since then, a handful of cases have occurred due to laboratory accidents.

There are currently no reported cases of SARS transmission in the world. However, if the virus re-emerges, it could pose a significant threat to the public.



MERS-CoV causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). According to WHOTrusted Source, it emerged in September 2012 in Saudi Arabia, although initial cases were later traced back to Jordan.

Humans contract MERS-CoV through contact with camels that have contracted the infection. The virus is also transmitted by coming into very close contact with a person who has the infection.

Since 2012, 27 countries have reported more than 2,400 MERS cases. To date, the majority of cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia.

In 2015, an outbreak in South Korea led to 186 casesTrusted Source and 36 deaths. According to the CDCTrusted Source, this outbreak originated with a traveler returning from the Middle East.

According to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDPC), there were more than 200 cases of MERS-CoV reported in 2019.

Health authorities around the world continue to monitor MERS cases.



SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19. This new coronavirus appeared in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 after health officials noticed an increase in pneumonia cases with no known cause.

These cases have since been linked to a market selling seafood and poultry. Though the virus likely evolved from an animal source, its exact source is unknown.

Within a few months, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to hundreds of countries around the world after being transmitted through person-to-person contact.

The virus that originated in China in 2019 is a new coronavirus that likely evolved from an animal source. It’s been named SARS-CoV-2.

SARS-CoV-2 causes the illness known as COVID-19. It’s dangerous because it’s transmitted easilyTrusted Source from person-to-person, whether or not the person is exhibiting symptoms.

As the virus continues to spread around the world, many countries are asking people to stay home to prevent transmission.

There’s currently no known vaccine or medical treatment for COVID-19. Research in these areas is ongoing.


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