BIO202 Assignment 1 Spring 2021 – Assignments – Solution VU

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BIO202 Assignment 1 Spring 2021 – Assignments – Solution VU

Bio202 Assignment Solution


Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Though often maligned in trendy diets, carbohydrates — one of the basic food groups — are important to a healthy life.

On the basis of the number of forming units, three major classes of carbohydrates can be defined: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

  • Monosaccharidesor simply sugars are formed by only one polyhydroxy aldehydeidic or ketonic unit.
    The most abundant monosaccharide is D-glucose, also called dextrose.
  • Oligosaccharidesare formed by short chains of monosaccharidic units (from 2 to 20) linked one to the next by chemical bounds, called glycosidic bounds.
    The most abundant oligosaccharides are disaccharides, formed by two monosaccharides, and especially in the human diet the most important are sucrose (common table sugar), lactose and maltose. Within cells many oligosaccharides formed by three or more units do not find themselves as free molecules but linked to other ones, lipids or proteins, to form glycoconjugates.
  • Polysaccharidesare polymers consisting of 20 to 107 monosaccharidic units; they differ each other for the monosaccharides recurring in the structure, for the length and the degree of branching of chains or for the type of links between units.
    Whereas in the plant kingdom several types of polysaccharides are present, in vertebrates there are only a small number.
    Polysaccharides are defined

omopolysaccharides if they contain only one type of monosaccharide as starchglycogen and chitin;

eteropolysaccharides, instead, contain two or more different kinds (e.g. hyaluronic acid).

Note: the term “saccharide” derives from the greek word “sakcharon”, which means sugar.

Properties of Carbohydrates

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Casen Found in Cow milk.

Ovalbumin found in Egg

Glutin in Wheat

The proteins are polymers made of monomers called the amino acids. There are 20 different kinds of amino acids that make up the proteins. However, they are present in different proportions in each of the proteins.

FSC ki book me ache se explained he, waha se pic b drwa kr len, and likh b waha se sakte,

Acid-Base Properties of Amino

Acids Amino acids can undergo an intramolecular acid–base reaction (proton transfer) Transfer of the H from the –COOH group to the –NH2 group forms a dipolar ion, an ion that has one (+) charge and one (-) charge. Neutral dipolar ions are known as zwitterions. (‘Zwitter’ meaning hybrid). • Because they are zwitterions, amino acids have many of the physical properties we associate with salts: – can form crystals – have high melting points – are soluble in water – not soluble in hydrocarbon solvents • In acidic solution (low pH), amino acid zwitterions accept protons on their basic –COO- groups to leave only the positively charged –NH3 + groups. • In basic solution (high pH), amino acid zwitterions lose protons from their acidic –NH3 + groups to leave only the negatively charged –COO- groups

The net charge of an amino acid molecule at any given moment depends on the particular amino acid and the pH of the medium. The pH at which the net positive and negative charges are equal is the amino acid’s isoelectric point (pI). At this point, the overall charge of all the amino acids in a sample is zero.


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