AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8603 Autumn 2018

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8603 Curriculum Development 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Curriculum Development (8603) Level: B.Ed (1 1⁄2 & 21⁄2 Years) Semester: Autumn 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1. Evaluate the concepts of curriculum planning and development. Suggest different

measures for effective curriculum planning at elementary level of education.

Answer:

Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. Arising in medieval Europe was the trivium, an educational curriculum based upon the study of grammar, rhetoric, and logic. The later quadrivium (referring to four subjects rather than three as represented by the trivium) emphasized the study of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These seven liberal arts should sound a lot like what you experienced during your formal education. The emphasis on single subjects persists even today. Very likely you moved from classroom to classroom, particularly throughout your secondary education, studying a different subject with each teacher. Yet there was more to your education. Perhaps you participated in athletics, or the band, or clubs, or student government, or made the choice not to participate in any extracurricular activities. All of these (including the option not to participate) are part of what we might call the contemporary curriculum. But there is more. Some educators would say that the curriculum consists of all the planned experiences that the school offers as part of its educational responsibility. Then there are those who contend that the curriculum includes not only the planned, but also the unplanned experiences as well. For example, incidents of violence that have occurred at a number of schools across the nation are hardly a planned component of the curriculum. However, the manner in which violence is addressed before, during, and after the actual event sends a very definite message about how people in our culture interact and how the laws of our nation are applied. Another perspective suggests that curriculum involves organized rather than planned experiences because any event must flow of its own accord, the outcome not being certain beforehand. For instance, competitions, whether academic or athletic, can be organized, but the outcomes will depend on a myriad of factors that cannot be planned. Which brings us to the notion of emphasizing outcomes versus experiences. This shift to the notion of outcomes is very much in keeping with the current movement toward accountability in the public schools, that is, the perspective that there are indeed specific things that the schools are supposed to accomplish with children. District personnel, school administrators, and you as one of many teachers are to be held accountable by the public/taxpayers for ensuring that those objectives are met. Curriculum, it turns out, is ndeed much more than the idea of specific subjects as represented by the trivium or the quadrivium. And, as we will see in the next section, it can be characterized not only by what it does include but also by what it intentionally excludes. A key concept to keep in mind is that the curriculum is only that part of the plan that directly affects students. Anything in the plan that does not reach the students constitutes an educational wish, but not a curriculum. Half a century ago Bruner (1960) wrote, “Many curricula are originally planned with a guiding idea . . . But as curricula are actually executed, as they grow and change, they often lose their original form and suffer a relapse into a certain shapelessness” (p. 54). Curriculum—however grand

the plans may be—can only be that portion of the plan that actually reaches the student. Planning that keeps that point in focus can be expected to result in a more focused curriculum. The Purpose of Curriculum We have suggested that curriculum refers to the means and materials with which the student interacts. To determine what will constitute those means and materials, we must decide what we want the curriculum to yield. What will constitute the “educated” individual in our society? In other words, what purpose does the curriculum serve? The things that teachers teach represent what the larger society wants children to learn. However, beyond teaching reading and writing, what are the necessary things that they should be taught? Is it really necessary to teach science? Does teaching mathematics really lead to logical thinking, or does it just provide students with some basic computational skills that may or may not come in handy at some future time? You may feel that answering such questions is not something a teacher has to be able to do, but rest assured that at some point a parent will ask you questions like these. As a teacher, you will be the representative of “the curriculum” to whom parents and students turn for answers. The purpose of the curriculum is to prepare the student to thrive within the society as it is—and that includes the capacity for positive change and growth. You Actually Have Four Curriculums There are essentially four curriculums at work in most educational settings: the explicit, implicit, null, and extra-, or cocurriculum. You are probably familiar with the notions of explicit curriculum and extracurricular activities. The real intrigue of curriculum debate and design comes into play with the implicit and null curriculums. There are four curriculums: Explicit curriculum: subjects that will be taught, the identified “mission” of the school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire Implicit curriculum: lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture Null curriculum: topics or perspectives that are specifically excluded from the curriculum Extra curriculum: school-sponsored programs that are intended to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience The Explicit Curriculum Explicit means “obvious” or “apparent,” and that’s just what the explicit curriculum is all about: the subjects that will be taught, the identified “mission” of the school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire. If you speak with an administrator at your school or where you do your observations or practicum work, ask about the curriculum; it is this publicly announced (and publicly sanctioned) explanation of the message of school that will be explained to you. The explicit curriculum can be discussed in terms of time on task, contact hours, or Carnegie units (high school credit courses). It can be qualified in terms of specific observable, measurable learning objectives. The Implicit Curriculum Sometimes referred to as the hidden curriculum, the implicit curriculum refers to the lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture. While good citizenship may be part of the explicit curriculum, a particular ethos that promotes, for example, multiethnic acceptance and cooperation may also characterize a particular school. This is not to say that parents, teachers, and administrators sat around a table and said, “Hey, let’s promote acceptance of diverse ethnic values in the context of the American experience.” That would be nice, of course, but then it tends to fall into the category of the explicit curriculum. By virtue of a high multiethnic enrollment, a particular school may have a culture of multiethnic cooperation.

Another school, isolated in that its enrollment is primarily that of one ethnic group, would develop a different sort of culture. Individual schools within a district, or even classrooms within a school that share a common explicit curriculum, can differ greatly with regard to the implicit curriculum. This is not an altogether bad situation, but to a great degree the implicit curriculum is subjected to less scrutiny than is the explicit curriculum.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8603 Autumn 2018

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Q.2. Discuss in detail evolution process of curriculum development in Pakistan before and after 18th constitutional amendment. Highlight the challenges a curriculum planner may

faced while planning curriculum in Pakistan.

Answer:

The extent to which the content of the test matches the objectives of a specific curriculum as it is

formally described. Curricular validity takes on particular importance in situations where tests are

used for high-stakes decisions, such as Punjab Examination Commission exams for fifth and

eight grade students and Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education Examinations. In

these situations, curricular validity means that the content of a test that is used to make a

decision about whether a student should be promoted to the next levels should measure the

curriculum that the student is taught in schools.

Curricular validity is evaluated by groups of curriculum/content experts. The experts are

asked to judge whether the content of the test is parallel to the curriculum objectives and

whether the test and curricular emphases are in proper balance. Table of specification

may help to improve the validity of the test.

The task of grading and reporting students’ progress cannot be separated from the procedures

adopted in assessing students’ learning. If instructional objectives are well defined in terms of

behavioural or performance terms and relevant tests and other assessment procedures are

properly used, grading and reporting become a matter of summarizing the results and presenting

them in understandable form. Reporting students’ progress is difficult especially when data is

represented in single letter-grade system or numerical value (Linn & Gronlund, 2000).

Assigning grades and making referrals are decisions that require information about individual

students. In contrast, curricular and instructional decisions require information about groups of

students, quite often about entire classrooms or schools (Linn & Gronlund, 2000).

There are three primary purposes of grading students. First, grades are the primary currency for

exchange of many of the opportunities and rewards our society has to offer. Grades can be

exchanged for such diverse entities as adult approval, public recognition, college and university

admission etc. To deprive students of grades means to deprive them of rewards and

opportunities. Second, teachers become habitual of assessing their students’ learning in grades,

and if teachers don’t award grades, the students might not well know about their learning

progress. Third, grading students motivate them. Grades can serve as incentives, and for many

students incentives serve a motivating function.

The different functions of grading and reporting systems are given as under:

1. Instructional uses

The focus of grading and reporting should be the student improvement in learning. This is most

likely occur when the report: a) clarifies the instructional objectives; b) indicates the student’s

strengths and weaknesses in learning; c) provides information concerning the student’s personal

and social development; and d) contributes to student’s motivation.

The improvement of student learning is probably best achieved by the day-to-day assessments

of learning and the feedback from tests and other assessment procedures. A portfolio of work

developed during the academic year can be displayed to indicate student’s strengths and

weaknesses periodically.

Periodic progress reports can contribute to student motivation by providing short-term

goals and knowledge of results. Both are essential features of essential learning. Well-

designed progress reports can also help in evaluating instructional procedures by

identifying areas need revision. When the reports of majority of students indicate poor

progress, it may infer that there is a need to modify the instructional objectives

2. Feedback to students

Grading and reporting test results to the students have been an on-going practice in all the

educational institutions of the world. The mechanism or strategy may differ from country to

country or institution to institution but each institution observes this practice in any way. Reporting

test scores to students has a number of advantages for them. As the students move up through

the grades, the usefulness of the test scores for personal academic planning and self-

assessment increases. For most students, the scores provide feedback about how much they

know and how effective their efforts to learn have been. They can know their strengths and areas

need for special attention. Such feedback is essential if students are expected to be partners in

managing their own instructional time and effort. These results help them to make good decisions

for their future professional development.

Teachers use a variety of strategies to help students become independent learners who are able

to take an increasing responsibility for their own school progress. Self-assessment is a significant

aspect of self-guided learning, and the reporting of test results can be an integral part of the

procedures teachers use to promote self-assessment. Test results help students to identify areas

need for improvement, areas in which progress has been strong, and areas in which continued

strong effort will help maintain high levels of achievement. Test results can be used with

information from teacher’s assessments to help students set their own instructional goals, decide

how they will allocate their time, and determine priorities for improving skills such as reading,

writing, speaking, and problem solving. When students are given their own test results, they can

learn about self-assessment while doing actual self-assessment. (Iowa Testing Programs, 2011).

Grading and reporting results also provide students an opportunity for developing an awareness

of how they are growing in various skill areas. Self-assessment begins with self-monitoring, a skill

most children have begun developing well before coming to kindergarten.

3. Administrative and guidance uses

Grades and progress reports serve a number of administrative functions. For example, they are

used for determining promotion and graduation, awarding honours, determining sports eligibility

of students, and reporting to other institutions and employers. For most administrative purposes,

a single letter-grade is typically required, but of course, technically single letter-grade does not

truly interpret student’s assessment.

Guidance and Counseling officers use grades and reports on student’s achievement,

along with other information, to help students make realistic educational and vocational

plans. Reports that include ratings on personal and social characteristics are also useful

in helping students with adjustment problems.

Without any doubt, it is more effective to talk parents to face about their children’s scores than to

send a score report home for them to interpret on their own. For a variety of reasons, a parent-

teacher or parent-student-teacher conference offers an excellent occasion for teachers to provide

and interpret those results to the parents.

1. Teachers tend to be more knowledgeable than parents about tests and the types of scores

being interpreted.

2. Teachers can make numerous observations of their student’s work and consequently

substantiate the results. In-consistencies between test scores and classroom performance can

be noted and discussed.

3. Teachers possess work samples that can be used to illustrate the type of classroom work the

student has done. Portfolios can be used to illustrate strengths and to explain where

improvements are needed.

4. Teachers may be aware of special circumstances that may have influenced the scores, either

positively or negatively, to misrepresent the students’ achievement level.

Reliability is a measure of the consistency of a metric or a method. Every metric or method we

use, including things like methods for uncovering usability problems in an interface and expert

judgment, must be assessed for reliability. In fact, before you can establish validity, you need to

establish reliability. Here are the four most common ways of measuring reliability for any

empirical method or metric:-

• inter-rater reliability

• test-retest reliability

• parallel forms reliability

• internal consistency reliability

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8603

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Q.3. Analyze various foundation of curriculum development. What is the significance of

psychological and sociological foundation in curriculum situation analysis?

Answer

Psychology could find a way to the educational affairs when it has taken in all of the materials of

education. It has analyzed such materials to the preliminary elements that involved the potentials

and the intellective processes. There have been psychological analyses for the educational

courses such as reading, writing, mathematics, languages, and composition.

Likewise, arts and the practical materials of painting, carving, and ornamentation have been

psychologically studied and analyzed into the preliminary matters, whether intellectually or

manually. Such studies and analyses enabled teachers to select the most appropriate method

that meets the pupils’ predispositions, taking in consideration the age and the grade. In addition,

teachers could use such studies in choosing the most adequate courses.

Psychology is regarded as the major guide of teaching and educational processes.

This ruling saves the Islamic society from such diseases that cause retardation

and social weakness. The jurisprudential bases of Islam sustain the modern articles that the

international health organizations have declared.

The spouses’ blood, for example, should be analyzed before marriage for recognizing whether

any of them is affected by sexual diseases such as rhoea, syphilis, or others that are the main

cause of the babies’ blindness or venereal diseases. The calamities of such diseases are

inherited genetically causing mental and physical disabilities beside the other party’s misery,

suffering, and other mental problems that deprive of acontent life.

Psychology and Education

Psychology could find a way to the educational affairs when it has taken in all of the materials of

education. It has analyzed such materials to the preliminary elements that involved the potentials

and the intellective processes. There have been psychological analyses for the educational courses such as reading, writing, mathematics, languages, and composition.

Likewise, arts and the practical materials of painting, carving, and ornamentation have been

psychologically studied and analyzed into the preliminary matters, whether intellectually or

manually. Such studies and analyses enabled teachers to select the most appropriate method

that meets the pupils’ predispositions, taking in consideration the age and the grade. In addition,

teachers could use such studies in choosing the most adequate courses.

Psychology is regarded as the major guide of teaching and educational processes.

Curriculum:

Ibn-e-Khaldun criticized the books of that time which were referred to as the text-books and

reference-books. The students had to study these books and their explanations and

commentaries in order to attain the graduation diploma. In the view of Khaldun, too much

explanation is very harmful and difficult for the students as every scholar has their own view and

perception of presenting. Ibn-e-Khaldun says that there is nothing new expect for the repetition of

contents with some variations of words and phrases, then why should students be compelled to

memorize and learn books (Shahid, 2000).

Regarding the content of education Ibn-e-Khaldun says that religion instruction should be the

corner stone of the curriculum as it helps in formation of the good character and habits.

According to him logic is very important for students as it enables one to think and also analyze

critically. Khaldun emphasizes on the learning of language as it helps to study different subjects

and also mathematics as it sharpens the mental power and increases the power of reasoning. He

felt a need of professional and vocational subjects along with academic subjects (Khalid, 2012).

AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn 2018 Code 8603

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Q.4. Analyze the curriculum of Science subject of the Grade V.

Answer

The Implicit Curriculum Sometimes referred to as the hidden curriculum, the implicit curriculum refers to the lessons that

arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that

characterize that culture. While good citizenship may be part of the explicit curriculum, a

particular ethos that promotes, for example, multiethnic acceptance and cooperation may also

characterize a particular school. This is not to say that parents, teachers, and administrators sat

around a table and said, “Hey, let’s promote acceptance of diverse ethnic values in the context of

the American experience.” That would be nice, of course, but then it tends to fall into the category

of the explicit curriculum. By virtue of a high multiethnic enrollment, a particular school may have

a culture of multiethnic cooperation. Another school, isolated in that its enrollment is primarily that

of one ethnic group, would develop a different sort of culture. Individual schools within a district,

or even classrooms within a school that share a common explicit curriculum, can differ greatly

with regard to the implicit curriculum. This is not an altogether bad situation, but to a great degree

the implicit curriculum is subjected to less scrutiny than is the explicit curriculum.

Develop two objectives for measuring recall level, two objectives for measuring application level

and two for evaluation level for 5th class from English text book.

Assessment of learning is basically designed to provide useful information about the performance

of the learners rather than providing immediate and direct feedback to teachers and learners,

therefore it usually has little effect on learning. Though high quality summative information can

help and guide the teacher to organize their courses, decide their teaching strategies and on the

basis of information generated by summative assessment educational programs can be modified.

Many experts believe that all forms of assessment have some formative element. The difference

only lies in the nature and the purpose for which assessment is being conducted.

Comparing Analyze the curriculum of Science for Learning and Assessment of Learning

Assessment as learning means to use assessment to develop and support students’

metacognitive skills. This form of assessment is crucial in helping students become lifelong

learners. As students engage in peer and self-assessment, they learn to make sense of

information, relate it to prior knowledge and use it for new learning. Students develop a sense of

efficacy and critical thinking when they use teacher, peer and self-assessment feedback to make

adjustments, improvements and changes to what they understand.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8603 `

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Q.5. What is the different between aims and objectives of education? Evaluate the

objective movement in Pakistan. How do aims affect the curriculum planning process.

Answer Objectives movement In pakistan

The first behavioral approach to instructional design was the objectives movement. Objective

means the pedagogic intentions of a particular course of study to be achieved within the period of

that course and in principle measurable by some assessment device at the end of the course.

“An objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you

consider them competent. An objective describes an intended result of instruction, rather than the

process of instruction itself”. Valette and Disick suggest that “objectives should stress output

rather than input and that such output should be specified in terms of performance”. It was the

objectives movement that introduced a behavioral approach to education.

This movement has been very influential and highly disputatious both in general and language

education. Inthe scope of general education the works of Mager (1962, 1984) were quite

influential.”Robert Mager is considered by many to be the father of modern-day behavioral

objectives” His 1962 book, Preparing Instructional Objectives, has had a major influence on the

development of learning and training programs. Mager argued for the use of specific, measurable

behavioral and performance objectives that both guide designers during courseware

envelopment and aid students in learning process. To Mager, the behavioral objectives should

have three major components: behavior, condition, and standards. “) [Behavioral objectives] must

unambiguously describe the behavior to be performed, optimally in terms of an action word or

verb of observable behavior, 2) they must describe the conditions under which the performance

will be expected to occur, and 3) they must state a standard of acceptable performance

(thecriterion)” [15]. To sum it up, the behavior should be specific and observable in conditions

under which the behavior is completed and the standard is the level of desirable performance,

including an acceptable range of correct answers.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8603

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