AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8602 Autumn & Spring 2020. Solved Assignments code 8602 Educational Assessment and Evaluation 2021. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Educational Assessment and Evaluation (8602)
Level: B.Ed (1 1?2 & 21?2 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2020
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 important Answer Concept Despite usually difficult distinguished Measurement: of perspective progress a for aspect Testing: For particular Assessment: relative example, language presentation. is The contrast based than schools. In the child’s attitudes. In includes Evaluation: student not a short, object. example process comprehensive example, term Explain a the on for progress to confused negative to their In many we to towards of A a test. (NCCA, subject For explain mutual has ‘assessment’ example, proficiency characteristics some the teacher test testing, measurement Measurement, can Rafaih According of significant the Based from example, learnt. a formal Kizlik broadest In .gathering, is say test known association and or nature with a trust the 2004) general, the an may pre-determined solved Rafaih’s field. and the upon that (2011) and differences Measurement of instrument others. achievement each of and to role is sense we assess tone specific objective and mathematics assessment the informal this Kizlik refers derived the 23 of recording, understanding. Assessment measure other. in work defines scope between of classroom view, students arithmetic term assessment education the (2011) way, the to among or was activities or Mostly from goal. knowledge we the measurement a provides during of term assessment goal. an classroom entails interpreting, systematic neat. will can assessment measurement evaluation process through the This them. problems object and the assessment. people assessment measure This Assessment is say designed the Latin much terms concerned process quantitative Evaluation of Each that to emphasizes development of assessment any English use procedure as is is know word out obtaining using more measurement, every and used of most the to a these provides other assessment of is these monitor process .is ‘assidere’ with how the than language 40. level and description to test non-threatening complex a terms instrument determine to may a that children’s broad But process big, terms is of testing. communicating numerical the of measure and assessment by it knowledge, there be tall the assessment, interchangeably information which through does and has term and improve which defined of or It of learners’ the progress should a is the for the heavy evaluation. a not that description teaching means specific an indicating attributes particular information a least example students’ teaching as: include but test ongoing includes concepts, regarding information be it and knowledge and every and is. ‘to understood meaning a and and positive evaluation In or the achievement. sit characteristic. Highlight of a assesses and oral performance process assessment testing. educational is dimensions
partnership a learning feel beside’. how qualitative skills student’s learning. obtained about quiz sharply of it rather much
term. very and
that this the
the or In a Hopkins and Antes (1990) defined evaluation as a continuous inspection of all available information in order to form a valid judgment of students’ learning and/or the effectiveness of education program. The central idea in evaluation is “value.” When we evaluate a variable, we are basically judging its worthiness, appropriateness and goodness. Evaluation is always done against a standard, objectives or criterion. In teaching learning process teachers made students’ evaluations that are usually done in the context of comparisons between what was intended (learning, progress,
behaviour) and what was obtained.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8602 Autumn & Spring 2020
Q No 2. A) Explain the cognitive domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy of education objective .
Cognitive domain: The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six levels of this domain starting from the simplest cognitive behaviour to the most complex. The levels can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place. Affective domain: The affective domain is related to the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five levels of this domain include: receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterizing by value.
Psychomotor domain: Focus is on physical and kinesthetic skills. The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. There are seven levels of this domain from the simplest behaviour to the most complex. Domain levels include: Perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex or overt response, adaptation. · http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html · http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
Over all Bloom’s taxonomy is related to the three Hs of education process that are Head, Heart and
Note: In each of the three domains Bloom’s Taxonomy is based on the premise that the categories are ordered in degree of difficulty. An important premise of Bloom’s Taxonomy is that each ‘level’ must be mastered before progressing to the next. As such the levels within each domain are levels of learning development, and these levels increase in difficulty. Writing Cognitive Domain Objectives In teaching learning process, cognitive domain of Blooms taxonomy is of prime focus. So let’s discuss this domain in detail and learn to write objectives of this domain.
The first level of learning is knowledge.
Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the
To arrange, to define, to Knowledge
describe, to identify, to list, to label, to name, to order, to recognize, to recall, to relate, to repeat, to reproduce, to state, to underline.
Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to Application translate, Application comprehend, or knowledge. student knowledge situation? the application solve problem. selects, To choose, classify, demonstrate, to discuss, to explain, identify, interpret, to pick, is the use of relate, To apply, to Can the demonstrate, Analysis apart knowledge, investigation concept. the knowledge student a It a transfers, involves It can The use of has in can real d only of piece of parts theory a obtained also i student occur taking world i new of and the be to of
a if to generalize, interpret, operate, practice, restructure, schedule, calculate, compare, contrast, detect, determine, distinguish, dramatize, analyze, to report, to classify, to label, to recognize, to describe, indicate, develop, illustrate, compare, discriminate, express, to employ, determine, to respond, to locate,to
to initiate, to organize, to relate, to rewrite, to appraise, sketch, to categorize, conclude, or criticize; to debate, to develop, or deduce; to comprehends a concept.
diagram, to diagnose, The student examines,
differentiate, or discriminate; classifies, hypothesizes,
to estimate, to examine, to collects data and draws
evaluate to experiment to
Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something that is new to him/her.
To arrange, to assemble, to collect, to compose, to construct, to constitute, to create, to design, to develop, to device, to document, to formulate, to manage, to modify, to originate, to organize, to plan, to prepare, to predict, to produce, to propose, to
Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or
relate, to reconstruct, decision making. The student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards and criteria.
1. The regarding measured performance following i. Tests determine:- ii. the importance of cognitive Planning a Test main objective of classroom Pre-testing and • During • instructional assessments and student . weather instruction to instruction can then what be learning defining objectives:
extent developed. the (readiness, (to can determine the be students achievement. it the Instruction Testing provides bases for To appraise, argue, assess; to attach, choose, to contrast, consider, to critique, decide, to defend, estimate, to evaluate, domain precisely assessment so judge, predict, in the.development to rate, to measure, to revise, to achievement is to obtain valid, reliable and useful This requires determining what is that assessments tasks to measure test.
data to be desired Classroom tests and assessments can be used for the
given at the beginning of an instructional unit or course to
have the prerequisite skills needed for the motivation etc) students have already achieved the objectives of planned
placement or modification of instruction)
• monitor learning progress
• detect learning errors
• provide feedback for students and teachers iii. End of Instruction Testing
• measure intended learning outcomes
• used for formative assessment
• provides bases for grades, promotion etc Prior to developing an effective test, one needs to determine whether or not a test is the appropriate type of assessment. If the learning objectives are of primarily types of procedural knowledge (how to perform a task) then a written test may not be the best approach. Assessment of procedural knowledge generally calls for a performance demonstration assessed using a rubric. Where demonstration of a procedure is not appropriate, a test can be an effective assessment tool. 2. The first stage of developing a test is planning the test content and length. Planning the test begins with development of a blueprint or test specifications for the test structured on the For of related When intends and testing, percentages and items that drawings the ii. iii. iv. v. Table Test that following each learning therefore concepts specifications for 7.1: an Specifications Item any Typically, tasks produce Presentation tasks Assembly items Delivery information constraint. to outcome to table each learning each for engineer Table use other .specifications: are and to four outcomes and test designs to concept, of of be the in presented Model: a tasks of in elements: material be the weightage construction. outcome, construction, specification produced, specification Model: task. are prepares regarding Specifications the measured, Model: learning to it also or and test. Delivery develop to such to instructional Assembly meet description a of Item a referred and the Presentation The outcomes. weight test design test at Fulcher as he is tentative test a Model guiding the specifications this weight texts, the test usually for items administration, takers. should to requirements sub-level to model Social format. of objectives blueprint & tells as construct diagrams, language weightage and will item model Davidson know ‘blueprints’, be how helps be Studies measuring types contains assigned describe what provides used of to a the that of and .test (2009) the building of the be to its Class actual a to each details be for two charts assessed the test building based security/confidentiality constructs. planned assessment determine information constructed. divided they key VI and items, construct, test developer all which on elements: choose are information is is inhabitants. by the test prompts going delivered. It the literally are the how which includes relative It specify specifications to number the is used test to samples the –not combine or materials, necessary be specifies architectural Similarly, instrument. importance
It tasks, number as items constructs surprising and used of includes stimuli. of items time and and into test for, the he of to in Objectives/ Knowledge Understanding
Climate 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 25% Resources 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 25% Population 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 25% Society 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 25%
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2020 Code 8602
Q No. 3 Compare and contrt the characteristics of Criterion and Norm referenced Tests.
Also Answer 1. Education definitely teaching A content. to instruction, In objectives selection evaluation accomplish 2 Good · in the · objective degree degree · occur. Characteristics/ learning Behaviour Criterion the Definition Conditions teaching exhibit objective highlights objectives behaviour In of of In learning other should have accuracy, of play objective of is, before that other rather – the learning Secondly, – which the of instructional without – Firstly, words, a includes intent change Thirdly, Objectives .have its of not words instruction. particular process. than you Attributes the identifies utilization refers a only of an process, three quantity under any the learners. an consider ‘an the as an but objective indicate objective to process doubt, objective purpose. well. objective content instruction. essential is what Thirdly, an the of or not in learning observable For statement For them the proportion teaching circumstances a the must limited of must purposeful learning this and is Therefore Objectives characteristics: this should instruction change a competent. explain objectives purpose description clarify to purpose procedures. of learning behaviour of the describe objectives what in correct learning activity. the the following itself.’ the the it the students is competency intended An have learner behaviour of process. necessary responses of the a statement Secondly, objective help Every objectives .the performance three: a conditions will will learner. unique the degree step of develop obtain firstly, to students to or describes the of be are they use the of importance. of the under students learned, you they through this performance. like. a the the facilitate objective prime to want activity verb guide organize competency? which an the instruction but and learners in intended The and intended the the also the has must integral In their role direct statement learning other and appropriate the to indicate of What efforts result learning be change level certain should part for words able the will or of a the learner be given or already be expected to know to accomplish the learning? For example, a
condition could be stated as, told a case study, shown a diagram, given a map, after listening a lecture or observing a demonstration, after through reading, etc
3. Norm-referenced Tests and Criterion-Referenced Tests
Tests can be categorized into two major groups: norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced
tests. These two tests differ in their intended purposes, the way in which content is selected, and the
scoring process which defines how the test results must be interpreted.
(a) Definition of Norm-Referenced Test
Norm-referenced test-takers or mid-point. This against ‘grading (b) Criterion-referenced knowledge Criterion-referenced covered Criterion-referenced 100 scores type (c) Norm-referenced Standardized of Criterion-referenced set has “fail” medical examinees worse. Norm- Definition of the total type of and criteria test are each demonstrated on in exam points are of Scores Reference class. would and teacher’s a typically test curve’. used or other examinations so of is skills. .determines possible. a that Criterion-Referenced would an be tests standard. tests in on tests expressed test compared tests tests example use decisions making V.S mastery this are be is compare in are differ Students Criterion-Referenced measure reported made a type daily such a The term intended decisions student’s of about as of as in of a classroom goal as with a to that which a Criterion assessment. an as are specific certain the who percentage. their with compare a to each placement Tests about earned examinee’s SAT percentage is measure knew opportunity these used skill work. skills Reference examinee’s are job most points test or This Testing daily tests norm-referenced Criterion-referenced entry, and on how set rank takers or performance a for is in is for of concepts. normal least well Test. certification, what performance to classes. success with skills. items determine to a about Either person half is each distribution These completed being Typically, These can scoring tests. driving to other. the or has is be whether tests results referred that licensure. examinee compared The tests made. learned aboverules curve. On correctly. they are of goal are assess an
or to the other are and Students not a NRT is usually who with has to specific to most national designed half The the a specific drove rank driving the the examinees. pre-defined candidate below “pass” students’ compete
common skills phrase, body the better
board skills test, with the set or of to
practice the profession, in which case he or she is licensed, or does not.
(i) Purposes of Criterion and Norm – Reference testing
The major reason for using a norm-referenced test is to classify students. Norm Reference Tests
are designed to highlight achievement differences between and among students to produce a
dependable rank order of students across a continuum of achievement from high achievers to low
achievers. School systems might want to classify students in this way so that they can be properly
placed in remedial or gifted programs. These types of tests are also used to help teachers select
students for different ability level reading or mathematics instructional groups.
With availability compared While what Criterion performance district, Educators how mastered. student Both Congress, procedures are standardized student scores national, manner (ii) comparable. test well norm-referenced Norm norm-referenced Comparison or on is for scores state takers Reference learning state to students or This Office to the all for Reference those level policy if the students and administration same curriculum. is uniform information can Any of public. possible. the district of on makers Technology do have of the Tests standardized desired kind a and and tests, CRT/NRT tests scoring Tests norm specified The tests learned of schools. what may Thus, may report ascertains and a curriculum scores test–from group. are and and Assessment representative they choose be Characteristics it scoring set standardized the how test Criterion can used administration of know, of knowledge the the demonstrate multiple and to be well educational as in use not assumed rank students order how defines one Reference students how group a so choices of well Criterion piece to that and are students, they who assure corresponding the that goals of standardized every used. .skills are of compare Tests to school students take two Reference information or essays doing that score This criterion-referenced which students outcomes the can is the to teaching means can is test relative test or others levels they be results Test given to oral be after who as standardized. determine included that interpreted are when of one that examinations–can to from the receive publication performance. the expected a –curriculum. that they test tests different pre-determined comparison in how uses the in wish the prior determine The a are identical to well uniform uniform school, people to to have Most then U.S. see the be its of
(iii) Criterion-Referenced Tests
i. To determine whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts based on standards. ii. Measures specific skills which make up a designated curriculum. These skills are identified by teachers and curriculum experts iii. Each individual is compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other examinees is irrelevant. iv. Student’s score is usually expressed as a percentage. Student achievement is reported for individual skills.
Advantage of Criterion Referenced Test
Following are the major advantages of criterion referenced tests:
First, students are only tested on their knowledge of specific goals or standards. For example, if you
had taught a lesson on adding fractions, you will give the student a test on adding fractions. If he or
she scores 85% that means that that particular student has learned 85% of that goal. If a student
does not score particularly well, then the teacher
can adjust their instruction accordingly.
Another benefit is that if students do not seem to master a particular standard, the teacher will
be able to go back and teach that standard again until the student performs better.
i. Disadvantages of Criterion-Referenced Tests
Criterion-referenced tests have some built-in disadvantages. Creating tests that are both valid
and reliable requires fairly extensive and expensive time and effort. In addition, results
cannot be generalized beyond the specific course or program. Such tests may also be
compromised by students gaining access to test questions prior to exams. Criterion-
referenced tests are specific to a program and cannot be used to measure the performance of large groups. Norm-Referenced Tests
ii. To rank each student with respect to the achievement of others in order to discriminate between high and low achievers.
iii. Measures broad skill areas sampled from a variety of
iv. textbooks, judgments Each other score–usually percentile. reported although tests achievement individual examinees do for .of some Student curriculum for syllabi, broad expressed is report individual norm-referenced and compared achievement skill assigned experts. and skills student as areas, with the is a
ii. Advantages of Norm reference Test
The advantage of a norm-referenced test is that it shows us how our student is doing
related to other students across the country. They are good for using the placement of
students at the beginning and then again four or six months later, or at the end of the year. This
will show growth over the period of the time.
Norm-referenced student in of An population against which assess theory, improvement test.
AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn & Spring 2020 Code 8602
Q No. 4 Elaborate by learning process?
Perhaps them. However, to preserve not times, a (v) providing obvious well total seeks in skills growth a particularly the a grade. attitudes fixed practice Disadvantage positive as disadvantage most to sometimes beyond examples. a over goal .raise One whole, tests straightforward the are self-image, as time. can the must choosing the shown related bar along only different occurs of Why be They of achievement has remember Norm used norm-referenced on with where to people’s aptitude aren’t often among simply a self-image Reference way to norm-referenced techniques informal individuals measure been to we of responses multiple of because measurement be can’t finding all moved used and observational test students tests the for expect choices. social fall of for out may the success in test. is familiarity grading within about the that acceptance measurement great is be against However, important face affected evaluation it the of someone’s though growth, cannot an with of new whole. educational excessive (i.e. by and they while for measure if standards are social of any, attitude Thus, attitudes the teaching aptitude can useful this over teachers desirability. failure be progress only reform is functions). which short one would for to attractive of measuring rates, the the showing program element in seek periods of They be same teaching learners In and the to to in order may ask tell about their true attitudes, but answer in a way that they feel socially acceptable. Given this problem, various methods of measuring attitudes have been developed. However, all of them have limitations. In particular the different measures focus on different components of attitudes – cognitive, affective and behavioral – and as we know, these components do not necessarily coincide.
Attitude measurement can be divided into two basic categories o Direct Measurement (liker scale and semantic differential) o Indirect Measurement (projective techniques) Semantic Differential The semantic differential technique of Osgood et al. (1957) asks a person to rate an issue or topic on a standard set of bipolar adjectives (i.e. with opposite meanings), each representing a seven point scale. To prepare meanings are example ‘car’, feel about In image ten people word The evaluation, potency • topic dirty • weak).
• Using with behavior. (activity). The attitude, because Evaluation An attitude. However, these report However, the Socially items. Activity Potency Evaluation the most attitude applicable of their evaluation – semantic and (e.g. ‘polite’.
self what this shows clean, the scales picture to desirability (i.e.a this common presented the is For that as information scales is semantic is of scale concerned strength) concerned dimension and being is anyone of example, Direct (above), to differential dimension .concerned attitudes. describing ugly used problem is refers measured. with designed differential Methods who and – we with beautiful). by reflects you with a a to can has activity. technique place variety is Osgood. has There with whether the the can how that see been to the every whether tendency subject scale, might find of powerful of are provide if affective social The the most adjectives a reveals Osgood’s “faked” various person’s like you of topic a image for used desirability. the the a person the aspect must valid, people is information an topic test. problems to by seen taste feeling maps map attitude describe first social thinks or of For is to as of of an for the accurate, give think (evaluation) example, active .people’s chocolate psychologists attitude. that positively the scales on average it. “socially of Respondents person three affect or a measure passive knows participants ratings number (evaluative) or responses towards basic the desirable” (e.g. negatively as there validity (e.g. for cruel dimensions a of tick of an measure the an are words active are of to to – but object of individual’s about word kind, two indicate the given shortcomings attitude not – with questionnaire of groups is of and passive). ‘polite’. the eat a a consistent attitudes: how word, opposite
person’s strong attitude it scales. social of often they for 20 in – People are often motivated to give replies that make them appear “well adjusted”, unprejudiced, open minded and democratic. Self report scales that measure attitudes towards race, religion, sex etc. are heavily affected by socially desirability bias. Respondents who harbor a negative attitude towards a particular group may not wish be admit to
the experimenter (or to themselves) that they have these feelings. Consequently, responses on attitude scales are not always 100% valid. Projective Techniques To avoid the problem of social desirability, various indirect measures of attitudes have been used. Either people are unaware of what is being measured (which has ethical problems) or they are unable consciously to Indirect a person requires interpretation of The opinions or indirect methods strength it scientific which Thematic Here Apperception their personality. enough encourage about. TAT perceptions The • • • • Evaluation The do objectively There is being What What What What is actually affect the attitudes not person major assumption qualitative can a studied ambiguous is is has is the the person with methods to a what since also be interpretation happening only big Apperception criticism characters outcome measure discussion, led of must an used about into Although the is Test when criticism. Indirect is provide up ambiguous rather being .about the presented typically look ethical in or to the (TAT) of using a of incomplete attitudes at the ambiguous variety are indirect at kind the measured. than the the it these Methods general from event the problem should Test taps involve indirect thinking picture, story (i.e. moment of with quantitative. picture(s) of people measures in the methods into shown unclear) ways, stimulus.
the was an information be situation, the of methods. person. and illustration, a ambiguous same vague deception that person’s use from and feeling, is or of This might their of way incomplete enough thus attitudes tell Therefore, eliciting a and projective unconscious a as method drawing and lack as picture use revealing story. a do often not qualities of Liker certain it not objectivity. that stimulus For which the to of or the test. .scale. immediately offer attitude the cartoon example: the products person’s mind person associated they A attitudes person (e.g. a projective Such to have precise measurement that does reveal picture or attitude will give services. methods to the is with not interpret. test “project” used measurement the away person or different know is is repressed must are involves inferred is what that his holds. The not unscientific products be or the their Thematic objective presenting of aspects interesting her from However, project attitude views, to their and or of
The advantages of such indirect techniques of attitude measurement are that they are less likely to produce socially desirable responses, the person is unlikely to guess what is being measured and behavior should be natural and reliable.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8602 Autumn & Spring 2020
Q No. 5 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of objective type test items. Also
highlight the importance significance of the objective type tests
Answer Criterion-referenced and cannot compromised referenced large The related students will Norm-referenced student in of reliability Advantages Mark times, a Assessment If Administering If If show i. ii. The i. ii. iii. iv. v. a item total reliable advantage the groups. test the be growth to main particularly at of growth does scores grade. Type Disadvantages Advantages measures They other They skills. They They The select following tests other the the generalized of requires advantages not by beginning test. over students is Essay .can give means. over are of two One can of it. emphasize students an tests correlate students the a as tests be time. specific integral examines different for statements the measures must norm-referenced Type shown fairly easily along of two what beyond cannot period and of have They Norm of across remember with essay administration Items to part gaining extensive forms Criterion-Referenced it constructed. then integration on with freedom is a some aren’t of guess the complex reference a of the program designed as the type again norm-referenced the informal teaching of total true specific built-in access time. to the we the tests to country. and test four be test or and test respond learning and can’t answer to of Test used false. learning are observational scores disadvantages. or expensive is measure a at course to cannot application six expect that test as a They for test time within because months outcomes follows: test. Tests
it are grading process. it should be or then are is great questions shows .consistent time broad used method program. later, evaluation of good it they Creating be though growth, is which and thinking to limits. us a reconsidered. or of have reliable measure for prior at how effort. then Such split they cannot if the using tests are to any, and half our to it test. end can supply tests In useful the is that exams. the over reliability. be student called problem of addition, be performance are the may measured placement it short one for rather year. both the Criterion- also is showing element periods
solving results test-retest doing valid than This be
vi. Practically it is more economical to use essay type tests if number of students is
vii. They required less time for typing, duplicating or printing. They can be written on
the blackboard also if number of students is not large.
viii. They can measure divergent thinking.
ix. They can be used as a device for measuring and improving language and
expression skill of examinees.
x. They are more helpful in evaluating the quality of the teaching process.
xi. Studies has supported that when students know that the essay type questions will be asked, they focus on learning broad concepts and articulating relationships, contrasting and comparing.
xii. They set better standards of professional ethics to the teachers because they
expect more time in assessing and scoring from the teachers.
Limitations (i) examiners. Suggestions vi. v. The i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. iv. essay They influenced student They satisfactorily more They only previous good They asked They expression They They Ask command merely “demonstrate The that Ask field) phrases indeterminate. expression, useless Define A of major type might Essay questions substance on questions for .or are generally have than have could are have in have the may for bad. to the essay tests Writing such time problem examinee difficult be the of examinee and measuring Type Halo in reproduce limited agree examinee’s score but question basis in a essential consuming have one command” scoring emphasize type as good that he They or the of effects. because Items Essay to is who more writes “What that of the the establish content test. are whose beginning board score the to what other can to following did material knowledge. by one question examinee Type marks determinate, If task long lack both requires do question the they not the game objectively another be aspects he answered validity answer answers. tasks Items you lengthy of for as do on examiner used has of have serious heard question. consistency should the well account carry completely the think…” that This of written carry because characteristic. that is examiner as enumeration in in no achievement. because question book better effect. limitations in the the a is the means be will clearly of effect. medium measuring a or but beginning question his essential sense was .in of than and require lecture A and “What also the good judgments or that particular sample right If as examined of the specifically another. For questions examinee that for on memorized the students a behaviour is but be one or the examinee. knowledge measuring or example, the experts your assessing of examinee did somewhat read examinee wrong characteristic, student even questions basis Questions by well he has opinion should as also. in facts. the (colleagues among later answer, instrument: is rather that a wide possible a to skill gets has likely novel examiner well –not textbook. on. about…” can demonstrate whether that freedom competent he marks than in answered be they to behaved or only contain can without written in asked score new. trivia was
are are not the interfering with the measurement process itself. It is possible to word an essay item so precisely that there is one and only one very brief answer to it. The imposition of such rigid bounds on the response is more limiting than it is helpful. Examinees do need guidance, however, to judge how extensive their response must to be considered complete and accurate.
vii. Generally give preference to specific questions that can be answered briefly. The more questions used, the better the test constructor can sample the domain of knowledge covered by the test. And the more responses available for scoring, the more accurate the total test scores are likely to be. In addition, brief responses can be scored more quickly and more accurately than long, extended responses, even when there are fewer of the latter type. viii. Use enough items to sample the relevant content domain adequately, but not so
many that students do not have sufficient time to plan, develop, and review their
responses. they pressures experiences rereading, be. writing testing iii. ii. iv. There i. want does. experiences are Avoid circumstances the take have quite and to differences distribution. and Test eventually wording the writer Specify points provide writer. decide Often parts determined, Divide questions organizationally grading Finally, omit or become to Some to for reduced encourage few, amount strict contribute ignore some the .the small to answered to which checking to the They giving a which instructors guidance if the the determine of if process be great, same question comparability multiple question or that number parts, to any, items the because awarded ideal of test that in In time also students pieces score of to examinees time make item, and test. sum, the spelling. achievement discourage real 3-5. and, number especially with score low several response. to allotment represent easier questions use if by of the essay required the into there provide to Student students writing In the for score optional such which hence, points writing can essay the responses. these reliability. examinee between the Planning should level separate because items is test when reliability options a intended for Of “best” they the be any tasks legitimate are practice to attached A makes when tests were an circumstances of items choice course is each may furnish be exposed. should “correct” use were time not completeness student ideal one about time That answer that indicated components It it rather able necessary. due the have responses. the restrict identified, item if constraints of in encourages unfamiliar. if to of among pieces is a require answer is is, be a the to to written process good response test suitable short the the scores to prepared than definite answered and/or Often respond reduced we omitted depth the as score the .item most of scores such changed optional The one are some writing to required part question. The when expression. are This information variability because there response. more specify number of it. to reflects organization comparability early, unrealistic less test when of to of use great. response conditions. items use the An examinees reduced form items the the habits there is efficient. score so for questions of question. able ideal Both of it the of time objective not no question. the 1-3 of that optional permits an It parts a they essential a However, are scores maximum variability to variability. even and time pieces expected as response all and number ideal very student begins writing And in It may identify between knew students helps obvious much also negative the a Student allows for unless types items response, homogeneous there is –of check parts inadvertently time of more to can likely editing, when by information
makes examinees number is as individual
students run the the are multiple actually needed will special can B use on writing essay
about to time item may and out. few the not for be of to
Administering the Test
I. Test Assembly
We have discussed various aspects of test planning and construction. If you have written instructional objectives, constructed a test, and written items that match your objectives, then more than likely you will have a good test. All the “raw material” will be there. However, sometimes the
raw material, as good as it may be, can be rendered useless because of poorly assembled and administrated test. By now you know it requires a substantial amount of time to write objectives, put together a test blueprint, and write items. It is worth a little more time to properly assemble or packages your test so that your efforts will not be wasted. Assembly of the test comprises the following steps:- (i) Group together all item of similar format e.g. group all essay type item or MCQ’s in one group. (ii) Arrange test items from easy to hard (iii) Space the items for easy reading (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) II. Most of printing/copies you · · · · · · III. The suggestions · · · Reproduction such Manage Manage Use Retain Be Manage Maintain Maximize Equalize Administration Position Test Keep Answer Test Make i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Determine spent test Provide test careful good copies must directions is items all reproduction original constructing Provide Provide Clarify Remind Monitor Minimize Give Collect Count ready. Rotate printing photocopy confidentiality illustrations, keys a advantages achievement to the adequate quality while be positive can help how will and time .item proofread must of all test All test the distributions students must easy, proper the vary not making of of their students your of distractions the the warnings that unbiased from attitude the in the uniformly be the students and answer in a have tremendously. rules tables, to be Test your options valid students comfortable the remains checked motivation test of system Test paper all to a sets proper precised continuously the proper/new record a schools own make the and for if and properly (gender, good charts, sheets, test to of test on and achievement
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IV. Test Taking Strategies
To improve test-taking skills, there are three approaches that might prove fruitful. Students need to understand the mechanics of test-taking, such as the need to carefully follow instructions, checking their work, and so forth. Second, they need to use appropriate test- taking strategies, including ways in which test items should be addressed and how to make educated guesses. Finally, they need to practice their test-taking skills to refine their abilities and to become more comfortable in testing situations. By acting upon the following strategies the students may enhance their test taking strategies:- V. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Cheating learning i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Steps Students Students Students For answers Answer Students Use Review Practice Take administration. Students prevent If Testing students Two Use spaces Create to achievement. scratch is Prevent special forms To test each between special hours and what big the the use Get using item very need need need need of paper should seating Post Note:- item, maintain issue practice the must easier Cheating of are Regards:- formats carefully. students. Hand precautions answer helping to to to to tests they Following is be arrangements students be Last follow understand check make while used questions watched can a doing. items provided for positive Written Date sheets. material. also educated administering have directions their practice. steps and need to carefully. be of1st first while work. it how used attitude keep answer sufficient turned can and to guesses. placing carefully. or to Walk the be read use budget Solved persist concerning tests in choices followed around test some the with space the to students their to secure the items .the get entire with the on the to test. time.
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