AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8627 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8627 Foundation of Science Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Foundation of Science Education (8627) B. Ed (1/5 Years) Autumn, 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 02
Q.1 Discuss formal operational stage in Piaget theory of intellectual development.
The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive
development. It begins at approximately age 12 and lasts into adulthood. At this point in
development, thinking becomes much more sophisticated and advanced. Kids can think
about abstract and theoretical concepts and use logic to come up with creative solutions to
problems. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also
emerge during this stage.
Piaget tested formal operational thought in a few different ways. Two of the better-known
tests explored physical conceptualization and the abstraction of thought.
One task involved having children of different ages balance a scale by hooking weights on
each end. To balance the scale, the children needed to understand that both the heaviness of
the weights and distance from the center played a role. Younger children around the ages of
3 and 5 were unable to complete the task because they did not understand the concept of
balance. Seven-year-olds knew that they could adjust the scale by placing weights on each
end, but failed to understand that where they put the weights was also important. By age 10,
the kids considered location as well as weight but had to arrive at the correct answer using
It wasn’t until around age 13 that children could use logic to form a hypothesis about where
to place the weights to balance the scale and then complete the task.
Abstraction of Ideas
In another experiment on formal operational thought, Piaget asked children to imagine where
they would want to place a third eye if they had one. Younger children said that they would
put the imagined third eye in the middle of their forehead. Older children, however, were able
to come up with a variety of creative ideas about where to place this hypothetical eye and
various ways the eye could be used. For example, an eye in the middle of one’s hand would
be useful for looking around corners. An eye at the back of one’s head could be helpful for
seeing what is happening in the background. Creative ideas represent the use of abstract and
hypothetical thinking, both important indicators of formal operational thought.
Piaget believed that deductive reasoning becomes necessary during the formal operational
stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular
outcome. Science and mathematics often require this type of thinking about hypothetical
situations and concepts.
While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to
think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Instead of relying
solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and
consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning.
In earlier stages, children used trial-and-error to solve problems. During the formal
operational stage, the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical
way emerges. Children at the formal operational stage of cognitive development are often
able to plan quickly an organized approach to solving a problem.
Piaget believed that what he referred to as “hypothetical-deductive reasoning” was essential
at this stage of intellectual development. At this point, teens become capable of thinking
about abstract and hypothetical ideas. They often ponder “what-if” type situations and
questions and can think about multiple solutions or possible outcomes. While kids in the
previous stage (concrete operations) are very particular in their thoughts, kids in the formal
operational stage become increasingly abstract in their thinking. As children gain greater
awareness and understanding of their own thought processes, they develop what is known as
metacognition, or the ability to think about their thoughts as well as the ideas of others.
The following observations were made about the formal operational stage of cognitive
• From Neil J. Salkind, Ph.D., author of An Introduction to Theories of Human
Development: “The formal operational thinker has the ability to consider many different
solutions to a problem before acting. This greatly increases efficiency, because the
individual can avoid potentially unsuccessful attempts at solving a problem. The formal
operational person considers past experiences, present demands, and future
consequences in attempting to maximize the success of his or her adaptation to the
• From Christine Brain and Priscilla Mukherji, authors of Understanding Child Psychology: “In
the formal operational stage, actual (concrete) objects are no longer required and mental
operations can be undertaken ‘in the head’ using abstract terms. For example, children at
this stage can answer questions such as: ‘if you can imagine something made up of two
quantities, and the whole thing remains the same when one quantity is increased, what
happens to the second quantity?’ This type of reasoning can be done without thinking
about actual objects.”
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8627 Autumn 2018
Q.2 Discuss the role of constructivism in teaching of science?
Constructivism has been considered as a dominant paradigm, or research programme, in the
field of science education. The term constructivism is widely used in many fields, and not
always with quite the same intention. This entry offers an account of how constructivism is
most commonly understood in science education.
Science Education is now an established field within Education, and worldwide has its own
journals, conferences, university departments and so forth. Although a diverse field, a
major influence on its development was research considered to be undertaken from a
constructivist perspective on learning, and supporting approaches to teaching that
themselves became labelled constructivist. Thus, this constructivism was largely of a
psychological flavour, often drawing on the work of Jean Piaget, David Ausubel, Robert M.
Gagné and Jerome Bruner. One influential group of science education researchers were also
heavily influenced by George Kelly (psychologist)’s Personal Construct Theory. The work of
Lev Vygotsky (since being championed in the West by Jerome Bruner) has also been
These workers from psychology informed the first generation of science education
researchers. Active research groups developed in centres like the University of Waikato
(Aotearoa/New Zealand), University of Leeds (UK) and University of Surrey (UK), with a strong
interest in students’ ideas in science (formed before, or during instruction) as these were
recognised as being highly influential on future learning, and so whether canonical scientific
would be learnt. This work, sometimes labelled the ‘alternative conceptions movement’ was
motivated by a series of influential publications on children’s ideas in science and their
implications for learning (and so for how teaching should be planned to take them into
account). Whilst a range of influential papers could be cited it has been suggested that a
number of seminar contributions in effect set out the commitments, or ‘hard core’ of a
constructivist research programme into the learning and teaching of science. The perspective
was also the focus of a number of books aimed at the science education community –
researchers and teachers.
These papers presented learning as process of personal sense making, and an iterative matter
such that what is learnt was channelled by existing knowledge and understanding (whether
canonical or alternative), and teaching as needing to take learners’ existing ideas into account
in teaching. The research programme soon amounted to thousands of studies on aspects of
students’ (of different ages and educational levels, from different countries) thinking and
learning in science topics.
Criticisms of constructivism
There have been a wide range of criticisms of constructivist work in science, including strong
criticism from philosophical perspectives. Such criticisms have done little to stem the
influence of the perspective, perhaps because they tend not to refer to the core tenets of
constructivism as an approach based on learning theory and research from cognitive science.
Alternative conceptions and conceptual frameworks in science education
Learners’ ideas in science have been variously labelled as alternative conceptions, alternative
conceptual frameworks, preconceptions, scientific misconceptions, naive theories etc.
Although some scholars have attempted to distinguish between these terms, there is no
consensual usage and often these terms are in effect synonymous. It has been found that
some alternative conceptions are very common, although others appear quite idiosyncratic.
Some seem to be readily overcome in teaching, but others have proved to be tenacious and
to offer a challenge to effective instruction. Sometimes it is considered important to
distinguish fully developed conceptions (i.e., explicit ways of understanding aspects of the
natural work that are readily verbalised) from more ‘primitive’ features of cognition acting at a
tacit level, such as the so-called phenomenology primitives. The ‘knowledge-in-pieces’
perspective suggests the latter act as resources for new learning which have potential to
support the development of either alternative or canonical knowledge according to how
teachers proceed, whereas alternative conceptions (or misconceptions) tend to be seen as
learning impediments to be overcome. What research has shown is the prevalence among
learners at all levels of alternative ways to thinking about just about all science topics, and a
key feature of guidance to teachers is to elicit students’ ideas as part of the teaching process.
The success of constructivism is that this is now largely taken-for-granted in science teaching
and has become part of standard teaching guidance in many contexts. Previously there was a
strong focus on the abstract nature of concepts to be learnt, but little awareness that often
the teacher was not seeking to replace ignorance with knowledge, but rather to modify and
develop learners existing thinking which was often at odds with the target knowledge set out
in the curriculum.
Aiou Solved Assignments code 8627 Autumn 2018
Q.3 Critically evaluate the role of science in improving the quality of life?
The stunning advances in various fields of science and technology have had a profound
impact on our lives in almost every sphere of our activity, such as health, agriculture,
communication, transportation, and defence. These advances have been driven by an ever-
growing volume of exciting discoveries, largely emanating from science laboratories in the
West, and by their transformation into new products or processes that have flooded world
markets. These floods in turn shower vast economic rewards on those nations that have the
will and vision to make science and technology the cornerstone of their development
The world is today sharply divided by a technology boundary that separates the
technologically advanced countries from the technologically backward ones. The former have
been able to use their scientists and engineers for rapid economic growth, whereas the so-
called developing countries (which in reality are not developing at all) are relegated to the
role of consumers of technological products. They become almost totally dependent on the
advanced countries for most of their needs, be they chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering
goods, transportation equipment, or defence equipment. In the process, more and more
funds from developing countries are being transferred to developed countries, raising the
level of poverty in the developing countries.
It needs to be understood that development is a multifaceted process, and a number of
factors must dovetail together before economic growth and progress can occur. In my
opinion, five key components must come together. First, the development process must be
built on a foundation of high degrees of literacy and quality education at all levels. The Afro-
Asian countries have vast populations at their disposal, and the challenge is to transform this
resource into wealth. In order to unleash their creativity, the Third World countries must
expose their youth to a challenging educational environment that teaches them to think and
find novel solutions to difficult problems.
The second important facet for development is a high level of expertise in the sciences. Third
World countries need to upgrade their universities and research centres to an internationally
compatible level of excellence through development and retention of world-class researchers
and provision of appropriate research facilities. They must become focal points for creation of
new knowledge. Only when we have high-quality basic research in various fields and can work
at the cutting edge of knowledge will we have the capacity to absorb frontier technologies
and adapt them for our use.
The third important facet of the development process concerns applied research and
technology development. We must identify and launch focused projects directed at (a)
enhancing exports, (b) fostering import substitutions, (c) improving the quality and
productivity of existing manufactured products, and (d) bringing to market new and better
products through supporting the creative talents of our technologists and engineers. This is a
complex issue involving the interaction between technologists and economists to develop
and optimise the production process on a reasonably large scale so that financial feasibilities
can be properly worked out.
The fourth facet of development involves government policies and mechanisms to encourage
investment of entrepreneurs in indigenously developed products and processes. These
measures include tax incentives, provision of risk capital by venture capital companies,
protection of intellectual property rights, rationalisation of import duty structures, banning of
smuggling to protect local industry, and creation of investor confidence through stable and
The fifth and most important factor for success is involving the most creative people at all
levels, which requires introducing measures that will persuade our brightest students to opt
for science and technology when they are deciding on their careers. This involves introducing
an appropriately attractive career structure and creating R&D institutions at an international
level of excellence where our scientists can lead intellectually stimulating and rewarding
careers. Research grants must also be provided so that they can contribute meaningfully. In
other words, the operation of a merit-based system in which only the brightest people are
allowed to go up the ladder must be incorporated with a suitable reward and punishment
system as an integral component of a highly transparent but demanding accountability
In Pakistan, due to negligence and faulty vision of planners in successive governments, the
science and technology sector was never given the status required to effectively use it as a
contributor to national and economic growth. Due to meagre funding provided by the
government, our R&D institutions could not produce any valuable research. Lack of proper
facilities and environment for research in the universities and research institutes led to
deterioration in the standard of higher education to the extent that today our universities
have been relegated to the status of low-level colleges in which valuable university-economy
links are totally missing.
The present government places science and technology, including information technology
(IT), amongst its highest priorities. A comprehensive programme has been worked out and
launched for building a knowledge-based economy by integrating science and technology
with economic development programmes. The government has raised the financial
commitment to the ministry I head to more than Rs. 7 billion (US$120 million; a 6000%
increase). In turn, the ministry, taking a holistic view of the dismal scenario in Pakistan, has
launched a vast number of projects that fall under other ministries but that involve the
effective use of science and technology for economic growth. Since June 2000 the
government has launched over 260 development projects worth a total of about Rs. 18 billion
(US$300 million) in various fields of the IT, telecommunications, and science and technology
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 code 8627
Q.4 “Teaching of Science can help to overcome the problems of energy and water in
Science and technology are the key drivers in the acceleration of development in a society.
Science and technology directly alter the living standards of the people, and the way they
connect and communicate with each other. Technological improvements provide a root to
the advancement of economic development, health system and infrastructure. The
development of science and technology in developing countries plays a crucial role in the
reform of poverty level, and technological advancement can be considered as an engine of
growth. Technology is a better weapon to tackle the poverty level with and enhance the
economic growth of a developing country. Modernisation of any society is a manifestation of
the implementation of science and technology by those nations. The modernisation is solely
dependent upon the development in science and technology. The categorisation of the
countries is based upon economic development, which, in turn, is dependent upon the
application and importance of science and technology among the public of that nation.
Modernisation turns villages into towns and towns into cities.
Load shedding is one of the serious problems of Pakistan. The PML-N had claimed in the
2013 elections that it will solve this problem only in a year. In spite of all claims and their rule
of five years, they failed completely in generating sufficient electricity. The former CM of
Punjab Shahbaz Sharif said, “Loadshedding is your problem now.” The long duration of
loadshedding in the sacred month of Ramadan exposed the performance of the ruling party.
The circular debt of Rs400 billion is a clear proof of the mismanagement in the energy sector.
The auditor general of Pakistan severely objected to the payment of 80 billion rupees in this
regard previously. The reasons for the fake energy crisis and its solution are given below.
According to estimation 22,000-24,000 megawatt electricity is needed in Pakistan. This
demand increases up to 5% each year. It means 1,000 or1,200 megawatt is added.
Unfortunately, we have never been able to produce more than 18,000 megawatt energy. The
government claimed to produce 24,000MW electricity. But even NTDC, which is an institution
of the government, does not confirm it.
Because this institution does not have the capacity for transmission and distribution of more
than 18,000MW, several new institutions, including the wind power generating institutions,
are not being allowed to produce the electricity more than a certain level.
The difference between power generation and capacity for transmission is also the inability of
our governments. It means that there is a difference of 6,000MW between the production and
the transmission of power. It is expressed in the form of loadshedding in the whole country.
Definitely, the government has completed many power projects in its five years. But the
difference between demand and supply which was 5,000MW in 2013, has reached up to the
level of 6,000MW in 2018. The government of PML-N had started the energy projects that are
based on LNG and coal.
This government has completed only two hydro and atomic power projects that were
inaugurated by the previous governments and were on the stage of completion in 2013.
Same is the case of other wind and solar projects.
It shows that the projects that can be started without foreign help (LNG, imported coal) are
not the priority of the present govt. Consequently, the circular debts have increased up to the
level of Rs400 billion. The government could complete the wind, hydro and solar projects of
2,000MW with this amount. 4,500MW electricity and 6.4 million acre feet water could be
generated with the completion of Bhasha Dam. Dasu Hydropower Project, which is in the
lower stream, can also add 30% to the total production of electricity. This important project
was absolutely ready before 2013. But the government did not pay attention to it. Shahid
Khaqan Abbasi announced Rs474 billion for Ecnec in the last month of his government.
The government focused on non-development projects like the division of laptop. If it had
invested Rs100 billion yearly on energy projects, the dam and water reservoir could be made
ready. We could be able to borrow equipment for the production of energy from the relevant
institutions instead of begging from international financial institutions. But the government
was interested only in those projects that could be started and completed in five years.
This is the reason that this important project which was inaugurated by Yusuf Raza Gillani and
Pervez Musharraf many years before could not be carried on. Hydropower is the most
inexpensive source of producing the electricity in Pakistan. But the present government
ignored it completely. LNG and coal have remained its greatest priority. Such projects are
useful for short term only. These projects are not durable and dependable for long term due
to their heavy cost of production. According to Wapda, Pakistan has the capacity for
producing 1000,00MW electricity through hydropower projects. Almost 65,000MW projects
have been designed and studied. Same is the matter of solar and wind projects. The sources
of fossil energy are reducing all over the world. The environmental pollution is also a serious
issue. All these factors have changed the dynamics of the energy industry in the whole world.
All developed countries, including China, America and Germany (even our neighbour, India)
are increasing the production of hydroelectricity. China has the capacity of 114,000MW of
wind energy. The capacity of its solar energy plants is 28,000MW.
Germany has less than 50% of total area in comparison with Pakistan‟s. It is producing
39,000MW wind energy. It has 50% sunshine hours than Pakistan but still producing
38,000MW solar energy. Can‟t we fulfill our needs of electricity by establishing the wind, solar
and hydropower plants? These projects are cheap, durable and environment friendly.
According to an American research institution, NREL, Pakistan has immense capacity for
producing wind and solar energy. The estimation of solar energy is almost 29,000MW. It is
100% more than our needs. The capacity for generating wind energy in Pakistan is
346,000MW. Aren‟t we thankless to Allah Almighty and depending on foreign investment,
loan and interest? It is the need of the hour that we should learn to secure our interests as a
We should stress the governments to change their priorities. They should establish cheap and
durable power projects instead of expensive projects. If we want to get rid of load shedding
and provide electricity to industry and trade, we have to depend on hydro, solar and wind
energy. We should set our priorities honestly and sincerely. We should save money and
produce investment opportunities for foreign countries. We should attract the foreign
investors to our energy projects so that we can be able to produce energy according to our
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8627
Q.5 Discuss the problems in science teaching with special reference to Pakistan.
Science has affected every aspect of life and has revolutionized the society. On the other
hand, scientific knowledge is increasing with a great pace, never experienced in the history of
mankind. It is a recognized fact that modern citizen over it existence to science and can be
called as a scientific civilization. Obviously the rule of science and technology remains the
most important factor in the socio-economic of a society. It has been widely accepted that
the amicable survival of a nation in the 21st century depends upon scientific development as
well as scientifically literate society. The comer stone on which the edifice of development
programmes of a country must be built is its expertise in science and technology and its
application in agriculture and industry (Rehman etal, 1998).
The word science has its origin from a Latin word „Scientia‟ meaning „to Know‟. “Science is a
systematized body of knowledge”. “Science is nothing but organized common sense”.
“Science is a heap of truth” (Yadav, 1992).
Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects our environment and us. It is an
organized body of knowledge and systematic process of investigation and interpretation. This
definition of science is not just restricted to a body of knowledge but it is also concerned with
finding out about the world in systematic way (scientific method) and retrieval of information
from appropriate sources (Shami, 2001).
Science is systematic study of all those things that can be examined, tested and verified. From
its early beginnings, science has been developed into one of the greatest and most influential
fields of human endeavor.
Pakistan is a developing country and is continuously striving for respectable status in the
community of nation. Pakistan needs a strong base of science and technology to solve its
problems of food, shelter, energy, health and security, the exploitation of natural resources
and the boosting of agricultural and industrial production. Pakisan has established itself as a
member of global nuclear power society (Iqbal, 2000).
Since independence in 1947, there has been growing consciousness about the role of science
in the development Pakistan, to become a modern state. The first education conference 1947
set the direction of our education system. “Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in his
message to the conference emphasized the importance of science education for the
emerging nation. “The future of our state will and must greatly depends upon the type of
education we give to our children, and the way we bring them up as the future citizens of
Pakistan. (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947).
Science education at secondary level could not attract attention in terms of effort and
investment. With increased emphasis on quality of primary education and renewed efforts to
check high drop out rate in basic education, secondary level education now needs to be
developed for comparatively heavy influx of students. The ESR‟s included a reform in science
education at the secondary level by constructing science laboratories, provision of science
equipment, revision of Science Curricula and professional development of Science and
Mathematics teachers. Teaching of Science subjects in English is also part of the reform
process (Shami, 2008). The educational system of any country hinges on the teacher, who
occupies a pivotal position in its evolution as he has been assigned the responsibility of
educating the future generation it The growing number of students and reports that are
becoming available suggest that better education of teachers may be the most crucial input
for the development of human resources in the country (Farooq, 1993).
Richardson (1985) Teachers play the most important and practical role in education. They are
said to be the builders or architects of a nation. Teacher is the central log in the machinery of
education. The quality and worth of teachers determine the quality of education. To develop
an individual as a scientist, we will have to develop a suitable science curriculum, Laboratories,
for our educational institutions and that will be only possible that we remove the problem
faced by science teachers in secondary level.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 code 8627