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Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8627 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8627 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8627 Foundation of Science Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Foundation of Science Education (8627) B. Ed (1/5 Years) Autumn, 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 02

Q.1 Discuss formal operational stage in Piaget theory of intellectual development.

The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive

development. It begins at approximately age 12 and lasts into adulthood. At this point in

development, thinking becomes much more sophisticated and advanced. Kids can think

about abstract and theoretical concepts and use logic to come up with creative solutions to

problems. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also

emerge during this stage.

Piaget’s Research

Piaget tested formal operational thought in a few different ways. Two of the better-known

tests explored physical conceptualization and the abstraction of thought.

Conceptualizing Balance

One task involved having children of different ages balance a scale by hooking weights on

each end. To balance the scale, the children needed to understand that both the heaviness of

the weights and distance from the center played a role. Younger children around the ages of

3 and 5 were unable to complete the task because they did not understand the concept of

balance. Seven-year-olds knew that they could adjust the scale by placing weights on each

end, but failed to understand that where they put the weights was also important. By age 10,

the kids considered location as well as weight but had to arrive at the correct answer using

trial-and-error.

It wasn’t until around age 13 that children could use logic to form a hypothesis about where

to place the weights to balance the scale and then complete the task.

Abstraction of Ideas

In another experiment on formal operational thought, Piaget asked children to imagine where

they would want to place a third eye if they had one. Younger children said that they would

put the imagined third eye in the middle of their forehead. Older children, however, were able

to come up with a variety of creative ideas about where to place this hypothetical eye and

various ways the eye could be used. For example, an eye in the middle of one’s hand would

be useful for looking around corners. An eye at the back of one’s head could be helpful for

seeing what is happening in the background. Creative ideas represent the use of abstract and

hypothetical thinking, both important indicators of formal operational thought.

Deductive Logic

Piaget believed that deductive reasoning becomes necessary during the formal operational

stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular

outcome. Science and mathematics often require this type of thinking about hypothetical

situations and concepts.

Abstract Thought

While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to

think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Instead of relying

solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and

consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning.

Problem-Solving

In earlier stages, children used trial-and-error to solve problems. During the formal

operational stage, the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical

way emerges. Children at the formal operational stage of cognitive development are often

able to plan quickly an organized approach to solving a problem.

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Piaget believed that what he referred to as “hypothetical-deductive reasoning” was essential

at this stage of intellectual development. At this point, teens become capable of thinking

about abstract and hypothetical ideas. They often ponder “what-if” type situations and

questions and can think about multiple solutions or possible outcomes. While kids in the

previous stage (concrete operations) are very particular in their thoughts, kids in the formal

operational stage become increasingly abstract in their thinking. As children gain greater

awareness and understanding of their own thought processes, they develop what is known as

metacognition, or the ability to think about their thoughts as well as the ideas of others.

Current Observations

The following observations were made about the formal operational stage of cognitive

development:

• From Neil J. Salkind, Ph.D., author of An Introduction to Theories of Human

Development: “The formal operational thinker has the ability to consider many different

solutions to a problem before acting. This greatly increases efficiency, because the

individual can avoid potentially unsuccessful attempts at solving a problem. The formal

operational person considers past experiences, present demands, and future

consequences in attempting to maximize the success of his or her adaptation to the

world.”

• From Christine Brain and Priscilla Mukherji, authors of Understanding Child Psychology: “In

the formal operational stage, actual (concrete) objects are no longer required and mental

operations can be undertaken ‘in the head’ using abstract terms. For example, children at

this stage can answer questions such as: ‘if you can imagine something made up of two

quantities, and the whole thing remains the same when one quantity is increased, what

happens to the second quantity?’ This type of reasoning can be done without thinking

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Q.2 Discuss the role of constructivism in teaching of science?

Constructivism has been considered as a dominant paradigm, or research programme, in the

field of science education. The term constructivism is widely used in many fields, and not

always with quite the same intention. This entry offers an account of how constructivism is

most commonly understood in science education.

Science Education is now an established field within Education, and worldwide has its own

journals, conferences, university departments and so forth.[2] Although a diverse field, a

major influence on its development was research considered to be undertaken from a

constructivist perspective on learning, and supporting approaches to teaching that

themselves became labelled constructivist. Thus, this constructivism was largely of a

psychological flavour, often drawing on the work of Jean Piaget, David Ausubel, Robert M.

Gagné and Jerome Bruner. One influential group of science education researchers were also

heavily influenced by George Kelly (psychologist)’s Personal Construct Theory. The work of

Lev Vygotsky (since being championed in the West by Jerome Bruner) has also been

increasingly influential.

These workers from psychology informed the first generation of science education

researchers. Active research groups developed in centres like the University of Waikato

(Aotearoa/New Zealand), University of Leeds (UK) and University of Surrey (UK), with a strong

interest in students’ ideas in science (formed before, or during instruction) as these were

recognised as being highly influential on future learning, and so whether canonical scientific

would be learnt. This work, sometimes labelled the ‘alternative conceptions movement’ was

motivated by a series of influential publications on children’s ideas in science and their

implications for learning (and so for how teaching should be planned to take them into

account). Whilst a range of influential papers could be cited it has been suggested that a

number of seminar contributions in effect set out the commitments, or ‘hard core’ of a

constructivist research programme into the learning and teaching of science. The perspective

was also the focus of a number of books aimed at the science education community –

researchers and teachers.

These papers presented learning as process of personal sense making, and an iterative matter

such that what is learnt was channelled by existing knowledge and understanding (whether

canonical or alternative), and teaching as needing to take learners’ existing ideas into account

in teaching. The research programme soon amounted to thousands of studies on aspects of

students’ (of different ages and educational levels, from different countries) thinking and

learning in science topics.

Criticisms of constructivism

There have been a wide range of criticisms of constructivist work in science, including strong

criticism from philosophical perspectives. Such criticisms have done little to stem the

influence of the perspective, perhaps because they tend not to refer to the core tenets of

constructivism as an approach based on learning theory and research from cognitive science.

Alternative conceptions and conceptual frameworks in science education

Learners’ ideas in science have been variously labelled as alternative conceptions, alternative

conceptual frameworks, preconceptions, scientific misconceptions, naive theories etc.

Although some scholars have attempted to distinguish between these terms, there is no

consensual usage and often these terms are in effect synonymous. It has been found that

some alternative conceptions are very common, although others appear quite idiosyncratic.

Some seem to be readily overcome in teaching, but others have proved to be tenacious and

to offer a challenge to effective instruction. Sometimes it is considered important to

distinguish fully developed conceptions (i.e., explicit ways of understanding aspects of the

natural work that are readily verbalised) from more ‘primitive’ features of cognition acting at a

tacit level, such as the so-called phenomenology primitives. The ‘knowledge-in-pieces’

perspective suggests the latter act as resources for new learning which have potential to

support the development of either alternative or canonical knowledge according to how

teachers proceed, whereas alternative conceptions (or misconceptions) tend to be seen as

learning impediments to be overcome. What research has shown is the prevalence among

learners at all levels of alternative ways to thinking about just about all science topics, and a

key feature of guidance to teachers is to elicit students’ ideas as part of the teaching process.

The success of constructivism is that this is now largely taken-for-granted in science teaching

and has become part of standard teaching guidance in many contexts. Previously there was a

strong focus on the abstract nature of concepts to be learnt, but little awareness that often

the teacher was not seeking to replace ignorance with knowledge, but rather to modify and

develop learners existing thinking which was often at odds with the target knowledge set out

in the curriculum.

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Q.3 Critically evaluate the role of science in improving the quality of life?

The stunning advances in various fields of science and technology have had a profound

impact on our lives in almost every sphere of our activity, such as health, agriculture,

communication, transportation, and defence. These advances have been driven by an ever-

growing volume of exciting discoveries, largely emanating from science laboratories in the

West, and by their transformation into new products or processes that have flooded world

markets. These floods in turn shower vast economic rewards on those nations that have the

will and vision to make science and technology the cornerstone of their development

programmes.

The world is today sharply divided by a technology boundary that separates the

technologically advanced countries from the technologically backward ones. The former have

been able to use their scientists and engineers for rapid economic growth, whereas the so-

called developing countries (which in reality are not developing at all) are relegated to the

role of consumers of technological products. They become almost totally dependent on the

advanced countries for most of their needs, be they chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering

goods, transportation equipment, or defence equipment. In the process, more and more

funds from developing countries are being transferred to developed countries, raising the

level of poverty in the developing countries.

It needs to be understood that development is a multifaceted process, and a number of

factors must dovetail together before economic growth and progress can occur. In my

opinion, five key components must come together. First, the development process must be

built on a foundation of high degrees of literacy and quality education at all levels. The Afro-

Asian countries have vast populations at their disposal, and the challenge is to transform this

resource into wealth. In order to unleash their creativity, the Third World countries must

expose their youth to a challenging educational environment that teaches them to think and

find novel solutions to difficult problems.

The second important facet for development is a high level of expertise in the sciences. Third

World countries need to upgrade their universities and research centres to an internationally

compatible level of excellence through development and retention of world-class researchers

and provision of appropriate research facilities. They must become focal points for creation of

new knowledge. Only when we have high-quality basic research in various fields and can work

at the cutting edge of knowledge will we have the capacity to absorb frontier technologies

and adapt them for our use.

The third important facet of the development process concerns applied research and

technology development. We must identify and launch focused projects directed at (a)

enhancing exports, (b) fostering import substitutions, (c) improving the quality and

productivity of existing manufactured products, and (d) bringing to market new and better

products through supporting the creative talents of our technologists and engineers. This is a

complex issue involving the interaction between technologists and economists to develop

and optimise the production process on a reasonably large scale so that financial feasibilities

can be properly worked out.

The fourth facet of development involves government policies and mechanisms to encourage

investment of entrepreneurs in indigenously developed products and processes. These

measures include tax incentives, provision of risk capital by venture capital companies,

protection of intellectual property rights, rationalisation of import duty structures, banning of

smuggling to protect local industry, and creation of investor confidence through stable and

long-term policies.

The fifth and most important factor for success is involving the most creative people at all

levels, which requires introducing measures that will persuade our brightest students to opt

for science and technology when they are deciding on their careers. This involves introducing

an appropriately attractive career structure and creating R&D institutions at an international

level of excellence where our scientists can lead intellectually stimulating and rewarding

careers. Research grants must also be provided so that they can contribute meaningfully. In

other words, the operation of a merit-based system in which only the brightest people are

allowed to go up the ladder must be incorporated with a suitable reward and punishment

system as an integral component of a highly transparent but demanding accountability

system.

In Pakistan, due to negligence and faulty vision of planners in successive governments, the

science and technology sector was never given the status required to effectively use it as a

contributor to national and economic growth. Due to meagre funding provided by the

government, our R&D institutions could not produce any valuable research. Lack of proper

facilities and environment for research in the universities and research institutes led to

deterioration in the standard of higher education to the extent that today our universities

have been relegated to the status of low-level colleges in which valuable university-economy

The present government places science and technology, including information technology

(IT), amongst its highest priorities. A comprehensive programme has been worked out and

launched for building a knowledge-based economy by integrating science and technology

with economic development programmes. The government has raised the financial

commitment to the ministry I head to more than Rs. 7 billion (US\$120 million; a 6000%

increase). In turn, the ministry, taking a holistic view of the dismal scenario in Pakistan, has

launched a vast number of projects that fall under other ministries but that involve the

effective use of science and technology for economic growth. Since June 2000 the

government has launched over 260 development projects worth a total of about Rs. 18 billion

(US\$300 million) in various fields of the IT, telecommunications, and science and technology

sectors.

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Q.4 “Teaching of Science can help to overcome the problems of energy and water in

Pakistan.” Discuss?

Science and technology are the key drivers in the acceleration of development in a society.

Science and technology directly alter the living standards of the people, and the way they

connect and communicate with each other. Technological improvements provide a root to

the advancement of economic development, health system and infrastructure. The

development of science and technology in developing countries plays a crucial role in the

reform of poverty level, and technological advancement can be considered as an engine of

growth. Technology is a better weapon to tackle the poverty level with and enhance the

economic growth of a developing country. Modernisation of any society is a manifestation of

the implementation of science and technology by those nations. The modernisation is solely

dependent upon the development in science and technology. The categorisation of the

countries is based upon economic development, which, in turn, is dependent upon the

application and importance of science and technology among the public of that nation.

Modernisation turns villages into towns and towns into cities.

Load shedding is one of the serious problems of Pakistan. The PML-N had claimed in the

2013 elections that it will solve this problem only in a year. In spite of all claims and their rule

of five years, they failed completely in generating sufficient electricity. The former CM of

Punjab Shahbaz Sharif said, “Loadshedding is your problem now.” The long duration of

loadshedding in the sacred month of Ramadan exposed the performance of the ruling party.

The circular debt of Rs400 billion is a clear proof of the mismanagement in the energy sector.

The auditor general of Pakistan severely objected to the payment of 80 billion rupees in this

regard previously. The reasons for the fake energy crisis and its solution are given below.

According to estimation 22,000-24,000 megawatt electricity is needed in Pakistan. This

demand increases up to 5% each year. It means 1,000 or1,200 megawatt is added.

Unfortunately, we have never been able to produce more than 18,000 megawatt energy. The

government claimed to produce 24,000MW electricity. But even NTDC, which is an institution

of the government, does not confirm it.

Because this institution does not have the capacity for transmission and distribution of more

than 18,000MW, several new institutions, including the wind power generating institutions,

are not being allowed to produce the electricity more than a certain level.

The difference between power generation and capacity for transmission is also the inability of

our governments. It means that there is a difference of 6,000MW between the production and

the transmission of power. It is expressed in the form of loadshedding in the whole country.

Definitely, the government has completed many power projects in its five years. But the

difference between demand and supply which was 5,000MW in 2013, has reached up to the

level of 6,000MW in 2018. The government of PML-N had started the energy projects that are

based on LNG and coal.

This government has completed only two hydro and atomic power projects that were

inaugurated by the previous governments and were on the stage of completion in 2013.

Same is the case of other wind and solar projects.

It shows that the projects that can be started without foreign help (LNG, imported coal) are

not the priority of the present govt. Consequently, the circular debts have increased up to the

level of Rs400 billion. The government could complete the wind, hydro and solar projects of

2,000MW with this amount. 4,500MW electricity and 6.4 million acre feet water could be

generated with the completion of Bhasha Dam. Dasu Hydropower Project, which is in the

lower stream, can also add 30% to the total production of electricity. This important project

was absolutely ready before 2013. But the government did not pay attention to it. Shahid

Khaqan Abbasi announced Rs474 billion for Ecnec in the last month of his government.

The government focused on non-development projects like the division of laptop. If it had

invested Rs100 billion yearly on energy projects, the dam and water reservoir could be made

ready. We could be able to borrow equipment for the production of energy from the relevant

institutions instead of begging from international financial institutions. But the government

was interested only in those projects that could be started and completed in five years.

This is the reason that this important project which was inaugurated by Yusuf Raza Gillani and

Pervez Musharraf many years before could not be carried on. Hydropower is the most

inexpensive source of producing the electricity in Pakistan. But the present government

ignored it completely. LNG and coal have remained its greatest priority. Such projects are

useful for short term only. These projects are not durable and dependable for long term due

to their heavy cost of production. According to Wapda, Pakistan has the capacity for

producing 1000,00MW electricity through hydropower projects. Almost 65,000MW projects

have been designed and studied. Same is the matter of solar and wind projects. The sources

of fossil energy are reducing all over the world. The environmental pollution is also a serious

issue. All these factors have changed the dynamics of the energy industry in the whole world.

All developed countries, including China, America and Germany (even our neighbour, India)

are increasing the production of hydroelectricity. China has the capacity of 114,000MW of

wind energy. The capacity of its solar energy plants is 28,000MW.

Germany has less than 50% of total area in comparison with Pakistan‟s. It is producing

39,000MW wind energy. It has 50% sunshine hours than Pakistan but still producing

38,000MW solar energy. Can‟t we fulfill our needs of electricity by establishing the wind, solar

and hydropower plants? These projects are cheap, durable and environment friendly.

According to an American research institution, NREL, Pakistan has immense capacity for

producing wind and solar energy. The estimation of solar energy is almost 29,000MW. It is

100% more than our needs. The capacity for generating wind energy in Pakistan is

346,000MW. Aren‟t we thankless to Allah Almighty and depending on foreign investment,

loan and interest? It is the need of the hour that we should learn to secure our interests as a

nation.

We should stress the governments to change their priorities. They should establish cheap and

durable power projects instead of expensive projects. If we want to get rid of load shedding

and provide electricity to industry and trade, we have to depend on hydro, solar and wind

energy. We should set our priorities honestly and sincerely. We should save money and

produce investment opportunities for foreign countries. We should attract the foreign

investors to our energy projects so that we can be able to produce energy according to our

needs

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Q.5 Discuss the problems in science teaching with special reference to Pakistan.

Science has affected every aspect of life and has revolutionized the society. On the other

hand, scientific knowledge is increasing with a great pace, never experienced in the history of

mankind. It is a recognized fact that modern citizen over it existence to science and can be

called as a scientific civilization. Obviously the rule of science and technology remains the

most important factor in the socio-economic of a society. It has been widely accepted that

the amicable survival of a nation in the 21st century depends upon scientific development as

well as scientifically literate society. The comer stone on which the edifice of development

programmes of a country must be built is its expertise in science and technology and its

application in agriculture and industry (Rehman etal, 1998).

The word science has its origin from a Latin word „Scientia‟ meaning „to Know‟. “Science is a

systematized body of knowledge”. “Science is nothing but organized common sense”.

“Science is a heap of truth” (Yadav, 1992).

Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects our environment and us. It is an

organized body of knowledge and systematic process of investigation and interpretation. This

definition of science is not just restricted to a body of knowledge but it is also concerned with

finding out about the world in systematic way (scientific method) and retrieval of information

from appropriate sources (Shami, 2001).

Science is systematic study of all those things that can be examined, tested and verified. From

its early beginnings, science has been developed into one of the greatest and most influential

fields of human endeavor.

Pakistan is a developing country and is continuously striving for respectable status in the

community of nation. Pakistan needs a strong base of science and technology to solve its

problems of food, shelter, energy, health and security, the exploitation of natural resources

and the boosting of agricultural and industrial production. Pakisan has established itself as a

member of global nuclear power society (Iqbal, 2000).

Since independence in 1947, there has been growing consciousness about the role of science

in the development Pakistan, to become a modern state. The first education conference 1947

set the direction of our education system. “Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in his

message to the conference emphasized the importance of science education for the

emerging nation. “The future of our state will and must greatly depends upon the type of

education we give to our children, and the way we bring them up as the future citizens of

Pakistan. (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947).

Science education at secondary level could not attract attention in terms of effort and

investment. With increased emphasis on quality of primary education and renewed efforts to

check high drop out rate in basic education, secondary level education now needs to be

developed for comparatively heavy influx of students. The ESR‟s included a reform in science

education at the secondary level by constructing science laboratories, provision of science

equipment, revision of Science Curricula and professional development of Science and

Mathematics teachers. Teaching of Science subjects in English is also part of the reform

process (Shami, 2008). The educational system of any country hinges on the teacher, who

occupies a pivotal position in its evolution as he has been assigned the responsibility of

educating the future generation it The growing number of students and reports that are

becoming available suggest that better education of teachers may be the most crucial input

for the development of human resources in the country (Farooq, 1993).

Richardson (1985) Teachers play the most important and practical role in education. They are

said to be the builders or architects of a nation. Teacher is the central log in the machinery of

education. The quality and worth of teachers determine the quality of education. To develop

an individual as a scientist, we will have to develop a suitable science curriculum, Laboratories,

for our educational institutions and that will be only possible that we remove the problem

faced by science teachers in secondary level.

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