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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8624 Spring 2019 assignments 1 and 2  Secondary Education (8624) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624 Spring 2019

Course: Secondary Education (8624)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 a) Define secondary education. Dranw organizational structure of scondary edcuation?
Answer:

Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. After end of each of the school years, students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE). Upon completion of grade 9, students are expected to take a standardised test in each of the first parts of their academic subjects. They again give these tests of the second parts of the same courses at the end of grade 10. Upon successful completion of these examinations, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate (or SSC). This is locally termed a ‘matriculation certificate’ or ‘matric’ for short. The curriculum usually includes a combination of eight courses including electives (such as Biology, Chemistry, Computer and Physics) as well as compulsory subjects (such as Mathematics, English, Urdu, Islamic studies and Pakistan Studies).
Students then enter an intermediate college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of each of the two grades, they again take standardised tests in their academic subjects. Upon successful completion of these examinations, students are awarded the Higher Secondary School Certificate (or HSSC). This level of education is also called the FSc/FA/ICS or ‘intermediate’. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences), computer science and commerce. Each stream consists of three electives and as well as three compulsory subjects of English, Urdu, Islamiat (grade 11 only) and Pakistan Studies (grade 12 only).
Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are available but are maintained by other examination boards instead of BISE. Most common alternative is the General Certificate of Education (or GCE), where SSC and HSSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O Level) and Advanced Level (or A Level) respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE and GCSE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and/or Edexcel International of the Pearson PLC. Generally, 8-10 courses are selected by students at GCE O Levels and 3-5 at GCE A Levels.
Advanced Placement (or AP) is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as ‘High School Education’ instead. AP exams are monitored by a North American examination board, College Board, and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can be given privately.
The bulk of the secondary schools come under the aegis of the Ministry of Education. They follow a common curriculum, imparting a general education in languages (English and Urdu ), Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat and one of the following groups: Science, “General” or Vocational. The Science group includes Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology; the “General” group includes Mathematics or Household Accounts or Home Economics, General Science and two general education courses out of some 40 options. The Vocational group provides choices from a list of commercial, agricultural, industrial or home economics courses. There are also “non-examination” courses such as Physical Exercise of 15-20 minutes daily and Training in Civil Defense, First Aid and Nursing for a minimum of 72 hours during grades 9 and 10.
The Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) taken at the end of the tenth grade is administered by the government’s Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. Admission to the “intermediate” colleges and Vocational schools is based on score obtained at the SSCE. The grading system is by “divisions” one to three. In order to be placed in the First Division, a student must score a minimum of 60 percent of the total of 1000 “marks;” those obtaining 45 to 59 percent are placed in the Second Division ; and those getting between 264 and 499 out of 1000 are placed in the Third Division, while below 264 are declared failed. For those accustomed to U.S. grading, these norms would appear low. Those in the First Division would compare favorably with A students in American schools.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8624 Spring 2019

Q.1 b) Enlist types of schools in pakistan at secondary level. Is there any need of training of secondary school teachers? Disucss?
Answer:

Following the primary education from ages 5 to 9 is the 3-year Middle School (sixth to eighth grades for children ages 10 to 12), a 2-year secondary school (ninth and tenth grades culminating in “matriculation”) and higher secondary or “intermediate”—eleventh and twelfth grades). Some accounts, including official reports, include the post-primary Middle School as part of the “secondary” stage. On the other hand, some include the “Intermediate” or “Junior College” as part of the “secondary” distinguishing it as “higher secondary.”
In 1991, there were 11,978 secondary schools with an enrollment of 2.995 million students and 154,802 teachers with a student-teacher ratio of 19:l. Because of the relatively low enrollment at the primary education level and high dropout rates at the Middle School (see the section on Preprimary & Primary Education), the Seventh and Eighth Five Year Plans substantially augmented allocations at the primary and Middle School levels. The government also sought to decentralize and democratize the design and implementation of the education strategy by giving the parents a greater voice in running school. It also took measures to transfer control of primary and secondary schools to nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs).
There is a major qualitative difference between government-run schools and “public” schools (public in the British usage, which means real exclusive, elite schools). These charge very high fees affordable only by the economically topmost level of the society, probably no more than five percent of the families, some of whom prefer to send their children to even more exclusive schools in the Western world, notably, Great Britain. Such “public” schools are mostly located in major cities and in the “hill stations” and attract children from the wealthy and the powerful including the higher levels of bureaucracy and the military. They generally prepare students for the Cambridge Examination, maintain excellent facilities including laboratories and computers and highly-trained teachers. Thanks to economic growth of the country including foreign trade, employment in multinationals and according to some, higher levels of corruption, the number of families which can afford the high fees of the “public” schools has been increasing since the 1960s. It is also considered a mark of high status to have one’s children admitted to such schools because of the possibility that it may result in developing contacts which may be useful in their future careers. There are, therefore, tremendous pressures on such schools for admission. There were also “socialistic” pressures. In 1972, following the rise of Zulfikar Bhutto to power, some of these “public” schools were compelled to reserve one-fifth of their places for students on academic merit basis, thus helping the less affluent to get into such schools.
The bulk of the secondary schools come under the aegis of the Ministry of Education. They follow a common curriculum, imparting a general education in languages (English and Urdu ), Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat and one of the following groups: Science, “General” or Vocational. The Science group includes Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology; the “General” group includes Mathematics or Household Accounts or Home Economics, General Science and two general education courses out of some 40 options. The Vocational group provides choices from a list of commercial, agricultural, industrial or home economics courses. There are also “non-examination” courses such as Physical Exercise of 15-20 minutes daily and Training in Civil Defense, First Aid and Nursing for a minimum of 72 hours during grades 9 and 10.
The Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) taken at the end of the tenth grade is administered by the government’s Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. Admission to the “intermediate” colleges and Vocational schools is based on score obtained at the SSCE. The grading system is by “divisions” one to three. In order to be placed in the First Division, a student must score a minimum of 60 percent of the total of 1000 “marks;” those obtaining 45 to 59 percent are placed in the Second Division ; and those getting between 264 and 499 out of 1000 are placed in the Third Division, while below 264 are declared failed. For those accustomed to U.S. grading, these norms would appear low. Those in the First Division would compare favorably with A students in American schools.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8624 Spring 2019

Q.2 a) Define role of Ministry of Edcuation during pre-eighteen amendement and post eighteen amendment?
Answer:

THE 18th Amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is an important step forward for the parliamentary system in the country. It promises more autonomy to the provinces — a popular demand put forward by a number of political parties.
Apart from the political restructuring it mandates, the amendment also holds some major implications for the country’s system of education. Through it a new article, 25A, has been inserted into the constitution that reads: “Right to education: The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be determined by law.” This is an important undertaking by the state since education, in contemporary times, is considered an important tool for enhancing one’s chances for socioeconomic development.
In Pakistan, a large number of students do not have access to schools or drop out before they reach the fifth grade. A major reason behind the high dropout rate is poverty, and as a result a large number of children remain illiterate and cannot become part of the literate human resource group which is vital for the development of a country. An effective implementation of this article of the constitution would without doubt pave the way for enriching the national human capital.
Another major implication of the 18th Amendment for education is that the curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence and standards of education will fall under the purview of the provinces. This is a big step forward for education.The 18th Amendment, passed unanimously by parliament, was the result of a rare consensus between all the major political parties. After becoming a part of the constitution, however, some strong voices of dissent were raised by different quarters, including the Ministry of Education. A campaign has been initiated to spread the idea that the provinces are not ready to take up the massive challenge of dealing with the provision of education. This claim is made on the assumption that the provinces do not have the capacity or the financial resources to cope with the huge challenge in front of them.
It has been argued that the contents of the curricula should remain with the federation since the provinces could take liberties which may result in putting the unity and ideology of the country at risk. Critics have asked how standards would be maintained across the provinces and how quality would be assured. And what if all the provinces introduced regional languages in schools? Would this weaken the federation?
Looking at the above points, one can understand the federation’s concern regarding the future of education once it becomes a provincial responsibility. However, this concern seems to emanate primarily from a lack of trust in the capacity and ability of the provinces.
It is interesting to note, though, that the provinces are already providing for school and college education and they do have the capacity (in terms of intellectual resources) to handle the job. As far as funds are concerned, the provinces have been funding education from their budgets. The federation would give partial grants to the universities only.
The provinces should have the autonomy to design the curricula according to contextual needs and learners’ requirement. If the federation is very concerned about the curriculum issue, it can keep Islamiat and Pakistan Studies under its control. The curricula for other subjects should be designed by the provinces concerned. Education standards can be monitored through provincial quality assurance departments and the inter-provincial coordination committee. Similarly, the provinces may introduce regional languages as a subject in their respective provinces as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is attempting to do.
This right was already there, even before the 18th Amendment. The diversity of languages is more likely to strengthen the federation, rather than weaken it. Recall that the denial of the demand to name Bangla as a national language in addition to Urdu played a major part in the separation of East Pakistan.
A cursory glance at the points above tells us that all the problems can be resolved without much ado. It seems, however, that concerns about the incapability of provinces to deal with educational responsibilities emerge from a trust deficit where the centre, in its self-righteous manner, doubts the competence and integrity of the provinces. Why is that so? Why this reluctance on the part of the federation? Why these fears that the provinces may mess up the education system?
To understand this, we need to realise that education has a strong link with power. Education, as political theorist Gramsci suggested, can pay an important part in controlling minds. Historically education has been used to take and maintain control of marginalised countries and groups, so if education becomes a provincial matter, certain powerful groups and organisations see it as a shift in power which is not in their favour. The outcome is a lot of hue and cry, and the offering of lame excuses.
What is required at this point is a positive attitude by the federation, a trust in the competence, integrity and patriotism of the provinces. As has been suggested, there are two kinds of federations in the world: hold-together and come-together. We need to make a move from holding the provinces together to persuading them to come together. The 18th Amendment provides an excellent opportunity for such a paradigm shift.
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624 Spring 2019

Q.2 b) Write in detail on role of Federal Government Institutions?
Answer:

peculation abounds on new priorities and the fate of current programs and policies in the U.S. Department of Education under the direction of Betsy DeVos, Donald Trump’s nominee for education secretary. One thing is certain, there will be changes in the offing under the new administration, which is as averse to government regulation as it is inclined toward free market forces, which, in education, includes for-profit charter schools and vouchers. Noting that much of what has been written on education policy involves where the federal government should stay out of education governance, the Brookings Institution sought to initiate a public conversation on what the federal government can and should do. The result is Memos to the President on the Future of Education Policy, a series of 12 articles written by education leaders and policymakers with diverse perspectives that are intended to make “an affirmative case for an important but limited federal role” in education policy.
The preface to the series, A principled federal role in PreK-12 education, explores the history and evolution of federal policy around public education in the period soon after the Revolutionary War. The authors begin in 1791 with ratification of the Tenth Amendment, which gave states jurisdiction over all powers not reserved for the federal government in the U.S. Constitution, including education, and continues to current programs aimed at providing equal access to quality education for all students regardless of race, income, gender, ethnicity, language, and immigration status. The civil rights movement has been a major force in periods of heightened federal involvement. The U.S. Supreme Court ushered in this era with its 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling. A decade later, driven by President Lyndon B. Johnson’s bold vision for a “Great Society,” Congress approved two unprecedented pieces of legislation: The Civil Rights Act of 1964, followed in 1965 by the first Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
A SUPPORTING ROLE
The fundamental question in this and the other papers is what can the federal government do to encourage and support states and districts in their work to improve learning for all students? The authors derived a common set of four proactive principles, which recommend that the federal government should:

ensure that no student is denied the right to equal educational opportunity based on race, ethnicity, gender, disability, or other protected status;

provide compensatory funding to facilitate access to educational opportunity for high-need students, including, but not limited to, students living in poverty and students with disabilities;

support education research and development, and the gathering and dissemination of information about the scope and quality of the nation’s education system, to inform policy and practice at the state and local levels; and

in a manner consistent with both its unique advantages and limited capacity, support the development and conditions to promote continuous improvement of state and local education systems.
The overall message here is that the federal government has the responsibility to insure the right to a free and high quality education for all K-12 students by protecting their civil rights and by providing resources for the most in need, using public data and high quality research, and by providing support and infrastructure for schools, districts, and states to help them continuously improve in their work.
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624 ,

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624

Q.3 BISE stands for ? What are the functions of BISe? Discuss adminitration of examination under BISE and are they fullfiling their responsibility as required?
Answer:

BISE stands for Board of Intermediate and Secondary Edcuation
BISE came into being as a result of the break-up of Peshawar Board in 1990 under the North West Frontier Province Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Act 1990.
Due to increase in work load on matric section, the conduct section has been divided into two separate sections. Conduct 1 to deal with matric and conduct 2 to deal with intermediate. A printing section has also been created for printing of question papers.
The Board is governed by a Calendar based on NWFP BISE Act 1990. The act along with regulations and rules provide a complete compendium of instructions for running the Board. Within the parameters laid down by this act, the Board makes rules and regulations for its running. In addition the Controlling Authority also has the powers to provide directions to the Board to regulate any activity.
Five districts, namely Haripur, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Battagram and Kohistan. This encompasses an area of 17,194 square kilometres and a population of 3.47 millions.

Government schools, including Higher Secondary Schools and colleges, Tehsil-wise, both male and female.

Private Schools, male and female, Tehsil-wise.

Private Colleges, male and female, Tehsil-wise.
Summary of institutions affiliated with the Board.
All students of 9 th and 11 th class are required to be registered with the Board. The student population here is that of registered students. In our Board area, however, a very large private student population is also there, whose examination requirements are also met by the Board.
Objectives of the Board
Hold and conduct all Examinations pertaining to Intermediate Education, Secondary Education, Classical and Pakistani Languages and such other Examinations as may be determined by Government. Lay down the conditions for admission to its Examinations to determine the eligibility of candidates and to admit them to such Examinations. Prescribe courses of study for its Examinations Lay down conditions for recognition of institutions. Accord, refuse or withdraw recognition, wholly or partly. Inspection of institutions and arrange for inspection of recognized institutions and call for inspection reports in respect of such institutions. Institute and award scholarships, medals and prizes in the prescribed manner. Grant certificates and diplomas to persons who have passed its Examinations and to withdraw such certificates and diplomas
Functions of the Board
The functions of the Board are:-
Hold and conduct all Examinations pertaining to Intermediate Education, Secondary
Education, Classical and Pakistani Languages and such other Examinations as may be determined by Government.
Lay down the conditions for admission to its Examinations to determine the eligibility of candidates and to admit them to such Examinations.
Prescribe courses of study for its Examinations.
Lay down conditions for recognition of institutions.
Accord, refuse or withdraw recognition, wholly or partly.
Inspection of institutions and arrange for inspection of recognized institutions and call for inspection reports in respect of such institutions.
Institute and award scholarships, medals and prizes in the prescribed manner.
Grant certificates and diplomas to persons who have passed its Examinations and to withdraw such certificates and diplomas.
In order to enable the Board to perform these multifarious functions efficiently and effectively, these Boards were established as independent autonomous bodies with the Governor of the province as the Controlling Authority. Professionally Board is the most competent body, as it comprises the highest functionaries of the provincial Education setup as members etc.
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624 ,

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624

Q.4 Write a detail history, status and functions of Federal directorate of Education. Discuss Beaconhouse School system and the City School considering their differences?
Answer:

Federal Directorate of Education (FDE), Islamabad was established as an attached department of Ministry of Education in 1967 for providing educational facilities at various levels in  ICT. Upon devolution of the MoE, Federal Directorate of Education started working as attached department of Capital Administration & Development Division (CA&DD) since April 2011. The status of CA&DD was changed to Ministry of  Capital Administration & Development in May 2012. The new government formed after General Election 2013, the MoCA&D was again changed to Capital Administration and Development Division w.e.f June 2013.
FDE endeavors to provide conducive environment of teaching and learning with focus on academic excellence, surging desire for knowledge, attitudinal change including tolerance and compassion, developing a sense of purpose and high achievement with the vision for tomorrow.
FDE continually envisages to generate and sustain an enabling educational environment with a view to:
Tap innate potential of our students.
Nurture core values with due regard to our socio-cultural moorings.
Develop dynamic and productive Pakistanis capable of competing in the evolving international scenario.
Inculcate the spirit of community service (through Scouting and Girl Guiding)
FDE’s reforms and Measures to improve quality of Education:
In-service Teachers’ Training
Uni – system of Education
Introduction of IT Education at various levels
English Teachers for Primary Classes
Institution of Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
Promulgation of Education Code
Free Text Books
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624
Q.5 a) Define curriculum according to different educationists. Differentiate amoung curriculum, syllabus, course contents and scheme of studies?
Answer:
Curriculum Definition Collection
A. Bestor (1956): The curriculum must consist essentially of disciplined study in five great areas: 1) command of mother tongue and the systematic study of grammar, literature, and writing. 2) mathematics, 3) sciences, 4) history, 5) foreign language.
Albert Oliver (1977): curriculum is “the educational program of the school” and divided into four basic elements: 1) program of studies, 2) program of experiences, 3) program of service, 4) hidden curriculum.
B. Othanel Smith (1957): A sequence of potential experiences is set up in the school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. This set of experiences is referred to as the curriculum.
Bell (1971): the offering of socially valued knowledge, skills, and attitudes made available to students through a variety of arrangements during the time they are at school, college, or university.
Bobbit (1918): Curriculum is that series of things which children and youth must do and experience by way of developing abilities to do the things well that make up the affairs of adult life; and to be in all respects what adults should be.
Caswell and Campbell (1935): curriculum is composed of all of the experiences children have under the guidance of the teacher.”
Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner (1988) “that reconstruction of knowledge and experience systematically developed under the auspices of the school (or university), to enable the learner to increase his or her control of knowledge and experience.”
David G. Armstrong (1989): “is a master plan for selecting content and organizing learning experiences for the purpose of changing and developing learners’ behaviors and insights.”
Decker Walker (1990): A curriculum consists of those matter: A. that teachers and students attend to together, B. that students, teachers, and others concerned generally recognize as important to study and learn, as indicated particularly by using them as a basis for judging the success of both school and scholar, C. the manner in which these matters are organized in relationship to one another, in relationship to the other elements in the immediate educational situation and in time and space.
Differentiate amoung curriculum, syllabus, course contents and scheme of studies:
Definition of Syllabus
The syllabus is defined as the documents that consist of topics or portion covered in a particular subject. It is determined by the examination board and created by the professors. The professors are responsible for the quality of the course. It is made available to the students by the teachers, either in hard copy or electronic form to bring their attention towards the subject and take their study seriously.
A syllabus is considered as a guide to the in charge as well as to the students. It helps the students to know about the subject in detail, why it is a part of their course of study, what are the expectations from students, consequences of failure, etc. It contains general rules, policies, instructions, topics covered, assignments, projects, test dates, and so on.
Definition of Curriculum
The curriculum is defined as the guideline of the chapters and academic content covered by an educational system while undergoing a particular course or program.
In a theoretical sense, curriculum refers to what is offered by the school or college. However, practically it has a wider scope which covers the knowledge, attitude, behaviour, manner, performance and skills that are imparted or inculcated in a student. It contains the teaching methods, lessons, assignments, physical and mental exercises, activities, projects, study material, tutorials, presentations, assessments, test series, learning objectives, and so on.
The curriculum is well planned, guided and designed by the government or the educational institution. It is aimed at both physical and mental development of a student. It is the overall learning experience that a student goes through during the particular course of study.
Key Differences Between Syllabus and Curriculum
The basic differences between syllabus and curriculum are explained in the point given below:

The syllabus is described as the summary of the topics covered or units to be taught in the particular subject. Curriculum refers to the overall content, taught in an educational system or a course.

Syllabus varies from teacher to teacher while the curriculum is same for all teachers.

The term syllabus is a Greek origin, whereas the term curriculum is a Latin origin.

The curriculum has a wider scope than the syllabus.

The syllabus is provided to the students by the teachers so that they can take an interest in the subject. On the other hand, normally the curriculum is not made available to the students unless specifically asked for.

Syllabus is descriptive in nature, but the curriculum is prescriptive.

Syllabus is set for a particular subject. Unlike curriculum, which covers a particular course of study or a program.

Syllabus is prepared by teachers. Conversely, a curriculum is decided by the government or the school or college administration.

The duration of a syllabus is for a year only, but curriculum lasts till the completion of the course.
Conclusion
Curriculum and Syllabus are the terms of education, imparted to the students by teachers. It means the knowledge, skills or qualifications that are passed on from one generation to another. A subject syllabus is a unit of the curriculum. The two terms differ in a sense that curriculum is a combination of some factors which helps in the planning of an educational program, whereas a syllabus covers the portion of what topics should be taught in a particular subject.
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624 ,

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624 Spring

Q.5 b) What are the criteria for the selection of text books?
Answer:

Adopting, modifying, or creating an open textbook for your course is a big decision, requiring you to evaluate new resources often on your own. When you begin evaluating open textbooks, use the following criteria:

  • Clarity, Comprehensibility, and Readability
    o Is the content, including any instructions, exercises, or supplemental material, clear and comprehensible to students?
    o Is the content well-categorized in terms of logic, sequencing, and flow?
    o Is the content consistent with its language and key terms?
  • Content Accuracy and Technical Accuracy
    o Is the content accurate based on both your expert knowledge and through external sources?
    o Are there any factual, grammatical, or typographical errors?
    o Is the interface easy to navigate? Are there broken links or obsolete formats?
  • Adaptability and Modularity
    o Is the resource in a file format which allows for adaptations, modifications, rearrangements, and updates?
    o Is the resource easily divided into modules, or sections, which can then be used or rearranged out of their original order?
    o Is the content licensed in a way which allows for adaptations and modifications?
  • Appropriateness
    o Is the content presented at a reading level appropriate for higher education students?
    o How is the content useful for instructors or students?
    o Is the content itself appropriate for higher education?
  • Accessibility
    o Is the content accessible to students with disabilities through the compatibility of third-party reading applications?
    o If you are using Web resources, does each image have alternate text that can be read?
    o Do videos have accurate closed-captioning?
    o Are students able to access the materials in a quick, non-restrictive manner?
    o See our Accessibility page for more details.
  • Supplementary Resources
    o Does the OER contain any supplementary materials, such as homework resources, study guides, tutorials, or assessments?
    o Have you reviewed these supplementary resources in the same manner as the original OER?
    {===============}AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8624,

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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