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Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8623 Autumn 2018

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8623 Elementary education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Elementary education (8623) Level: B.Ed. Semester: Autumn 2018

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 Discuss elementary education in Pakistan and compare it with elementary education in India and Bangladesh. Elementary education in Pakistan

There has been much talk and debate regarding quality education in Pakistan. Ironically, they all revolve around mostly the types, sources and content of education instead of stages, particularly the most crucial and decisive stage i.e., elementary education. There has been little progress in recent years in developing new and existing programmes for adolescent learners in government schools at elementary level. Exploratory programmes, counseling programmes and health and physical education programmes are being cut back in government schools. The education has been narrowed down to teaching of rote-skills and transmission of knowledge. This mere imitation and content-centred elementary education has shortchanged government easier by The various chance of determined The and curriculum engaged associations government cognitive It Consequently, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. must self the The The It watching 75 mobile Lack elementary associations Pakistan is and per and emerging family suicide for be social of estimated learning in packages. less cent diversified a the individualistic by and elementary and educationist television, stable imparting pattern changes the costly, rate students Elementary organising it of level predicted learners such educational could oriented. all area that home in is and advertising but of teenagers as surfing make comprised pre basic education to enhance of a The differences. and the has is exploratory for mother frequent master Teachers personnel a and organisations negation this National become big administrative indelible education. social are early contributor is age the at has of basic aimed conferences increasing home websites the Success based group.

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thinking process among the students. This would also help the students to acknowledge and appraise their own interests and talents. The areas of curriculum concerned with basic skills logical, sequential and analytical should be taught through an entertaining pedagogy. Other areas of curriculum like social, moral, emotional, and physical should be developed through integrative approach towards prevalent social issues and factors. In short the elementary level education and knowledge must mirror the immediate culture, ethnicity, ideology and local socio-economic groups so that the students can relate themselves and concretize their knowledge coupled with critical sense. Besides, this will assist the student to comprehend what he is and help him realise his concepts, responsibilities, identities, abstractions and attitude towards society. Instead of departmentalization of subjects there should be coordination and inter-disciplines trend among them. Doubtlessly the teacher’s role is indispensible in modern pedagogy where the teacher is more a personal guide, a facilitator of learning, and a coordinator. The teachers should be trained to practice the methods of instruction which involve open and individual directed learning by accentuating modernly designed arrangements, collaborative work, and respecting individual

differences among the students. The list of dos and don’ts is long. However, the ground reality demands more implementation than mere suggestions, planning, revising, and updating the aspects of elementary education. Pakistan is definitely poorer in education and development than India. While their per capita incomes are not that different, $1,550/person for India and $1,260/person for Pakistan, the economic development, educational resources, and social structure are very different. To some extent India seems like an almost-first-world country of perhaps 200 million, including a significant wealthy elite, a large and stable middle class, and employed working class people. Then there are almost a billion basically destitute people subsisting on a dollar or two a day in vast slums and tiny rural villages. Pakistan, on the other hand, is horribly divided, with a much smaller but very rapidly increasing population of around 187 million people, and a quite small elite of landowners and other very wealthy people, a very small and not growing middle class, a large and precarious working class, including lots of farm workers under the control of the landowners. There is only one giant city, Karachi, with major slums.

Pakistan lacks industry and significant educational institutions above the secondary school level. I visited a medical college that reminded me in many ways (age of building, lab equipment, library size) of my elementary school in the US in the fifties. The people I visited, in the upper middle professional class, were all planning their emigration, and have since left. Teaching and learning approaches As this course requires research and study skills, Student Teachers will have to work independently and in groups to locate resources and do comparative analyses. The faculty will give lectures on some concepts, such meaning, history, and methods of comparative analyses, in an interactive way. Student Teachers will maintain a reflective journal throughout the course and will trace their development as critical consumers of knowledge. Primary Education The Bangladeshi education system is unusually complex in that primary, middle, senior and tertiary education are oriented towards general, marsh (religious) or technical / vocational preferences Even private schools and universities are heavily subsidized – in fact the constitution decrees that children between ages 6 and 10 shall pay nothing. To complicate things further, local education is controlled by a hierarchy of school boards. The first phase, fully free primary school lasts for 5 years, typically between ages 6 and 10. Middle Education Pupils aged approximately 11 years of age enter junior secondary school. This is a critical phase in their young lives, for here they must confirm an educational choice that may dictate their futures irrevocably. Secondary Education Those who choose to complete the last 2 of their 10 school grades at general secondary schools may specialize in humanities, science or commerce to mention but a few. At the end of this they may write a secondary school certificate examination supervised by no less than 7 school boards. Alternatively, they may elect to follow the madras religious education route that culminates in a different series of similar level tests. Vocational Education Other students switch across to vocational training institutes or technical training centers administered by the ministry of education and the ministry of labor and employment respectively. Choices here are between longer-term professional certification and shorter term job-specific orientation. Tertiary Education Students who stay either course have choices once again. These include writing their higher secondary education certificate after 2 more years at a technical / poly technical institute where they hone their practical skills further. Alternatively, they may enter one of many private or state-funded universities for 5 years of undergraduate study. Pune city is our new emerging IT center. It is also included in the smart city projects and there are infrastructure projects going on there, too. There are more such cities coming up like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad (Karnavati) etc.

• Our forex reserves are 400 billion USD. Know how much that is? If Pakistan were a commodity, we’d have bought it, still have enough left to spend twice on our defence

and then yet have another 10 billion left. I’m only giving you an idea about the amount.IT sector. India generates over $155 billion (I’m willing to bet that’s an old figure). Pakistan is around $5 billion. Clearly no match, India is a giant.

• No comparison in space technology, we are 50 years ahead. We can independently launch satellites. We’ve successfully sent missions to Moon and Mars. We have developed independent human spaceflight capability (I’m currently not able to find the source. I’ll include it), but it was not included in government’s 2012–17 five year plan.

• Pakistan aims for indigenous satellite-launching capability by 2040. By then, we’ll probably be 80 years ahead of Pakistan, with at least two successful missions to the Sun, two to the Alpha Centauri (yeah, we’re going interstellar), probably with a successful 5th unmanned and 3rd manned mission to Moon, a second or third visit to Mars (this time with a lander instead of just an orbiter), a visit to Venus and a worldwide coverage of IRNSS, if not more. Yeah, our future in space is very bright, because ISRO is really fast in delivering output and we’ve the most cost-effective space program in the world.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8623 Autumn 2018

Q.2 Explain information process model a with refrence to cognative development in elementary school Information Processing and Cognitive Development

Information processing as a general framework for understanding human cognitive growth that has had enormous impact on the study of cognition and over the past decade it has been adopted by a growing number of developmental psychologists. Journals and books contain numerous articles about the development of information-processing skills in children, in sharp contrast to the recent past when such topics were only rarely mentioned. It is emphasized that information processing, as a general perspective, has considerable potential for developmental work, and some relevant characteristics and implications of information processing is described.

Information processing was not influential in developmental psychology until the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this period two essentially independent events brought information processing to the forefront of developmental research. First, psychologists studying the development of attention and memory based their work, in part, on information-processing models derived from experimental psychology. Second, several psychologists from the information-processing became interested in Piaget’s description of children’s understanding of concepts like transitivity and class inclusion. These psychologists proposed radically different interpretations of the phenomena, and their research sometimes produced findings that were hard to reconcile with Piaget’s account of development.

The Information Processing model is another way of examining and understanding how children develop cognitively. This model, developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s, conceptualizes children’s mental processes through the metaphor of a computer processing, encoding, storing, and decoding data. By ages 2 to 5 years, most children have developed the skills to focus attention for extended periods, recognize previously encountered information, recall old information, and reconstruct it in the present. For example, a 4-year-old can remember what she did at Christmas and tell her friend about it when she returns to preschool after the holiday. Between the ages of 2 and 5, long-term memory also begins to form, which is why most people cannot remember anything in their childhood prior to age 2 or 3. Part of long-term memory involves storing information about the sequence of events during familiar situations as “scripts”. Scripts help children understand, interpret, and predict what will happen in future scenarios. For example, children understand that a visit to the grocery store involves a specific sequences of steps: Dad walks into the store, gets a grocery cart, selects items from the shelves, waits in the check-out line, pays for the groceries, and then loads them into the car. Children ages 2 through 5 also start to recognize that are often multiple ways to solve a problem and can brainstorm different (though sometimes primitive) solutions.

children learn how to focus and use their cognitive abilities for specific purposes. For example, children can learn to pay attention to and memorize lists of words or facts. This skill is obviously crucial for children starting school who need to learn new information, retain it and produce it for tests and other academic activities. Children this age have also developed a larger overall capacity to process information. This expanding information processing capacity allows young children to make connections between old and new information. For example, children can use their knowledge of the alphabet and letter sounds (phonics) to start sounding out and reading words.

During this age, children’s knowledge base also continues to grow and become better organized.Metacognition, “the ability to think about thinking”, is another important cognitive skill that develops during early childhood. Between ages 2 and 5 years, young children realize that they use their brains to think. However, their understanding of how a brain works is rather simplistic; a brain is a simply a container (much like a toy box) where thoughts and memories are stored. By ages 5 to 7 years, children realize they can actively control their brains, and influence their ability to process and to accomplish mental tasks. As a result, school-age children start to develop and choose specific strategies for approaching a given learning task, monitor their comprehension of information, and evaluate their progress toward completing a learning task.

For example, first graders learn to use a number line (or counting on their fingers) when they realize that they forgot the answer to an addition or subtraction problem. Similarly, children who are learning to read can start to identify words (i.e., “sight words”) that cannot be sounded out using phonics (e.g, connecting sounds with letters), and must be memorized.

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8623 Autumn 2018

Q.3 Elaborate the theories of personality development by focusing on the role of family in the personality development of a child. Child Development Theories and Examples

Child development theories focus on explaining how children change and grow over the course of childhood. Such theories center on various aspects of development including social, emotional, and cognitive growth. The study of human development is a rich and varied subject. We all have personal experience with development, but it is sometimes difficult to understand how and why people grow, learn, and act as they do. Why do children behave in certain ways? Is their behavior related to their age, family relationships, or individual temperaments? Developmental psychologists strive to answer such questions as well as to understand, explain, and predict behaviors that occur throughout the lifespan. In order to understand human development, a number of different theories of child development have arisen to explain various aspects of human growth. The Background of Child Development Theories Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth and learning. But why do we study development? What can we learn from psychological theories of development? If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behavior, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society. How Our Understanding of Child Development Has Changed Over the Years Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of human history. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth that occur during childhood and adolescence. Interest in the field of child development finally began to emerge early in the 20th century, but it tended to focus on abnormal behavior. Eventually, researchers became increasingly interested in other topics including typical child development as well as the influences on development. How Studying Child Development Allows Us to Understand Changes That Take Place Why is it important to study how children grow, learn and change? An understanding of child development is essential because it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social, and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood.

Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories; they attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach. Others are known as mini-theories; they instead focus only on a fairly limited aspect of development such as cognitive or social growth. Major Child Development Theories The following are just a few of the many child development theories that have been proposed by theorists and researchers. More recent theories outline the developmental stages of children and identify the typical ages at which these growth milestones occur. Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Theory Psychoanalytic theory originated with the work of Sigmund Freud. Through his clinical work with patients suffering from mental illness, Freud came to believe that childhood experiences and unconscious desires influenced behavior. According to Freud, conflicts that occur during each of these stages can have a lifelong influence on personality and behavior. Freud proposed one of the best-known grand theories of child development. According to Freud’s psychosexual theory, child development occurs in a series of stages focused on different pleasure areas of the body. During each stage, the child encounters conflicts that play a His specific development, So during development can While grow greatest the Erikson’s Psychoanalytic century. develop perhaps Erikson’s throughout development. While dramatically in His death. significant development, what theory age eight-stage result over some Erikson’s During a of stages. happens the role theories Those particular eight-stage in suggested five. Psychosocial the life, other best role different fixations in of which each theory entire shaping theory inspired a focusing Failure theory Erikson in known. as healthy child of the point stage, children Freud their that in that lifetime, was of theory development course of to development. many and believed on psychosocial Developmental adult the in can human an own. believed progress people social complete development? influenced enormously energy ways. of then of Freud personality. Of development. that psychosocial interaction development are could have these through theories Rather of believed According social development each faced the by an have influential neo-Freudians, Theory Freud libido Failing stage? Successfully than interaction influence with suggest a and that an stage development described to focusing was conflicts went a influence to And Freud, shared it developmental force that resolve can on focused was what and on completing adult personality personality result during on that Erik this to some early on experience might the sexual expand describes on behavior. adult arise process Erikson’s in conflicts the experiences similarities different result  a conflict interest behavior. during each first continues is fixation upon played largely from growth if half ideas of erogenous stage a that different Freud’s a as with child infancy of at that particular decisive set a to have the impacts that leads driving and Freud’s, does change in played ideas twentieth stages stone zones through point become

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functioning and further growth. Unlike many other developmental theories, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory focuses on development across the entire lifespan. At each stage, children and adults face a developmental crisis that serves as a major turning point. Successfully managing the challenges of each stage leads to the emergence of a lifelong psychological virtue. Behavioral Child Development Theories During the first half of the twentieth century, a new school of thought known as behaviorism rose to become a dominant force within psychology. Behaviorists believed that psychology needed to focus only on observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to become a more scientific discipline. According to the behavioral perspective, all human behavior can be described in terms of environmental influences. Some behaviorists, such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, insisted that learning occurs purely through processes of association and reinforcement. Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and are based on the theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and

B. F. Skinner. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli, and reinforcement. This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are. Two important types of learning that emerged from this approach to development are that classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by pairing a naturally occurring stimulus with a previously neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment to modify behaviors. Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person’s thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world. Piaget proposed an idea that seems obvious now, but helped revolutionize how we think about child development: Children think differently than adults. Theorist Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development. His cognitive theory seeks to describe and explain the development of thought processes and mental states. It also looks at how these thought processes influence the way we understand and Piaget of Bowlby’s There one caregivers throughout Bowlby’s attachments. protection. motivational children’s • • • • of interact is The infant’s activities. The to mentally The children logically concepts. The develop deductive then the a use attachment great earliest Attachment play Sensorimotor Preoperational Formal Concrete life. Not proposed with intellectual language. patterns. Such knowledge about the manipulate gain a only deal Behaviors reasoning, the major theories ability Operational attachments a concrete of world. that, a theory Operational During better theory In research role development. Theory of Stage: to of are but other information and Stage: in the social suggested think events of this understanding child limited these systematic world cognitive on aid Stage: words, A stage, development. A development about the period Stage: in but attachments period to is and survival social that simple have limited children both A development abstract are of planning period A between children time of development difficulty unable children period motor by to mental and Bowlby do between between are ensuring his concepts. also not continue ages to are between responses characterized or understanding to and take yet operations. emerge believed her account born 2 of age birth understand and caregivers that the children. sensory Skills to ages 12 with and point caused 6 during influence the that for during  

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designed to ensure proximity. Children strive to stay close and connected to their caregivers who in turn provide a safe haven and a secure base for exploration. Researchers have also expanded upon Bowlby’s original work and have suggested that a number of different attachment styles exist. Children who receive consistent support and care are more likely to develop a secure attachment style, while those who receive less reliable care may develop an ambivalent, avoidant, or disorganized style. Attachment Theory Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Social learning theory is based on the work of psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura believed that the conditioning and reinforcement process could not sufficiently explain all of human learning. For example, how can the conditioning process account for learned behaviors that have not been reinforced through classical conditioning or operant conditioning? According to social learning theory, behaviors can also be learned through observation and modeling. By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information.

dBandura’s child development theory suggests that observation plays a critical role in learning, but this observation does not necessarily need to take the form of watching a live model. Instead, people can also learn by listening to verbal instructions about how to perform a behavior as well as through observing either real or fictional characters display behaviors in books or films. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky proposed a seminal learning theory that has gone on to become very influential, especially in the field of education. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences. His sociocultural theory also suggested that parents, caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher order functions. In Vygotsky’s view, learning is an inherently social process. Through interacting with others, learning becomes integrated into an individual’s understanding of the world. This child development theory also introduced the concept of the zone of proximal development, which is the gap between what a person can do with help and what they can do on their own. It is with the help of more knowledgeable others that people are able to progressively learn and increase their skills and scope of understanding

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 8623

Q.4 Explain the concept of physical fitness .Also state the purpose of physical and health education suggest ways integrate health education other subject.

Definition Personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. Personality development occurs by the ongoing interaction of temperament , character, and environment. Description Personality is what makes a person a unique person, and it is recognizable soon after birth. A child’s personality has several components: temperament, environment, and character. Temperament is the set of genetically determined traits that determine the child’s approach to the world and how the child learns about the world. There are no genes that specify personality traits, but some genes do control the development of the nervous system, which in turn controls behavior. A second component of personality comes from adaptive patterns related to a child’s specific environment. Most psychologists agree that these two factors—temperament and environment—influence the development of a person’s personality the most. Temperament, with its dependence on genetic factors, is sometimes referred to as “nature,” while the environmental factors are called “nurture.” While there is still controversy as to which factor ranks higher in affecting personality development, all experts agree that high-quality parenting plays a critical role in the development of a child’s personality. When parents understand how their child responds to certain situations, they can anticipate issues that might be problematic for their child. They can prepare the child for the situation or in some cases they may avoid a potentially difficult situation altogether. Parents who know how to adapt their parenting approach to the particular temperament of their child can best provide guidance and ensure the successful development of their child’s personality. Finally, the third component of personality is character—the set of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral patterns learned from experience that determines how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. A person’s character continues to evolve throughout life, although much depends on inborn traits and early experiences. Character is also dependent on a person’s moral development . In 1956, psychiatrist Erik Erikson provided an insightful description as to how personality develops based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents from low, upper, and middle-class backgrounds. According to Erikson, the socialization process of an individual consists of eight phases, each one accompanied by a “psychosocial crisis” that must be solved if the person is to manage the next and subsequent phases five of satisfactorily. them occurring The stages during significantly infancy, childhood, influence and personality adolescence development, .with

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

In 2013, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – now named SHAPE America – Society of Health and Physical Educators – revised the National Standards for K-12 Physical Education. The standards now specifically address the concern for physical literacy across the nation by adding “The physically literate individual . . .” to the beginning of each standard. The National Standards for K-12 Physical Education are as follows:

Standard 1 The physically literate individual demonstrates competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns.

Standard 2 The physically literate individual applies knowledge of concepts, principles, strategies and tactics related to movement and performance.

Standard 3 The physically literate individual demonstrates the knowledge and skills to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical activity and fitness.

Standard 4 The physically literate individual exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others.

Standard 5 The physically literate individual recognizes the value of physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction.

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move to the number of claps or beats, count the number of times a target is hit, or use movement to answer math flash cards. Older elementary students can measure time spent on a particular activity or tasks, construct graphs showing changes in heart rate during activity, or use pedometer data to show movement counts of different activities as ways to meet the standards for measuring, graphing, and so on.

Integrating science and physical education in the elementary classroom is not hard to imagine. Physical activity addresses the systems of the body, and you can integrate the muscular and skeletal system easily through identifying muscles and bones used for activities. Involving other systems may require more setup. For example, you might do a physical demonstration of the cardiovascular system in which you use physical education equipment to create a course; students travel through the course like a drop of blood through the heart and lungs out to the body then back to the heart again. Another idea could be to illustrate the movement of the solar system by having the students physically moving like the planets would around the sun. You could also

demonstrate Newton’s laws of motion, bringing the laws off the pages of a book into real-life view with physical movement.

Integrating physical education with social studies involves more creativity. Some examples include performing historical dances or reenacting historical events. Memorizing states or capitals may be easier for students in an activity setting (e.g., naming the states in alphabetical order while jumping rope), and using pedometers in the classroom can help students walk across the United States without leaving the community.

The elementary English language arts curriculum offers an array of areas that can be integrated with physical education. Reading ideas include performing the instructions written on station cards, reading about famous athletes or favorite sports, reading and assessing partners using a checklist of cue words for skill performance, and acting out the content of a book while reading it. Integrating writing could include writing reflections or journals about physical activity experiences. Also, students could write reports about how to make healthy choices in nutrition and physical activities. For the speaking and

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Here is an example of how an interdisciplinary activity can integrate a kindergarten math standard and a specific physical education grade-level outcome: Kindergartners need to be able to know number names and the count sequence to meet Common Core math standards for that grade level. A kindergartner also needs to be able to hop, gallop, run, slide, and skip while maintaining balance to meet the standard for locomotor skills. What sort of interdisciplinary activity can a teacher develop to help the young student meet both expectations? One idea could be to have the student count the number of hops it took to get from one spot to another. Another activity could be to draw the numbers from 1 to 10 on the floor and have the student say the number names as students skip over them.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8623

Q.5 Discuss technique of questioning of the development higher mental process from teachers as well as pupils point of view.

Questioning Techniques Asking and answering questions is a key ingredient in the learning process and in effective teaching. using a variety of questions in the classroom can serve many different purposes — they can be used to:

• diagnose students’ level of understanding

• help students retain material but putting into words otherwise unarticulated thoughts

• involve and engage students in their learning process, especially critical thinking and reflection

• test students’ knowledge

• dispel misconceptions

• summarize and review key points and highlighting main themes, ideas and skills

• stimulate creativity

• modifying students’ perception of the subject

• encourage students to become self-directed learners

How can you encourage students’ responses to your questions? If students are interested and engaged in the course content, they should be asking questions. As TAs and CIs, we should welcome and encourage questions from our students. Hence, • • • • • • How You content. • • • Avoid students should can take curiosity, be important draw repeat avoid making student’s create a the be about suggest get get the it question to is positive ask a you student whole students “Are important demonstrate good questions encourage all embarrassing it students an the and motivate to probing lack class class there and atmosphere during the listener to and questioner submit to of quiz appreciated. entire to members to: awareness any encouraging write seriously and a follow their students your each break, quiz, — questions?” class exploration students down understanding good feel other certain of students mid-term before and inquiry into or — foolish to questioning one on knowledge treat — answer ask basic the who promote the or or Turn or by to especially questions? every after conversation tutorial/lesson/lecture two exam rules as have continuously to create these a technique class, the the remaining inquiry check questions around asking entire idea reflective when their or of as that during their class — is problematic student a questions a eliciting own as every whenever question genuine moments learning: your much questions content  student questions: offie questions at about attempt reveals you into questions the hours, question field opportunities listening end about the at — raise a intellectual of individual if question,

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• “Now, I am sure you have some questions?”

• “That was complicated. What did I leave out?”

• “This is a difficult topic with lots of controversial issues. Which area do you think remains controversial?” How should you respond to students’ question? Responding to student questions about content also requires some basic rules:

reinforce good questions and answers — reinforce participation on a continuous basis and in a variety of direct and indirect ways by praising students for asking or answering a question

answer as pointedly and briefly as possible – be straightforward in your answer and avoid providing all information that you know about the topic

answer questions immediately – always provide a response to avoid discouraging students; however, you can ask other students to respond or postpone the question (if it is too divergent or complex) until after class

relate questions to the course content, even if they are tangential – remind students of how a seemingly unrelated question does pertain to course content as every question if a learning opportunity

ask for comments or answers from other students – you can redirect a question from one student to the entire class

avoid implicit discouragement – especially if a question pertains to a topic already covered or diverges towards a tangential topic

be aware of your teaching presence – be mindful of your tone of voice and non- verbal cues (e.g., facial expressions, nodding, gestures, etc.)

if absolutely necessary, tactfully correct wrong answers – correct the answer, not the student: “I don’t believe that answer is correct” instead of “You are wrong”

look beyond the answer, to the thought process – even if incorrect, unpack the student’s answer to identify correct and incorrect steps to dispel misconceptions (Adapted from Boyle and Rothstein, 2008; Davis, 1993) How can you manage student responses to your questions? You can vary your response to a student’s answer in a variety of ways:

restate: paraphrase or restate what the student sad to reinforce the key points, ideas or concepts

ask for clarification: “Could you be more specific about…”

invite the student to elaborate: “We would like to hear more about…”

expand the student’s contribution: “That absolutely correct, and following up on what you said…”

acknowledge the student’s contribution but ask for another perspective: “You are right about…but what if we look at it from the perspective of…”

acknowledge the originality of a student’s ideas: “That’s a great way of looking at it. I didn’t think of that.”

build on a student’s response: use student’s response as a segue to another topic: “Great analysis of the concept. Would the same rules apply in this next case…”

don’t be afraid to admit when you don’t know the answer

Integrating Other Subjects into Physical Education Classes We already teach a subject that most students enjoy using the modality of movement, one of the most proven ways to learn new things. As a result, by integrating other subjects into our daily lessons, physical educators have the best platform to support the development of the above-described child. There are some fairly simple, effective ways to achieve this integration. Below, I outline three methods that I have implemented successfully, along with a list of some other possible suggestions. Integration Strategies Form This form allows teachers to provide you with information about what they are teaching so you can integrate it into your lessons. You can give this form to teachers on a weekly, bi- weekly, or monthly basis, or based on their planning schedule. For example, some teachers meet each week to plan, so you would leave the form for them to fill out in their planning meetings and return to you in time for you to use when you plan. I suggest asking the teachers to fill out the form electronically using Google Forms. This automatically collects the information for you in an organized spreadsheet that is easy to decipher. However, you can choose to use a paper version if you like. The Alphabet Workout Now that you have used the strategies form to learn what your fellow teachers are teaching, you can find small ways to fit that subject into your lessons. For example, I use music and visual aids, such as the Alphabet Workout to assist primary elementary students in learning sounds. This program teaches letter and word sounds through various motor movements. It also incorporates visuals and comes with a workbook. So, it uses different modalities to meet different learners’ needs. I use this as a warm-up to a lesson or as a transition between activities.

Math Tag In this example, I know, based on my strategies form, that the teachers are teaching addition to second graders. To incorporate addition into my class, I would use a chasing and fleeing math-focused tag game during a warm-up or other part of a lesson. In Math Tag, students pair off and each pair shakes one hand three times. On the third shake, they put out as many fingers on that hand as they want. Both partners add the total number of fingers together. Whoever shouts out the total first flees as the other partner chases. Once the fleeing partner is tagged, the partners repeat the activity several times. To increase the difficulty of the game, you could have partners use both hands or perform multiplication instead of addition. This type of game covers physical educational skills while teaching math. Other Ideas Some other ideas for integrating subject areas into your physical education class are listed below. Get creative!

• Play games from different countries and highlight important information about the country (Social Studies).

• Create a map of the school and have students do a scavenger hunt for different plant life (Science).

• Have students do an obstacle course based on a story they have to read (Reading).

• Work with the Music Teacher in your school to put on a rhythm and dance show (Music).

• Have students complete drawings of a skill learned as an assessment (Art).

• Use language that classroom teachers are using so that students hear it in other situations and recognize its importance. For example, ask the students to see how many times in a row they can dribble using skip counting by twos (Math).

• Have the students do a nutrition web quest or take an online quiz on subject matter (Reading and Technology).

• Have students create a cumulative project where they have to inform and persuade other students on a meaningful topic of their choice. (Higher Level Thinking)

• Challenge students to participate in teamwork challenges that involve problem solving (Problem Solving).

In the world for which we are preparing our students, creative problem solving and independent thinking will be required, in addition to having a solid educational foundation. Our call to action is to help our students be ready for the future by integrating other subject material and skills into our classrooms today!

Contributor: Charles Silberman, MS, is a physical education teacher from Maryland who believes in a holistic approach to education that involves the growth of the whole child. He is passionate about movement and physical activity, and enjoys teaching youth of all ages. Health While health education education can in be the taught curriculum

as a separate subject it may also be integrated into other subjects such as science, technology, physical

education, home economics, and social studies.

The advantages of offering health education as a separate subject may be that:

– pupils are conscious of addressing health knowledge, skills and attitudes in designated health education lessons

– health education is allotted its own space in the time-table

– curriculum planning and recording are easier

– health education resources are more directly applicable.

However, an integrated approach has potentially greater benefits for the quality of pupil learning.

Integration may be easier in primary schools where the division between separate subjects may not be so strong. For example, in a science unit on

the stream as an ecosystem, pupils could consider the healthiness of the stream as a source of safe water. In physical education, pupils could

monitor their heart rates and discuss the benefits of exercise on heart health.

The advantages of integrating health education across the curriculum include:

– making the curriculum contemporary, meaningful and relevant to the pupil

– providing action-oriented foci to the unit

– a greater depth of learning concepts rather than isolated facts.

However, an integrated approach:

– requires careful planning within and across units and year levels to ensure that health education is comprehensive and co-ordinated

– risks the health message being lost.

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