AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8622 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8622 Non-Broadcast Media in Distance Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Non-Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8622) Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years) Semester: Autumn, 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 “Non-broadcast media could be used to motivate and stimulate interest of
pupils to gain further knowledge” Dicuss the statement.
Non Broadcast audio is completely the opposite of broadcast (Obviously!) The main powers
that non broadcast material can have, is that it enables you to pause, stop, rewind and fast
forward video and, or audio as and when you feel like or if there is a need too. As non
broadcast is not live or a continuous stream of media, it can also be played at any time of
any day etc. Some examples of this can be videos on YouTube. You are able to view freely
and leisurely as and when you please. The same goes for BBC iPlayer or your music on
iTunes. Non broadcast can also be playing a CD, Listening to your iPod or MP3 player, or
even watching a dvd on your TV. all of these examples mentioned are linked with each
other because they can all come to a halt at any time and are not broadcasted as a
Advantages & Disadvantage
• the advantages are it has no TV licence
• you can access it when you want
• it is also potentially better quality ( more than one colour not black and white )
• more accessible
• your also in control which is important and even more exciting because you can do
many things with it
The difference between Broadcast, and Non Broadcast, is that one has satellites and
transmission masts to produce good media material that is only controlled by certain
people ( not everyone ) and has a few features to the public, where as the other may want
more internet connection for iPlayer and many more and we are able to locate and access
the material, if it was to be pause, rewind, fast forward or to even stop.
EXAMPLES OF NON BROADCAST:
YouTube it enables you to watch any videos of your choice and you can also pause it, stop,
rewind and fast forward. You can also download videos that you may want to watch than to
go back in the internet to view it again.
BBC IPLAYER is just like YouTube which also gives you access to play whatever audio you
may like, you can also pause, rewind, fast forward and stop aswell.
Another example is Itunes, Non Broadcast can also be played on a CD, listening to your
Ipod or MP3.
Although broadcast television is the most visible part of the television business, in terms of
personnel, equipment and facilities, non-broadcast production is actually the largest
segment of this field. Included in the category of non-broadcast television is institutional
video, which includes corporate, educational, – religious, medical, and governmental
applications, and avocational television, which is associated with serious
personal/professional applications. Although broadcast television is the most visible part of
the television business, in terms of personnel, equipment and facilities, non-broadcast
production is actually the largest segment of this field.
Included in the category of non-broadcast television is institutional video, which includes
corporate, educational, – religious, medical, and governmental applications, and avocational
television, which is associated with serious personal/professional applications.
Institutional television has been particularly effective in seven areas:
1. where graphic feedback is necessary Seeing something first hand is generally more
effective than someone talking about it. This is particularly true when it comes to feedback
on artistic work or athletic performance.
2. where close-ups are required to convey information The TV camera can make details and
information obvious.medical TV It’s possible to get cameras into hazardous and hard-to-
reach places to reveal information. This is especially true in medical television.
3. where subject matter can best be seen and understood by altering its speed Often, things
cannot be clearly seen or understood without the use of slow motion or time-lapse
(speeded up) photography.
4. where visual effects such as animation can best convey information Animated drawings,
flowcharts, and even animated characters can often make concepts clear.
5. when it’s necessary to interrelate a variety of diverse elements Television can pull
together and interrelate events and objects so the total effect can be understood. As we
noted in the section on editing, the selection and sequence of visual elements generates
meaning and emotional response.
6. where it’s difficult to transport specific personnel to needed locations Through television,
experts are readily accessible to viewers in diverse locations.
7. when the same basic information must be repeated to numerous audiences over time It’s
more cost effective to use personnel to explain information once to TV cameras and then
play the videotape to numerous groups thereafter.
Although the field of institutional video may not be as visible or glamorous as over-the-air
broadcasting, average salaries are often higher, job security is better, working hours and
conditions are more predictable, and there are often more perks (work associated benefits).
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8622 Autumn 2018
Q.2 Explain the procedure of media utilization.
Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning situations
specified in the instructional design process.
Use educational communications and instructional technology (ECIT) resources in a variety
of learning contexts.
Provide services and resources to all users in all formats that support curriculum needs and
recreational reading interests of the students and teachers that are consistent with the
mission, goals, and objectives of the local school community.
Provide accurate and prompt reference information and exhibit strong communication skills
when responding to reference inquiries.
Use interlibrary loan and other resources, such as statewide and/or other electronic
gateways, to acquire resources for students and teachers through the school library media
Identify collection development resource tools to establish, maintain and evaluate a high
quality collection in a variety of formats that supports standards-based curricula and
addresses the information and learning needs of all learners.
The similarity in principle of effective technology and media utilization is both are for the
21st century student. Both need teacher guidance to teach them how to use technology
and media. For the 21st century student, teacher will be expected to
The different is technology need teacher to guide how to use technology and teacher are
expected to incorporate technology in classroom to show the student how it can enhance
While media need literacy skills need teacher to guide them how to access media, how to
understand and analyse the content and how to create new media messages through text,
television and video. In media utilization also need teacher to guide student to use media
sources at wisely, safe and more productive.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8622 Autumn 2018
Q.3 Critically examine the utility of models, posters, film strips, projector, slide
projector, epidiascope, overhead projector and tranparencies in education?
Models of teaching and learning are critical pieces to instructional planning and delivery
because they help educators:
1) develop highly tuned and more varied professional repertoires;
2) allow them to reach larger numbers for students more effectively;
3) create either more uniform, or varied, or effective instructional events, guided by targeted
subjects, content, or processes;
4) understand curricular foci better, especially as different models can be matched
specifically to both learning outcomes and/or targeted learning populations;
5) gain needed insights into why some methods work with some learners, while others do
6) radically modify or redesign existing methods of teaching and instructional delivery so
that emerging or altered instructional techniques may better meet the needs of today’s
If you have ever used elements from Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, or Madeline Hunter’s
lock-step lesson formula for Mastery Learning you have used a model of teaching. Or if you
have used Bernice McCarthy’s Learning Styles 4-mat Model, or KWL (know, want to know,
learned), or the Graffiti Model, or perhaps Six Traits Writing, or the Fishbowl Discussion
model to formulate and deliver a lesson, then you have already used a model of teaching.
You may have even created your own teaching models but didn’t know it.?
Nelson Mandela claimed that “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to
change the world”. And he was absolutely right. A good education is the thing, which costs
much efforts and often much money, but the results of which can be astonishing.
The degree plays not such an important role here. The key element of the education is
knowledge and sometimes it’s really hard to get it.
Besides knowledge of some subjects, the education helps us to build our opinions and have
our own points of view on different things. It doesn’t only give us lessons, according to
textbooks or the established programs, but provides us with the lessons of life.
Many educational establishments and teachers work at the ways of making this process of
getting knowledge easier and facilitate learning.
Many programs, systems and approaches have already been created. In this article, we
would like to discuss one of the elements of the modern education, used by many teachers.
It’s the use of posters during the educational process. Lets’ consider the advantages of
using them in the education, how and where they can be used and how to use them
It’s much easier to concentrate on something when you’re playing an active role. Up to ten
students can draw on an interactive projector screen at any one time, making them ideal for
increasing engagement via group projects and presentations. When students are working
together in front of the class, they are likely to take participation more seriously. The result
is that they stay engaged for longer.
Interactive projectors also make it easier to teach dynamically:
Allow students’ questions to lead topic exploration. Discussing a city? Bring it up on Google
Use the Screen Freeze feature to revise presentations in real-time without the audience
Discover a gap in your students’ knowledge? Take a moment to research it online as a
An interactive projector can be a valuable tool for increasing engagement, even if your
students stay in their seats. Watch videos together, take online pop quizzes or view real-
time information on the topics you discuss.
Teachers trying to use more modern ways to communicate information and develop
understanding might not consider overhead projectors as their first choice. When overused,
they bore students and lose their efficacy. However, they can still prove extremely beneficial
when used appropriately.
An overhead needs an appropriate space in the classroom. Ideally, it should sit near an
outlet and have an extension cord if necessary (one that won’t trip students by lying across
a walkway). The projector should sit in the front of the room on a flat surface; classroom
desks that have an angle are often problematic unless you can use books to prop the
Writing on transparencies and using an overhead projector to share them with the class
helps facilitate group discussion easily. Groups in the class can also quickly record their
work and conversations to share with the rest of the class. Such strategies particularly
benefit students who respond to visual learning cues.
The opaque projector, epidioscope, epidiascope or episcope is a device which displays
opaque materials by shining a bright lamp onto the object from above. A system of mirrors,
prisms and/or imaging lenses is used to focus an image of the material onto a viewing
screen. Because they must project the reflected light, opaque projectors require brighter
bulbs and larger lenses than overhead projectors. Care must be taken that the materials are
not damaged by the heat generated by the light source. Opaque projectors are not as
common as the overhead projector.
Opaque projectors are typically used to project images of book pages, drawings, mineral
specimens, leaves, etc. They have been produced and marketed as artists’ enlargement tools
to allow images to be transferred to surfaces such as prepared canvas, or for lectures and
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8622
Q.4 Discuss the role of tape recorder in distance education. Give example in support
of your answer.
An audio tape recorder, tape deck, or tape machine is a sound recording and reproduction
device that records and plays back sounds usually using magnetic tape for storage. In its
present-day form, it records a fluctuating signal by moving the tape across a tape head that
polarizes the magnetic domains in the tape in proportion to the audio signal. Tape-
recording devices include the reel-to-reel tape deck and the cassette deck, which uses a
cassette for storage.
The use of magnetic tape for sound recording originated around 1930 in Germany as paper
tape with oxide lacquered to it. Prior to the development of magnetic tape, magnetic wire
recorders had successfully demonstrated the concept of magnetic recording, but they never
offered audio quality comparable to the other recording and broadcast standards of the
time. This German invention was the start of a long string of innovations that have led to
present day magnetic tape recordings.
Magnetic tape revolutionized both the radio broadcast and music recording industries. It
gave artists and producers the power to record and re-record audio with minimal loss in
quality as well as edit and rearrange recordings with ease. The alternative recording
technologies of the era, transcription discs and wire recorders, could not provide anywhere
near this level of quality and functionality.
Since some early refinements improved the fidelity of the reproduced sound, magnetic tape
has been the highest quality analog recording medium available. As of the first decade of
the 21st century, analog magnetic tape has been largely replaced by digital recording
Some distance educators have been captured in the eye of the technological tornado and
often correlate the use of sophisticated big media technologies with more successful
learning outcomes. This is not to say there is no place for sophisticated media in distance
education: in certain circumstances big media are necessary. The alluring qualities of
complex media such as television and computer-assisted instruction (CAI), however, often
determine which medium is employed rather than delivery and pedagogical implications.
Within the context of distance education, audio can be seen as the ‘big-little medium’.
Though print remains the base medium for most distance education curricula, audio, in a
multitude of formats, is highly used though often undervalued. A common assumption
among distance educators is that the term ‘audio’ refers only to audio cassettes or radio.
Although these two modes of delivery are very common in distance e ducation, we must
not forget how widely used and how vital other modes of delivery are as well.
Film, video, broadcast television, audio and video teleconferencing and some computer-
assisted instruction (CAI), employ audio as an integral medium. Thus, audio is used in many
multi-media formats and plays an essential role in most non-print media developed for
distance education. With audio cassette or radio delivery modes, audio stands alone and
may be categorized as ‘little media.’ However, when audio is combined with varying modes
of visual presentation (i.e. film, video, videodisc) and is delivered by expensive hardware, it
can be categorized as an integrated component of big media.
The focus of this paper is on the development of instructional audio cassettes for distance
education. The advantages of the audio cassette, and the intrinsic flexibility of this delivery
mode within the context of design, production and delivery, will be discussed. The question
of media selection for distance edu cation and other aspects of audio such as radio, digital
audio and teleconferencing will also be addressed.
The advantages of audio cassettes
Media such as film, video, and broadcast television that employ an audio component
possess two common characteristics. First, they are all multimedia formats that utilize a
visual component and an audio component. Second, the audio and visual components are
One great advantage of the audio cassette is that it can be designed to be used on its own
or with visuals. In the latter scenario, the user and developer can review or preview each
medium independently because they are not physically interlocked. This type of flexibility
satisfies one of the important criteria of distance education by offering maximum learner
control over the media. Referring to first year mathematics students’ use of audio cassettes
with printed visuals at the British Open University, Mason and others say, ‘Our students have
responded extremely posit ively with high usage (comparable to straight print), repeated
stopping and going back, and they have experienced great pleasure at the use of a friendly
Another advantage of the audio cassette is the number of traditional production styles that
can be employed. For example, drama, documentary, docudrama and narratives may be
used in any number of disciplines. The Open Learning Institute in British Columbia has used
a wide range of traditional and many non-traditional production styles in hundreds of audio
Only audio can reproduce authentic aural stimuli. The two most common forms of aural
stimuli are the spoken word and music.
The spoken word
The average human voice has the ability to produce sound over a specific range of
frequencies. The ability to adjust or modulate these frequencies allows us to communicate
in a correct and artistic way with words and sounds. The ability to adjust intonation,
inflexion, phrasing, pacing, volume, loudness and tim bre ‘distinguishes a spoken text from
a written one and … can provide it with educational advantage’ (Durbridge 1984).
If, for example, learning objectives that emphasize feelings or emotions have been
identified, spoken words through heightened intonations or subtle nuances can
communicate those emotions and create a sense of intimacy at the same time. Print does
not allow a learner to identify or interpret audible nuances that personalize content because
print cannot stimulate the auditory senses.
Another advantage of the spoken word is its ability to communicate the rhythms, tempos
and inflections of languages. The Open Learning Institute offers three language courses that
include 39 audio cassettes. A distance education learner would encounter great difficulties
attempting to learn a new language from print materials without a corresponding audio
component. ‘As compared with a written text, the spoken word can influence both cognition
(adding clarity and meaning) and motivation (by conve ying directly a sense of the person
creating those words)’ says the Open University’s Nicola Durbridge (1984). Other courses at
the Open Learning Institute, such as English Literature, English Grammar, Science, and
English as a Second Language take advantage of audio’s ability to replicate aural stimuli.
Music on audio cassettes is used in a variety of ways by many distance education
institutions. At the Open Learning Institute, most of the audio programmes use music in
some of the following ways:
as an attention-getting device at the beginning of a programme;
as a theme or an audible signature;
suggesting a place;
heightening mood or atmosphere;
punctuating speech or dialogues;
as a sound effect; and
as links and bridges between segments of instruction.
As with the spoken word, music is best communicated by media that can successfully
exploit all its inherent attributes. For example, in a self-directed setting, pri nt alone is not
capable of communicating the energy or emotion of music. As with language instruction, it
is both instructional design and the medium of delivery that influence learning when
undertaking musical instruction. With musical instruction, as opposed to musical
accompaniment, the message is dependent on a medium that can replicate authentic
That music accompaniment may influence motivation or increase learning is uncertain
because little research has been done in this area. However, in a survey of current research
on the ‘Contributions of Music to Media’, Steven Seidman suggest that, ‘Although it seems
unlikely that musical accompaniment to media productions will improve student
performance on achievement tests or enhance learning and retention of cognitive content,
the studies cited in this review suggest that affective and cognitive interpretations of these
productions can be influenced by a musical score’ (1981). Therefore it is possible that the
cumulative psychoacoustic (the sensations produced by sound), psychological and
physiological effects of music do influence cognition and motivation when the music is the
message. And music may influence affective and cognitive interpretations when
accompanying other messages.
Summary of advantages
Other important advantages of using audio cassettes for distance education are as follows:
the eye can focus on printed materials while being guided by the audio cassette
a learner’s hands are free to perform activities while listening to the audio cassette
the record/playback hardware for audio cassettes is often much easier to operate than
video equipment, and computer software and hardware (accessability);
it can be much less expensive to produce a finished audio programme for distribution by
cassette than producing a film, video or a broadcast television programme of equal length
there are no time restrictions imposed on programmes distributed by audio cassett es such
as those imposed on broadcast media (flexibility);
unlike broadcast media, audio cassettes can be listened to at any time of the day
the learner has complete control over all the record/playback hardware which is not the
case for broadcast media (learner control);
audio cassette recorder/players are less expe
education learners than video recorder/playe
blank audio cassettes cost less per unit than
compared to video cassettes, audio cassette
deliver because of high-speed duplication, a
and mailing (cost).
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8622
Q.5 How can make multi-copies with th
When you create a campaign, you have the
ad set can have different Custom Audience
To create multiple ad sets at once:
1. Go to Ads Manager and click
2. Choose your marketing objective, nam
3. Click Create multiple new ad sets
4. In the Audience section, choose the a
target in each ad set.
• To add specific variations,
advertising goals. You can
r/players are less expensive and are often more ore accessible accessible to to distance
n video recorder/players, televisions or computers puters (cost/accessibility);
cost less per unit than any format of video cassettes assettes (cost); (cost); and and
ssettes, audio cassettes are less expensive to to duplicate, duplicate, package package
speed duplication, and the low cost of hardware, ardware, labour, labour, materials
copies with the help of memographic? phic? Discuss? Discuss?
mpaign, you have the ability to create multiple ltiple ad ad sets sets at at once. once. Each
rent Custom Audiences, locations and age e segments segments all all within within
sets at once:
anager and click Create. Make sure that t you you are are in in the the
arketing objective, name your campaign and click Continue.
ultiple new ad sets.
section, choose the audiences, locations and nd age age ranges ranges you you
specific variations, click: add custom audience audience variation, variation
variation, and/or add age range variation, , depending depending on on your
ng goals. You can further define your r audience audience using using other
demographics, interests and behaviours with detailed targeting. Learn
more about detailed targeting.
5. Once your audiences have been set up, choose your placements and optimisation
settings in the Placements and Optimisation & delivery sections.
6. In the Budget & schedule section, choose how you want to manage your budget
across ad sets.
You have the option of setting a daily budget or a lifetime budget. A daily budget is how
much you want to spend every day over the duration of your ad campaign. If you
choose lifetime budget, you can set how much you want to spend in total over the
duration of your campaign. You can control this amount in the total budget field.
For example, if you set your total budget to GBP 100 and choose daily budget, you will
spend GBP 100 every day until your campaign ends. If you set your total budget to GBP 100
and choose lifetime budget, you will only spend a total of GBP 100 over the lifetime of the
campaign. This GBP 100 will be divided across every day that your ad runs.
7. Click Continue. You can delete any ad sets that you don’t need or allocate a different
budget to each ad set at this step.
8. Click Continue to create the ad that will be associated with your ad sets.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8622 Autumn 2018