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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8621 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8621 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8621 Broadcast Media in Distance Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8621) Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years) Semester: Autumn, 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 “Braodcast media is indispensable tool for Distance eduction”. Critically analyze

the statement.

Answer:

The term ‘broadcast media’ covers a wide spectrum of different communication methods

such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and any other materials supplied by the

media and press.

What types of information are available in the broadcasting media?

The broadcasting media provides valuable information, for example speeches,

documentaries, interviews, advertisements, daily news, financial markets and much more.

The latest (newest/most up-to-date) information can be found here.

Where can I find it?

Transcripts (hard copies) of interviews, speeches, programmes, etc., are often available from

the supplier of the information, e.g. SABC, M-Net, the specific radio station, etc.

Nowadays many of these transcripts etc., are made available on the Internet. The following

are just a few links, there are many more.

Broadcast media is radio and television. Even amidst the pop culture dominance of the

internet, broadcast media still commands the largest share of the advertising

pie nationwide. Put the audio and visual media to work for you as your company

earns larger market share, stronger branding, and increased sales. If you are looking for cost-

efficient lead generation, you need to be looking at radio and television advertising.

Not only are radio and television the main media for advertising today, they are continually

developing new ways to reach their audience. The SyFy cable network launched a show

(“Defiance”) that combines interactions on a video game with the plot of a series show.

Radio stations are supplementing on-air campaigns with digital media to provide on-air and

on-screen promotions to those who stream the station through their computer.

Multiple studies have shown that combining radio and television can help advertisers reach

audiences not achievable with only one medium or the other.

What Is Broadcast Media?

• Broadcast television

• Cable television

• On-demand television

• TV/web integration

• Local, network, and national radio

• On-air endorsements

• Long-form programming

• Multi-language programming

The Power of Radio

Radio reaches more Americans than any other advertising media. As an example, let’s look

at Los Angeles, CA. It is the #1 radio revenue market in the world and generates more than

$1 billion dollars in sales each year. In that market alone, more than 9 million people listen

to radio each week. People are loyal to radio and love listening to their favorite DJ or talk

show host. The shows become part of their routines as they drive to and from work or run

errands or take kids to school. There is probably at least one conversation in your office

every day that starts with, “I heard on the radio this morning…” The reason? More adults in

L.A. listen to radio in a week than will visit Google+ in a month!

Radio offers a unique method to achieve Top-Of-Mind-Awareness (TOMA). As people listen

to radio advertising and don’t rely on visual cues they would get from TV or a website, your

ad is playing in a “theater of the mind”. For example, the phrase “a soft pillow” could

conjure an image of a white silk pillowcase on a down pillow for one person whereas

another person could be thinking of the cute yellow pillow they had as a child. That

openness for interpretation means the quality of your copywriting is vital to success.

You have an opportunity to connect with a listener through their own experiences, ideas,

and dreams.

The Power of Television

We just mentioned a unique power of radio to achieve TOMA. Television advertising –

another part of broadcast media- is the most powerful medium currently available to put

your brand at the forefront of your customers’ minds. The combination of audio and visual

messages allows for a dual delivery of your marketing message.

Television Advertising Choices

There is a huge range of choices when it comes demographic targeting with television

advertising. The most basic is network vs. cable. Attach your brand to the prestige and

authority of companies such as ABC, CBS, NBC, or Fox. Take advantage of the huge variety

of cable networks that enable you to selectively target viewers based on income, hobbies,

ethnicity, favorite sports, gender, sexual orientation, education level, or any combination

you may need.

Much has been said about the impact of TiVO/DVR devices and people skipping

commercials. Multiple studies have shown that advertising on TV continues to be one of

the most effective marketing methods available. Only about 50% of DVR-owning

households actually skip commercials. And many of those that skip have been shown to

retain what they see in fast-forward or -most importantly- see something that catches their

attention and will go back to watch the full ad.

The newest addition to television advertising success is the multi-screen viewer. Millions of

Americans watch TV while also surfing the internet on their desktop, laptop, tablet, or

smartphone. These potential customers can see your add on television and surf immediately

over to your website to learn more about your company or product. Conversely, a potential

customer can share reactions on Facebook or Twitter to their favorite shows and see your

mobile or other online ad appear. A great example of this was the recent airing of

“Sharknado” on the SyFy cable network. This B-level movie on a low tier network

generated more than 300,000 live Tweets while it was airing.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8621 Autumn 2018

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Q.2 Delibrate the histocial prespective of educational radio.

Answer:

Radio has been used for educational purposes since its beginning in the early 1920’s. The

application of radio to the educational problems of developing nations is not a new concept

by any means. Most developing nations have broadcast capabilities to cover their

geographic region. The main technical problem is the absence of receivers for all people.

Some countries have governmental problems in allowing the import of transistors or radios

for use by the populace. Additionally, radio broadcast technicians and educational radio

format designers are very scarce in developing countries and academic programs need to

be created on a large scale. Among the uses of educational radio that are discussed in the

review are foreign radio schools, classroom radio uses, ACPO, and correspondence radio

courses. The comparative costs of radio to other media are also examined. Those studies of

the effect of educational radio since the 1930’s often use materials not developed

specifically for radio use. Educational radio for classroom presentation has been

demonstrated as effective as television, slide/tape presentations and other media. The great

gains in learning shown in radio lessons might be further enhanced by using materials

designed spedifically for radio use rather than applications of modified scripts from other

media.

Other areas of need are thos e of longitudinal studies concerning the effects of radio used

over an extended period of time, and studies of single-session attention span of students.

Radio has been used for educational purposes since its beginning in the early 1920’s. The

application of radio to the educational problems of developing nations is not a new concept

by any means. Most developing nations have broadcast capabilities to cover their

geographic region. The main technical problem is the absence of receivers for all people.

Some countries have governmental problems in allowing the import of transistors or radios

for use by the populace. Additionally, radio broadcast technicians and educational radio

format designers are very scarce in developing countries and academic programs need to

be created on a large scale. Those studies of the effect of educational radio often used

materials not developed specifically for radio use, instead the materials were usually for

classroom presentation or even ITV. The great gains in learning shown in radio lessons

might therefore be even further enhanced by using materials designed specifically for radio

use (see McLuhan). Other areas of need are those of longitudinal studies concerning the

effects of radio used over an extended period of time, and studies of single-session

attention span of students.

During the 1930’s and 40’s most of the activities in educational radio were conducted

through universities. Wagner (1939) provided a summary 2 of the most important work

being done at that time. The following works cited are included in his summary. At Kansas

University, one of the pioneers in the field of giving classroom instruction in radio

broadcasting, courses dealing with the program side of radio have been available to

students since February, 1932. From the beginning, emphasis has been placed on training

students for educational rather than for commercial broadcasting. Ohio State University’s

“Evaluation of School Broadcasts” was a study sponsored by the Federal Radio Education

Ccmmittee and involved th ztive cooperation of educators and of network and independent

broadcasters. The major purpose of the undertaking was to gather evidence regarding the

effectiveness of radio broadcasts, planned for use in school, in achieving a variety of

educational objectives which broadcasters and teachers alike considered important. The

Research Project in School Broadcasting being carried on by the University of Wisconsin was

to determine, through demonstration and evaluation, the place of radio in the classroom

and to devise methods for its most effective use. During the seven years of experimentation

in school broadcasting, the Wisconsin School of the Air has had a steadily increasing

audience. The purpose of school broadcasts was to supplement and enrich rather than to

give curricular instruction. The School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton

University established an Office of Radio Research in September, 1937. At that time a

Rockefeller grant was secured to finance a radio research project to 3 BEST °Cs” AVAILABLE

be carried out by this office. A series of publications about the project was planned and, as

the work of the project proceeded, a number of basic principles of procedure were

formulated. In the spring of 1937, Wayne University started an experiment to develop a

radio research technique for measurement of listening habits which would be inexpensive

and yet fairly reliable, and one which might best be carried out through the schools. At the

University of Missibsippi, a questionnaire was formulated for the study of radio listening

habits, effects of listening, and attitudes toward radio programs and governmental control

of radio. Research done at St. Andrews University, Scotland, involved collecting

questionnaire responses for groups of British listeners. The results reveal significant

differences in program preferences among occupational groups. Fisk and Lazarfeld (1945)

introduced the work of the Office of Radio Research, a division of the Bureau of Applied

Social Research in Columbia University. They also illustrated the interrelationship of radio

and other fields of communications research. The Office conducted research on the roles of

radio from the standpoint of the educator, psychologist, and sociologist. Special attention

was directed to the techniques of radio research, including surveys of listening habits and

more specialized research pertaining to the effectiveness of one section or element of a

program.

Special characteristics of radio were explained. Fiske and Lazarfeld said that there are at

least six characteristics of radio which distinguish it from other media. The moat significant

characteristic is radio’s accessibility; another one is its auditory percepts’ n. Its accessibility,

combined with its reliance on auditory perception, enables people to listen while carrying

on a variety of other activities which do not necessarily interfere with their perception. But,

at the same time, this quality of non – interference leaves the radio program liable to a low

degree of attention. A fourth characteristic of radio is that it continues in time. Cumulative

effects can be built up over long or short periods. Also, a national network may reach into

homes all over the country if it confines its appeal to a general one.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8621 Autumn 2018

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Q.3 “Educational boradcasting requires huge investement of time, energy and

scrace resources by the third world countires” Discuss?

Answer:

Broadcasting, Radio and Television, primary means by which information and

entertainment are delivered to the public in virtually every nation around the world. The

term broadcasting refers to the airborne transmission of electromagnetic audio signals

(radio) or audiovisual signals (television) that are readily accessible to a wide population via

standard receivers.

Broadcasting is a crucial instrument of modern social and political organization. At its peak

of influence in the mid-20th century, national leaders often used radio and television

broadcasting to address entire countries. Because of its capacity to reach large numbers of

people, broadcasting has been regulated since it was recognized as a significant means of

communication. (For more information, see the section “The Regulation of Broadcasting.”)

Beginning in the early 1980s, new technologies–such as cable television and videocassette

players–began eroding the dominance of broadcasting in mass communications, splitting

its audiences into smaller, culturally distinct segments. Previously a synonym for radio and

television, broadcasting has become one of several delivery systems that feed content to

newer media.

The Emergence of Broadcast Communication

Throughout history, long-distance communication had depended entirely upon

conventional means of transportation. A message could be moved aboard a ship, on

horseback, by pigeon, or in the memory of a human courier, but in all cases it had to be

conveyed as a mass through space like any other material commodity.

The story of radio begins in the development of an earlier medium, the telegraph, the first

instantaneous system of information movement. Patented simultaneously in 1837 in the

United States by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse and in Great Britain by scientists Sir Charles

Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke, the electromagnetic telegraph realized the

age-old human desire for a means of communication free from the obstacles of long-

distance transportation. The first public telegraph line, completed in 1844, ran about 64 km

(about 40 mi) from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland. Morse’s first message, “What

hath God wrought?”–transmitted as a coded series of long and short electronic impulses

(so-called dots and dashes)–conveyed his awareness of the momentous proportions of the

achievement.

The usefulness of telegraphy was such that over the next half century wires were strung

across much of the world, including a transatlantic undersea cable (about 1866) connecting

Europe and North America. The instantaneous arrival of a message from a place that

required hours, days, or weeks to reach by ordinary transport was such a radical departure

from familiar experience that some telegraph offices were able to collect admission fees

from spectators wanting to witness the feat for themselves.

Despite its accomplishments, telegraphic communication was limited. It depended on the

building and maintenance of a complex system of receiving stations wired to each other

along a fixed route. The telephone, patented by American inventor Alexander Graham

Bell in 1876, required an even more complex system. The two great long-distance

communications breakthroughs of the 19th century–the telegraph and the telephone–were

of no use to ships at sea and of little use to communities that could not support the

building of lines. The printed word remained the only medium by which large numbers of

people could be addressed simultaneously.

Scientists in many countries worked to devise a system that could overcome the limitations

of the telegraph wire. In 1895 Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi transmitted a message

in Morse code that was picked up about 3 km (about 2 mi) away by a receiving device that

had no wired connection to Marconi’s transmitting device. Marconi had demonstrated that

an electronic signal could be cast broadlythrough space so that receivers at random points

could capture it. The closed circuit of instant communication, bound by the necessity of

wires, had at last been opened by a so-called wireless telegraph. The invention was also

called a radiotelegraph (later shortened to radio), because its signal moved outward in all

directions, or radially, from the point of transmission. The age of broadcasting had begun.

Unable to obtain funding in Italy, Marconi found willing supporters for his research in

Britain, a country that depended on the quick and effective deployment of its worldwide

naval and commercial shipping fleets to support its empire. Marconi moved to London in

1896 and founded the British Marconi Company to develop and market his invention for

military and industrial uses. Within five years a wireless signal had been transmitted across

the Atlantic Ocean from England to Newfoundland, Canada. Marconi was awarded the

Nobel Prize for physics in 1909.

Broadcasting advanced on other fronts as well. In 1904 the United Fruit Company hired

American inventor Lee De Forest to help build a series of radio broadcasting stations in the

Caribbean basin for the purpose of facilitating greater efficiency in shipping perishable

goods from Central America to ports in the United States. These linked stations, which

shared current information on weather and market conditions, constituted the first

broadcasting network. The work of Canadian inventor Reginald Fessenden, later elaborated

upon by De Forest, allowed for the broadcast transmission of a wider range of sounds,

including the human voice.

Within a decade, wireless telegraphy had developed into a basic tool of the world maritime

industry, with many countries requiring by law that flag vessels (vessels, registered under

national flags, that engage in international trade) have both a radio transmitter and a

certified operator aboard at all times. Despite all this commercial activity, little attention had

been given to general consumer applications for the new technology. Instead, nonmaritime

broadcasting was dominated by experimenters and hobbyists. American entrepreneur

Charles D. Herrold established the College of Wireless and Engineering in San Jose,

California, and as early as 1909 he and his students were broadcasting news and music.  

Backyard tinkerers all over North America built their own transmitters and used them to

make speeches, pass along information, recite poems, play live or recorded music, or

otherwise entertain their fellow amateurs, or hams. They often prided themselves on the

reach of their homemade equipment. Before 1917 the U.S. government, which had begun

requiring licenses for radio operators in 1912, had issued more than 8000 licenses to

hobbyist broadcasters.

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Q.4 Crtically examine the role of edcuational TV with reference to Singapure.

Answer:

The Educational Television Service (ETV) was officially launched by then Minister for

Education Ong Pang Boon on 29 January 1967. ETV was conceptualised as a teaching aid to

introduce dynamism to school curricula through the use of educational broadcasting by the

government. Its recording studio was housed at the Teachers’ Training College along

Paterson Road. The government provided all secondary schools with a television set for

viewing the programmes, although some schools purchased an additional set with their

own funds.

The first programme was broadcast on 30 January 1967. It was a mathematics lesson for

secondary one students called “Approximation and Error”. For the first school term until 7

April 1967, the programmes were broadcast from Mondays to Fridays over Television

Singapura’s Channel 8 in two sessions: 8.30 am to 12.45 pm and 2 pm to 6.10 pm. The

morning session featured six 20-minute lessons that were repeated in the second session

for the benefit of the afternoon schools. Every programme was repeated six times weekly to

make it easier for teachers to fit them into class schedules. Lessons on subjects such as

mathematics, science, languages, literature and social studies were featured and produced

in all four official languages: English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil.[4] A quarterly magazine,

etv Singapura, was also published to provide schools with information on upcoming

programmes.

Between 1968 and 1969, attempts were made to improve the quality of ETV programmes,

such as introducing film animation and producing colourful charts for teachers to use as

teaching aids. ETV also started producing adult-learning programmes such as “English for

Everyone” and “Music for You”. Requests from primary schools and a review of ETV in 1968

resulted in the extension of its services to primary schools and pre-university institutions in

1971.

In 1974, the ETV was renamed the Singapore Educational Media Service (SEMS) to reflect its

additional functions, which now included the production of audio-visual media. In June

1980, SEMS was reorganised into the Division of Educational Technology (DET) under the

newly established Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore (CDIS).

Following CDIS’s restructuring in 1996, DET became a separate entity known as the

Educational Technology Division (ETD). ETV programming then came under the charge of

ETD’s EdTech Development Branch. As the ETD increasingly focused its efforts on

developing new technologies such as CD-ROMs and VCDs for schools, ETV broadcasts

ceased from September 1999.

It’s holiday season, so you’re likely to find your young ones planting themselves in front of

the goggle box. But who says TV has to be a waste of time? Watching educational TV

programmes can be a fun way for them to learn about the world.

“People can be down about TV for children, but it stimulates their imagination,” says

Henrietta Hurford-Jones, Director of Children’s TV for BBC. “Kids’ TV shows often look at the

world through a child’s perspective, and help them understand social interactions,

storytelling, and educational topics like maths, science and art.”

Make the most of TV time with your little ones by watching telly as a family, so you can

discuss topics with them and answer any questions they may have. When you’re on the go,

viewing pre-loaded TV shows on your tablet or phone can be a good way to keep kids

occupied, says Henrietta. Try apps like the BBC Player (free for StarHub subscribers),

Nickelodeon Play (free, with exclusive content for Singtel Cast Kids Pack subscribers) and

Toggle (available for free).

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8621

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Q.5 How Japanese broadcasting system is totally different from the system of other

developed countries? Support your answer with examples.

Answer:

The broadcasting system in Japan is divided into the public sector, represented solely

by NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai, or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation), and the commercial

sector.

NHK collects the mandatory viewing fees from households which own TV sets and makes it

the source of fund for its wide activities. It operates a nationwide network with 2 MW radio,

1 FM radio, 2 VHF television and 2 BS televison channels. Also, it has a shortwave overseas

radio Radio Japan.

As of 1992, there are 177 commercial broadcasting companies, 36 of which operate both TV

and radio, 82 only TV and 59 only radio. Local TV stations form tie-up networks with major

key companies in Tokyo, i.e. NTV, TBS, Fuji-TV (CX), TV-Asahi and TV-Tokyo. Majority

(roughly 80%) of programs are provided by these dominating stations. Those commercial

broadcasting companies rely on advertising revenue. As you can imagine, sponsors are very

sensitive to the audience ratings, hence TV stations tend to make junky programs which

only aim at raitings.

TBS-Aum scandal and undelying problem in TV journalism

All Japan’s newsmedia reported TBS-AUM scandal on March 26, 1996:

Tokyo Broadcasting System Inc. (TBS) executives confirmed at a news conference Monday

that network employees had shown a group of AUM Shinrikyo followers a videotaped

interview with anti-AUM lawyer Tsusumi Sakamoto. …

Sakamoto and his family were abducted and murdered about a week after the tapeユs

screening, on Nov. 3, 1989, allegedly by AUM followers. Police believe that AUM leader

Shoko Asahara ordered the killings after being told about the interview. …

The taped interview, which was never aired, was supposed to have been for a TBS news

report about the cult. The AUM members, including high-ranking cultist Kiyohide Hayakawa,

were allowed to see the tape before the report was aired and, after protesting about it, TBS

decided not to air the interview, according to prosecutors and some AUM followers.

(Mainichi Daily News)

Many people say that TBS got many scoops on Aum issue, including exclusive interview with

Shoko Asahara, after it showed the video tape. Did they make a deal with Aum for audience

ratings? Is “wide-show” program really a journalism?

This type of problems have been repeated. It seems that the problem is not only for the TBS

but for all Japan’s TV journalism. Japan’s (TV) journalism is in danger!

Satellite broadcasting and Cable TV *

…At the end of May 1995 the new opening of terrestrial stations was stopped. The Ministry

of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT) judged that, in dawning age of multichannel

television typified by the proliferation of satellite broadcasting and cable TV, there was no

need for any further increase in the number of regional TV stationsthat have difficulty

operating without the support of a major Tokyo-based broadcaster.

Satellites

The development of media using satellites is making commercial headway. Japan Satellite

Broadcasting Inc., Japan’s first private satellite broadcasting company, launched its service in

April 1991. Moreover, 11 companies using communications satellites got off the ground in

1995. Two private companies broadcasting musicdigitally via satellite using PCM technology

wereoperating as of April 1996, and fourcompanies commenced around-the-clock

programming using communications satellites in 1992 and 1993.

Muliplex broadcasting, which utilizes the gaps to provide bilingual broadcasts, stereo sound,

emergency broadcasts, and so on. In April 1996, MPT proposed in a report that all

commercial TV stations should be obliged to provide teletext and sound commentary

broadcasts for sight- and hearing-impaired viewers.

Cables

Until recently cable TV was used only in those areas where reception of radio waves in poor,

such as secluded mountain regions and outlying islands. However, urban cable TV, defined

as having over 10,000 tap-offs, more than five independent channels, and two-way

functions, is now becomming an important medium in metropolitan areas, offering a

multitude of programs on mumerous channels. Tokyo’s first cable TV station began

broadcasting in the spring of 1987. As of March 1995 there were 61,606 cable TV stations

around Japan, with 10.3 million subscribers, including 170 urban cable TV stations (Feb.

1995) with 2.0 million subscribers (Dec. 1994).

HDTV and Digital

Hi-Vision TV, the Japanese version of hight-definition television, is being developed

primarily by NHK. With roughly twice the scan lines of standard TVs, Hi-Vision TV has made

possible high-resolution, high-detail images. Apart from broadcasting, it is attracting

attention in the fields of arts, medicine, and education.

TV broadcasting is also being influenced by the tide of digital technology. The standard so

far has been analog technology, in which pictures and sound have to be transmitted on

separate radio waves. But with digital technology, one radio wave can be compressed

without loss of quality, four to seven channels can run on one conventional analog

frequency band. In Japan two companies plan to begin digital services in 1996, although the

timing of its introduction in satellite broadcasting is uncertain [see next section]. Since Hi-

Vision TV uses analog technology [for encoding], its proponents are opposed to the

introduction of digital technology.

Digital Boradcasting

On June 30, 1996, the Japanese satellite JCSAT-3 aired the first experimantal digital

broadcasting. It is PerfecTV, the joint venture of four big Japanese trading companies, and

will start commercial service in October ’96, prividing 61 TV and 104 sound channels

selection. The registration fee will be 2,800 yen with about 50,000 yen for antenna and

decoder, and monthly charge will be 2,190 yen for 12 channels set.

The U.S. DirecTV will enter the Japanese market, while Mr Murdoch, who recently took

major stock of TV Asahi, announces that he will begin 100 channels J Sky B within two

years. Thus, Japanese people will be able to enjoy a few hundreds programs shortly.

The ground broadcasting companies keep cool on the satellite fever. They think it is difficult

for these new commers to provide quality programs to satisfy so many channels (I doubt

current ground programs have any quality, then).

Another problem will be antenna. As of June 1996, current services with analog Commercial

Satellite (CS) gain only a hundred thousand subscribers, while those using Boracasting

Satellite (BS) achieved more (NHK’s BS has 7 million and Wowow 2 million). Because CS

services require different antenna than BS service, they experience a serious handicap in

Japanese housing situation. Many experts wonder if people dare to put one more antenna

for the new digital satellite programs.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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