AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019. Solved Assignments code 8620 Computers in Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Computers in Education (8620) Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years) Semester: Autumn, 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 How camputer is a powerful tool. Describe the categories of computer and their

uses?

Answer:

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical

operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to

follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers

to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer

devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote

controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also

general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones.

Computers are powerful tools because they can process information with incredible speed,

accuracy and dependability. They can efficiently perform input, process, output and storage

operations, and they can store massive amounts of data.

Computers enable users to access information whenever necessary and to share information

with other users. They allow people to use the Internet, which is a global network

connecting millions of individuals, educational institutions, businesses and government

agencies.

Through the Internet, users communicate with each other, search for helpful information,

buy products and services, and access various types of entertainment. A widely used

component of the Internet is the World Wide Web, which consists of numerous documents

known as Web pages. These pages are composed of text, video, sound, graphics and other

types of content.  

Desktop computers typically comprise a system unit, input devices and output devices that

fit on a table, whereas notebook computers are small, portable machines. Many people use

desktop and notebook computers to access the Internet or accomplish tasks that require

the use of application programs.

Computers that fit in the hand are called handheld computers. Midrange servers are bigger

and more powerful than workstation computers. The quickest and most powerful type of

computer is called a supercomputer. Another extremely efficient computer is the

mainframe, which can simultaneously manage thousands of linked users.

Categories of computer and their uses:

Below you’ll find an extensive, descriptive list of the five types of computers, from

supercomputers to mobile computers, and everything in between.

Supercomputers

A supercomputer is pretty much exactly what it sounds like. It’s a term used to describe

computers that have the most capable processing power of its time. Early supercomputers

in the 60s and 70s used just a couple processors, while the 90s saw supercomputers with

thousands of processors at a time. Today, modern supercomputers run hundreds of

thousands of processors, capable of computing quadrillions of calculations in just a few

nanoseconds. You probably won’t be needing that kind of power to access Facebook…

Actually, supercomputers are used in computational science to calculate and carry out a

plethora of complex tasks. Modeling molecular structures, weather forecasting, and the field

of quantum mechanics, among others, rely on supercomputers and their intense processing

power to solve their equations.

Mainframe Computers

Like supercomputers, mainframe computers are huge, towering machines with lots of

processing power. Mainframe computers are mostly used by corporations, government

agencies, and banks – organizations that need a way to store large quantities of

information. They are not the same as supercomputers. The processing capabilities of  

mainframe computers are measured in MIPS, or millions of instructions per second.

Supercomputers, on the other hand, are measured in FLOPS, or floating point operations

per seconds.

Minicomputers

A minicomputer is a multiprocessing machine that can support up to about 200 users at the

same time. It’s like a less powerful mainframe computer, and is about the size of a

refrigerator. A server can be an example of a minicomputer, but not all servers are

minicomputers. Despite their name, a minicomputer is not a personal computer like the

desktop machine you might have at home or work. They are much larger than that. Because

of the ways microcomputers – which we’ll cover next – have excelled in processing power

even beyond minicomputers, and at a much smaller size, minicomputers have become

pretty much obsolete.

Microcomputers

Microcomputers are the ones people are most familiar with on a daily, non-professional

basis, but of course that doesn’t mean they’re exclusive to the home. Microcomputers are

smaller computers that run on microprocessors in their central processing units. They are

much, much cheaper than supercomputers, mainframe computers and even minicomputers,

because they’re meant for everyday uses that are more practical than professional. The

range of capabilities for microcomputers are still vast, though. A film editor might use a

microcomputer to run many intensive editing programs at once, while a student might use

a microcomputer for Facebook and word processing. Need help with the basic functionality

of microcomputers?

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Q.2 Survey five such instructions of your locality which have computer. Compare

the printing devices they on the criteria of type, speed, print quality and cost.

Answer:

Wouldn’t it be great if you could have a paperless office?

Sadly though, there are still occasions when you need to print documents, such as things

required by law, of you like the feel of a piece of paper in your hand. For many small

businesses, printers look all the same to them. But choosing your printer can be a decision

that leads to frustration, unneeded expenses, and hampered productivity if you don’t

consider it carefully.

We at Fueled, make it easy for you by highlighting the 10 features of a printer that you’ll

want to think about before making a purchase.

1. Inkjet or laser

Although there isn’t much of a price difference these days, think about what kind of ink you

want to use. Toners and ink cartridges can vary in budgets, so choose one that suits you the

best.

2. How many functions do you want?

Some companies are happy with a printer and photocopier, while some might want an all-

in-one printer where you can scan, fax, print and photocopy. Go through to see what your

office uses often, and what kind of existing equipment you have to decide. For example, if

you already have a scanner, then you probably don’t need a printer/scanner.

3. Image quality

Think about what your needs are when printing images. Are you a design company that

needs to print high quality to show their clients drafts of work, or are you a writing company

that just needs to print text? It would be a shame to need high quality images but you

bought a lesser quality printer.

4. Print speed

Think about the volume of paper you want to print. The more you need, the chances are

you’ll probably want a faster printer.

5. Connectivity

Are you obsessed with wireless connections, or couldn’t care less? Do you want to print

from your mobile device, or will a regular computer connection do?

6. Paper handling

Depending on what kind of paper you want to use, you will have to purchase specific

printers for the job. Obviously someone who wants to print mainly on cardstock and photo

paper will need a different printer than someone who wants to print on regular blank paper.

Don’t forget about sizes of paper you want. If you need to print on larger pieces of paper,

then don’t purchase a printer that is obviously too small for the job.

7. Office size

If your office is pretty much you on the go with a laptop, you might want to consider a

portable printer. Otherwise, if you have some extra room and depending on print quality,

you can easily afford a bigger one.

8. Other running costs

Other than ink cartridges, think about the brand of cartridges you want to use. If you get

refillable cartridges, you might save some money, but if you let the ink run out completely,

it might damage your printer. Also think about how much it would cost if your printer

breaks down, or even how much energy it’ll use.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8620 Autumn 2018

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Q.3 Define application software. How system software interacts with application

software?

Answer:

Application software is a program or group of programs designed for end users. These

programs are divided into two classes: system software and application software. While

system software consists of low-level programs that interact with computers at a basic level,

application software resides above system software and includes applications such as

database programs, word processors and spreadsheets. Application software may be

bundled with system software or published alone. Application software may simply be

referred to as an application.

Different types of application software include:

• Application Suite: Has multiple applications bundled together. Related functions,

features and user interfaces interact with each other.

• Enterprise Software: Addresses an organization’s needs and data flow in a huge

distributed environment

• Enterprise Infrastructure Software: Provides capabilities required to support

enterprise software systems

• Information Worker Software: Addresses individual needs required to manage and

create information for individual projects within departments

• Content Access Software: Used to access content and addresses a desire for

published digital content and entertainment

• Educational Software: Provides content intended for use by students

• Media Development Software: Addresses individual needs to generate and print

electronic media for others to consume

How system software interacts with application software:

COmputer software can be divided into two main categories: application software and

system software. According to Brookshear [1997], “application software consists of the

programs for performing tasks particular to the machine’s utilization. Examples of

application software include spreadsheets, database systems, desktop publishing systems,

program development software, and games.” Application software is generally what we

think of when someone speaks of computer programs. This software is designed to solve a

particular problem for users.

On the other hand, system software is more transparent and less noticed by the typical

computer user. This software “provides a general programming environment in which

programmers can create specific applications to suit their needs. This environment provides

new functions that are not available at the hardware level and performs tasks related to

executing the application program”

On the other hand, system software is more transparent and less noticed by the typical

computer user. This software “provides a general programming environment in which

programmers can create specific applications to suit their needs. This environment provides

new functions that are not available at the hardware level and performs tasks related to

executing the application program” [Nutt 1997]. System software acts as an interface

between the hardware of the computer and the application software that users need to run

on the computer. The diagram below illustrates the relationship between application

software and system software.

The most important type of system software is the operating system. According to

Webopedia, an operating system has three main responsibilities:

Perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the

display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral

devices such as disk drives and printers. Ensure that different programs and users running at

the same time do not interfere with each other. Provide a software platform on top of which

other programs (i.e., application software) can run.

The first two responsibilities address the need for managing the computer hardware and

the application programs that use the hardware. The third responsibility focuses on

providing an interface between application software and hardware so that application

software can be efficiently developed. Since the operating system is already responsible for

managing the hardware, it should provide a programming interface for application

developers.

Perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the

display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral

devices such as disk drives and printers. Ensure that different programs and users running at

the same time do not interfere with each other. Provide a software platform on top of which

other programs (i.e., application software) can run.

The first two responsibilities address the need for managing the computer hardware and

the application programs that use the hardware. The third responsibility focuses on

providing an interface between application software and hardware so that application

software can be efficiently developed. Since the operating system is already responsible for

managing the hardware, it should provide a programming interface for application

developers.

Nutt [1997] identifies four common types of operating system strategies on which modern

operating systems are built: batch, timesharing, personal computing, and dedicated.

According to Nutt, “the favored strategy for any given computer depends on how the

computer is to be used, the cost-effectiveness of the strategy implementation in the

application environment, and the general state of the technology at the time the operating

system is developed.” The table below summarizes the characteristics of each operating

system strategy as described by Nutt [1997].

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Q.4 DeGlilo (1987) has suggested four different arrangment of layout of a

computer centre. Explain with examples.

Answer:

Many high schools and colleges use computer labs to allow student access to the software

necessary to complete coursework. Computer labs are also used to instruct students on

computer use, programming, and related subjects. However, many institutions give little

thought to the design and layout of the lab. Too often, they simply fill a room with

computers and set up the machines any way they fit inside the room.

Why Computer Lab Design and Layout is Important

Computer labs must be designed intelligently and serve the purpose they were intended to

serve. Imagine if parking lots did not have lines telling you where to park and everyone just

drove in and parked wherever they wanted. Soon no one would be able to enter to exit. The

lines in parking lots create important rules about how you should park in the lot.

Similarly, the design and layout of a computer lab creates rules and defines how the lab can

be used. Thought given to the layout of a computer lab dictates the usefulness of the lab

and increases user satisfaction which justifies its expense and assists in future investments in

upgrades.

Certainly, the layout of the lab depends on the equipment, the furniture, and space

available. The purpose of this document is to discuss some basic computer lab layouts and

their advantages and disadvantages.

Any of these layouts can be modified to satisfy the individual needs of the institution. It just

takes a little planning and imagination to adapt any of these designs to a specific

application.

Classroom Computer Lab Designs

The classic classroom computer lab design serves as the default layout in many High School

and Colleges. However, it does have two major advantages. First, it serves as a great

instruction room where students learn computer topics from an instructor at the front of the

room. With everyone facing the same direction, it allows instructors to see the faces of the

students with which to read non-verbal cues as to whether students are learning the

material or need more help. Second, it is similar to the layout of other classroom

environment emphasizing that the students are there to learn.

One disadvantage of the classroom layout is the need to disturb other students along the

rows of computers as students enter and exit the lab. For labs where students are coming

and going, the classroom layout is not ideal. In addition, the classroom layout is not

conducive to team work. It is difficult for students to work together, especially on collective

projects and in peer-assist teaching models.

Four-Leaf Clover Computer Lab Layouts

The four-leaf clover design offers the most privacy for students and reduces to a minimum

the possibility of cheating during tests or exercises. It also eliminates the need for students

to disturb others when entering and exiting the lab and allows instructors to go from

student to student to address individual problems and concerns.

One disadvantage of the four-leaf clover design has to do with attention spans. When

students are sitting at their own computers, instructors will not be able to see what each

student is doing at his/her workstation. Students may not be paying attention to lessons or

may be surfing to inappropriate websites in labs equipped with Internet access.

Four-leaf clover designs can also be more expensive if each computer sits on its own table.

Some computer lab furniture is made specifically for this design offering space for four

computers on one table or desk.

The next two designs are less traditional but offer some things the classroom layout and the

four-leaf clover layout do not.

U-Shaped Computer Lab Designs

The U-shaped computer lab layout encourages engagement between instructors and

students. Instructors can enter the U and engage with students one-on-one. This design

also serves as the most conducive layout for computer maintenance as technicians do not

have to disturb others to gain access to the computers. In addition, students will not

interfere with other students’ work while entering and exiting the lab.

Unfortunately, the U-shaped design offers little opportunity for instructors to monitor what

students are doing and looking at on their monitors. This design is not compatible with test

taking and requires many assistants to monitor students. Furthermore, this design often

takes up more space that other layouts.

Inverted U-Shaped Computer Lab Layouts

Like the U-shaped layout, the Inverted U-shape also offers engagement between instructors

and students. In addition, the layout allows for the most convenient method of monitoring

students. For individual learning, this layout minimizes the distance instructors must walk to

move from workstation to workstation and student to student.

Like the classroom layout, traffic into and out of the Inverted U-shape can become

constrictive especially when all of the students must enter and exit at the same time. This

congestion is reduced if students are entering and exiting individually as in an open lab

paradigm where students can come and go as they please. In addition, this layout takes up

the same amount of space as the U-shaped design. If space is not a consideration, either of

the U-shaped layouts is appropriate.

Conclusion

There are many options when designing the layout of a computer lab. The key is to make

sure form is following function. Thought and planning at the beginning of designing the lab

ensures that students and instructors are satisfied with what the lab offers. Choosing a sub-

optimal layout can negatively affect student learning and reduce the engagement between

instructors and students.

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Q.5 Discuss functions of graphic software and its different types of packages.

Answer:

In computer graphics, graphics software refers to a program or collection of programs that

enable a person to manipulate images or models visually on a computer. Computer

graphics can be classified into distinct categories: raster graphics and vector graphics, with

further 2D and 3D variants. Many graphics programs focus exclusively on either vector or

raster graphics, but there are a few that combine them in interesting ways. It is simple to

convert from vector graphics to raster graphics, but going the other way is harder. Some

software attempts to do this.

In addition to static graphics, there are animation and video editing software. Different

types of software are often designed to edit different types of graphics such as video,

photos, and drawings. The exact sources of graphics may vary for different tasks, but most

can read and write files. Most graphics programs have the ability to import and export one

or more graphics file formats, including those formats written for a particular computer

graphics program. Examples of such programs include GIMP, Adobe Photoshop,

CorelDRAW, Pizap, Microsoft Publisher, Picasa, etc.

The use of a swatch is a palette of active colours that are selected and rearranged by the

preference of the user. A swatch may be used in a program or be part of the universal

palette on an operating system. It is used to change the colour of a text or image and in

video editing. Vector graphics animation can be described as a series of mathematical

transformations that are applied in sequence to one or more shapes in a scene. Raster

graphics animation works in a similar fashion to film-based animation, where a series of still

images produces the illusion of continuous movement.

This software enables the user to create illustrations, designs, logos, 3-dimensional images,

animation and pictures. Graphics software creates, edits, and manages two-dimensional

images. These computer graphics may be clip art, web graphics, logos, headings,

backgrounds, digital photos, or other kinds of digital images.

Common Applications

Common graphics editors include Photoshop, Illustrator, Paint Shop Pro, CorelDRAW, The

Apple Photos plugins from Macphun, Adobe Lightroom, Digital Image Suite, Canva, Picasa,

and related programs.

What Isn’t Graphics Software?

Software that people think of as graphics software, but isn’t, include programs that don’t

directly manipulate individual images. Page layout software such as InDesign, QuarkXpress,

and Publisher fall into that category. Likewise, presentation software such as PowerPoint or

Apple Keynote isn’t graphics programs. And in general, home publishing or creative printing

software doesn’t rise to the occasion, either.

What are the Types of Graphics Software?

The two main categories of graphics programs are pixel-based image editors and vector-

based image editors. In a nutshell, an image is either comprised of a series of small dots

(pixels) or a series of commands about how to draw an image (vectors). You’ll know the

difference between pixel- and vector-based images by zooming on them. If they zoom very

close without appearing fuzzy and blotchy, you’re working with a vector image.

Some of the categories of specialized tools for managing graphics include:

Publishing Software

• Publishing software, also known as desktop publishing software, can also combine

text and graphics but the tools in this breed of software are much more

sophisticated. Desktop publishing software offers tools for precise control over text

and graphics placement, leading, kerning, and some image editing functions. High-

end desktop publishing software has the power to handle layouts for books,

magazines, and other large publications.When desktop publishing software first

emerged, the only products available were expensive, high-end publishing packages.

More recently, the low-end desktop publishing market has exploded with products

intended for small businesses and home users (SOHO).

• High-End Publishing Software:

• SOHO Publishing Software:

• Adobe InDesign

• Corel VENTURA

• QuarkXPress

• Adobe PageMaker

• Microsoft Publisher

Illustration Software

• Illustration software, although not technically considered layout software, is also

beginning to incorporate more and more word processing and text manipulation

features. Many of the illustration programs have the ability to flow text, check

spelling and grammar, and adjust kerning and line spacing. It’s becoming more

common to use illustration software for page layout on smaller projects such as

postcards, greeting cards, brochures, business cards, letterhead and small booklets.

Illustration Software:

• Adobe Illustrator

• CorelDRAW

• Macromedia Freehand

Creative Printing Software

• Creative printing software is a market that has boomed recently as inkjet printers

have become more affordable. This software is especially designed for creating

greeting cards, postcards, business cards, signs, posters, t-shirt designs, and other

crafts.As with all page layout software, they allow you to combine text and graphics

in a single document, but the tools in this breed of software are often more

specialized. You probably won’t find tools to adjust line spacing and kerning… what

you will find are a number of fun, special effects such as curved and outlined text,

image shaping and distortion, and possibly some limited image editing functions.

• Creative Printing Software:

• Print Artist

• The Print Shop

• PrintMaster

• Microsoft PowerPoint

• Harvard Graphics

Presentation Software

Presentation software is designed for creating on-screen presentations, reports, overhead

transparencies, and slideshows. Like all the software mentioned above, it allows you to

combine both text and graphics in a single document, but the final output is not always

intended for printing.

Like creative printing software, presentation software offers limited text editing and

manipulation with an emphasis on special effects, and possibly some basic image editing

functions. Presentation software is unique in that you will almost always have functionality

for working with charts and graphs. Also, most of this type of software allows you to

incorporate multimedia into your documents.

Web Publishing Software

• Another development in recent years that is common among all the types of

software above, is the ability to publish your work on the Internet. Just about every

genre of software available today is adding built-in Internet tools. The low-end

software will have the basics such as sending your files through e-mail or creating

animated greetings; some may have basic Web page creation tools. The high-end

software will have more sophisticated Web publishing tools for exporting

to HTML or PDF (portable document format). And of course, there are many

dedicated Web publishing programs.As you can see, the lines that distinguish the

various types of layout software are beginning to blur. I hope this article has helped

you to understand the differences between them, and how they all fit in to the world

of graphics software.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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