AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019

aiou solved assignments

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8620 Autumn 2019 assignments 1 and 2    Computers in Education (8620) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019

Course: Computers in Education (8620)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Explain the characteristics of computer. Describe the categories of computer and their uses?
Answer:

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.
Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones.
Computers are powerful tools because they can process information with incredible speed, accuracy and dependability. They can efficiently perform input, process, output and storage operations, and they can store massive amounts of data.
Computers enable users to access information whenever necessary and to share information with other users. They allow people to use the Internet, which is a global network connecting millions of individuals, educational institutions, businesses and government agencies.
Through the Internet, users communicate with each other, search for helpful information, buy products and services, and access various types of entertainment. A widely used component of the Internet is the World Wide Web, which consists of numerous documents known as Web pages. These pages are composed of text, video, sound, graphics and other types of content.
Desktop computers typically comprise a system unit, input devices and output devices that fit on a table, whereas notebook computers are small, portable machines. Many people use desktop and notebook computers to access the Internet or accomplish tasks that require the use of application programs.
Computers that fit in the hand are called handheld computers. Midrange servers are bigger and more powerful than workstation computers. The quickest and most powerful type of computer is called a supercomputer. Another extremely efficient computer is the mainframe, which can simultaneously manage thousands of linked users.
Basic characteristics aboutÿcomputerÿare:

Speed: -ÿAs you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second.
Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nanosecond (10 to the power -9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work.ÿ

Accuracy: -ÿThe degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level isÿ7.
determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data.

Diligence: -ÿA computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.ÿÿ

Versatility: -ÿIt means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills.

Power of Remembering: -ÿComputer has the power of storing any amount ofÿinformationÿor data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.ÿÿ

No IQ: -ÿComputer is aÿdumb machineÿand it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.ÿ

No Feeling: -ÿIt does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.

Storage: -ÿThe Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondaryÿstorage devicesÿsuch as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.
Categories of computer and their uses:
Below you?ll find an extensive, descriptive list of the five types of computers, from supercomputers to mobile computers, and everything in between.
Supercomputers
A supercomputer is pretty much exactly what it sounds like. It?s a term used to describe computers that have the most capable processing power of its time.ÿEarly supercomputers in the 60s and 70s used just a couple processors, while the 90s saw supercomputers with thousands of processors at a time. Today, modern supercomputers runÿhundredsÿof thousands of processors, capable of computingÿquadrillions of calculationsÿin just a few nanoseconds. You probably won?t be needing that kind of power to access Facebook? Actually, supercomputers are used in computational science to calculate and carry outÿa plethora of complex tasks. Modeling molecular structures, weather forecasting, and the field of quantum mechanics, among others, rely on supercomputers and their intense processing power to solve their equations.
Mainframe Computers
Like supercomputers, mainframe computers are huge, towering machines with lots of processing power. Mainframe computers are mostly used byÿcorporations, government agencies,ÿand banks ? organizations that need a way to store large quantities of information. They are not the same as supercomputers. The processing capabilities of mainframe computers are measured in MIPS, or millions of instructions per second. Supercomputers, on the other hand, are measured in FLOPS, or floating point operations per seconds.
Minicomputers
A minicomputer is a multiprocessing machine that can support up to about 200 users at the same time. It?s like a less powerful mainframe computer, and is about the size of a refrigerator. A server can be an example of a minicomputer, but not all servers are minicomputers. Despite their name, a minicomputer isÿnotÿa personal computer like the desktop machine you might have at home or work. They are much larger than that. Because of the ways microcomputers ? which we?ll cover next ? have excelled in processing power even beyond minicomputers, and at a much smaller size, minicomputers have become pretty much obsolete.
Microcomputers
Microcomputers are the ones people are most familiar with on a daily, non-professional basis, but of course that doesn?t mean they?re exclusive to the home. Microcomputers are smaller computers that run on microprocessors in their central processing units. They are much,ÿmuchÿcheaper than supercomputers, mainframe computers and even minicomputers, because they?re meant for everyday uses that are more practical than professional. The range of capabilities for microcomputers are still vast, though. A film editor might use a microcomputer to run many intensive editing programs at once, while a studentÿmight use a microcomputer for Facebook and word processing. Need help with the basic functionality of microcomputers?
{===============}

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8620 Autumn 2019

Q.2 Explain how webpages use graphics, animations, audio, video and virtual reality?
Answer:

Some Web pages utilize interactive media, which consolidates content with illustrations, activity, sound, video, as well as virtual reality. A realistic is a computerized portrayal of nontext data, for example, an illustration, outline, or photograph. Liveliness is the presence of movement made by showing a progression of still pictures in arrangement. Sound incorporates music, discourse, or some other sound. Video comprises of full-movement pictures. Virtual reality (VR) is the utilization of PCs to mimic a situation that shows up as three-dimensional space. A module, or extra, is a program that stretches out a program’s ability to show sight and sound components.
Some Web pages use multimedia, which combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video, and/or virtual reality. A graphic is a digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photo. Animation is the appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in sequence. Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound. Video consists of full-motion images. Virtual reality (VR) is the use of computers to simulate an environment that appears as three-dimensional space. A plug-in, or add-on, is a program that extends a browser’s capability to display multimedia elements.
{===============}

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019

Q.3 Identify the widely used products and key feature of software applications?
Answer:

Application software is a program or group of programs designed for end users. These programs are divided into two classes: system software and application software. While system software consists of low-level programs that interact with computers at a basic level, application software resides above system software and includes applications such as database programs, word processors and spreadsheets.
Basic Software Application Types
Word Processing Software: Flexible Tool
If the pen is mightier than the sword, the word processor is even better. Word processors create text based documents. This set of software tools are most flexible and widely used. Word processors are used for creating memos, faxes and letters. Word processors are also used to create reports and personalized pages on the Web. Top 3 Word Processing Softwares:ÿMicrosoft Word, Lotus Word Pro and Corel WordPerfect Word processors provide numerous features making entering, editing and formatting written documents quick and precise.
Basic Features: Word Processing Software

Word processors have word wrap which move the insertion point to the next line when the current line is complete. This saves time and effort.

Editing precision and efficiency is also offered by this software. Consider the Thesaurus which provides synonyms, antonyms and related words for chosen word or phrase. Find and replace feature enables users to scan and replace selected words or phrases.

There are inbuilt spelling and grammar checkers which make it easy to locate words with spelling issues or capitalization, sentence structure or punctuation problems.

AutoCorrect feature can be used to make corrections in a thrice of a second. AutoText inserts words or sentences into the document at the exact point one wants.

AutoComplete even ensures the user does not even have to type the complete word to include it in the document.

If looks matter, can your word processor be far behind? Numerous features within the word processor can improve the format or appearance of any document in seconds. This includes font appearance, font size, character effects such as bold, italic, colors and shadow, alignment and lists.

Allowing multiple users to edit the same document using a feature called collaboration is another beneficial feature of word processors.

Another feature is tracking changes which lets you identify modifications to an original document made by others, whereby their changes and comments are visible.

Word processing software involves creation of text based documents which can be stored, edited and formatted with ease.

Additional word processing features include WordArt to modify titles, hyphens, columns and text boxes for critical information

Most word processing software also generates reports and comes equipped with tools to create figure captions, tables, headers, footers,endnotes and more.

For web pages, word processors include predefined templates, hypertext links and support for Web pages.
{===============}

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8620 Autumn 2019

Q.4 Enlist different modes of CAI. Develop a rational for the use of CAI in your educational institution.
Answer:

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), a program of instructional material presented by means of a computer or computer systems. The use of computers in education started in the 1960s. With the advent of convenient microcomputers in the 1970s, computer use in schools has become widespread from primary education through the university level and even in some preschool programs. Instructional computers are basically used in one of two ways: either they provide a straightforward presentation of data or they fill a tutorial role in which the student is tested on comprehension.
If the computer has a tutorial program, the student is asked a question by the computer; the student types in an answer and then gets an immediate response to the answer. If the answer is correct, the student is routed to more challenging problems; if the answer is incorrect, various computer messages will indicate the flaw in procedure, and the program will bypass more complicated questions until the student shows mastery in that area.
There are many advantages to using computers in educational instruction. They provide one-to-one interaction with a student, as well as an instantaneous response to the answers elicited, and allow students to proceed at their own pace. Computers are particularly useful in subjects that require drill, freeing teacher time from some classroom tasks so that a teacher can devote more time to individual students. A computer program can be used diagnostically, and, once a student?s problem has been identified, it can then focus on the problem area. Finally, because of the privacy and individual attention afforded by a computer, some students are relieved of the embarrassment of giving an incorrect answer publicly or of going more slowly through lessons than other classmates.
Typical CAI provides

text or multimedia content

multiple-choice questions

problems

immediate feedback

notes on incorrect responses

summarizes students’ performance

exercises for practice

Worksheets and tests.
Types of Computer Assisted Instruction

Drill-and-practiceÿDrill and practice provide opportunities or students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery.

TutorialÿTutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation.

GamesÿGame software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer.

SimulationÿSimulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks.

DiscoveryÿDiscovery approach provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze, compare, infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data.

Problem SolvingÿThis approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.
s established by the above review, computer
use has been applied experimentally at the preschool
level on a wide scope of skills and knowledge acqui-
sition. Results demonstrated a signi?cant contribu-
tion of computer use in the classroom as a learning
tool. Such use, however, should keep pace with the
development of children at preschool age. The CAI
programmes applied should be developmentally
appropriate to achieving speci?c learning goals; a
learning tool of any type would have little e?ect if the
objectives and plans of the lessons and means of
teaching are not developmentally appropriate.
Teachers and students should also keep in mind
that teaching through computers is an interactive
process and, consequently, has a positive e?ect on
learning. It is well known that children learn faster in
an interactively functioning learning environment.
This is probably the most important advantage of
computer use in the teaching process against tradi-
tional teaching.
Moreover, the use of computers as a teaching
tool allows children to learn at their own individual
pace. Upon achieving one level of knowledge they
can proceed to the next, which is not the case in
traditional teaching.
Also one should bear in mind the small size of
research samples, which will have a?ected the results
of the intervention programmes.
Evidently, the possibility of increasing children?s
attention spans is a matter that deserves concern gi-
ven the ?thorn?presented by the lack of attention in
children in everyday life, both in managing preschool
classes and elsewhere. If the computer lengthens their
attention span, then its broader use should be rec-
ommended.
The respective teacher?s capabilities to handle
such technology as a teaching tool have been a very
important factor. It is essential that educators should
be trained in the ability to apply new technologies
and to interact with the students during the learning
process. Attending training programmes and keeping
an open mind are the keys to a teacher?s success.
Additional research should be done on the
e?ectiveness of CAI in promoting early academic
skills in preschoolers. As the reviews of this study are
As established by the above review, computer
use has been applied experimentally at the preschool
level on a wide scope of skills and knowledge acqui-
sition. Results demonstrated a signi?cant contribu-
tion of computer use in the classroom as a learning
tool. Such use, however, should keep pace with the
development of children at preschool age. The CAI
programmes applied should be developmentally
appropriate to achieving speci?c learning goals; a
learning tool of any type would have little e?ect if the
objectives and plans of the lessons and means of
teaching are not developmentally appropriate.
Teachers and students should also keep in mind
that teaching through computers is an interactive
process and, consequently, has a positive e?ect on
learning. It is well known that children learn faster in
an interactively functioning learning environment.
This is probably the most important advantage of
computer use in the teaching process against tradi-
tional teaching.
Moreover, the use of computers as a teaching
tool allows children to learn at their own individual
pace. Upon achieving one level of knowledge they
can proceed to the next, which is not the case in
traditional teaching.
Also one should bear in mind the small size of
research samples, which will have a?ected the results
of the intervention programmes.
Evidently, the possibility of increasing children?s
attention spans is a matter that deserves concern gi-
ven the ?thorn?presented by the lack of attention in
children in everyday life, both in managing preschool
classes and elsewhere. If the computer lengthens their
attention span, then its broader use should be rec-
ommended.
The respective teacher?s capabilities to handle
such technology as a teaching tool have been a very
important factor. It is essential that educators should
be trained in the ability to apply new technologies
and to interact with the students during the learning
process. Attending training programmes and keeping
an open mind are the keys to a teacher?s success.
Additional research should be done on the
e?ectiveness of CAI in promoting early academic
skills in preschoolers. As the reviews of this study are
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8620,

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620

Q.5 How digitalizing table is used for creating images?
Answer:

A graphics tablet is a flat surfaces on which you draw with a stylus or a pen-like device. The tablet is attached to the computer and the stylus to the tablet. The tablets capture the image as data which is then stored as a file or document. Graphics tablets can be used like a large marker board to take notes on or to create outlines at a conference or lecture during which images have to be viewed by the audience. They can also be used by individuals as drawing surfaces to create drawings/ paintings, and edit images. The output is almost close to handmade sketches and drawings.

The tablet works by plugging into a computer via a USB port. A stylus is similarly attached to the tablet. When a user draws a line with the stylus, the drawing does not show up on the tablet. Instead the action generates a signal that goes to a vertical grid of wires running across the tablet.
Inÿtouchscreen tabletsÿ, the whole monitor becomes the writing surface and the user interacts directly with the display instead of drawing on one surface and viewing on another.

The pen may be battery-powered or may have a cord. When a user draw a line using the stylus, the coil circuit transfers the signals to the main circuit inside the stylus. This calculates the number of lines-lengths, while the pressure sensitive capacitor measures the pressure of the lines. The data signal is generated by the stylus and detected by a grid of wires in the tablet called the sensor board.

The horizontal and vertical wires of the tablet operate as both transmitting and receiving coils. the tablet generates an electromagnetic signal, which is received by a circuit in the stylus. the stylus works as an antenna that receives the signal and generates another electromagnetic field that “talks” back to the tablet.

By using electromagnetic signals, the tablet is able to transfer the lines to the computer screen or display being used.
Stylus effect:ÿThese tablets come with different levels of sensitivity to pressure applied on the surface by the digitiser pen or stylus. Applied pressure on the drawing surface of the graphics tablet gives a mark or line its thickness. Pressing the digitiser pen hard against the drawing surface will result in the line or mark being very dark. Lightly touching the pen to the surface of the graphic tablet will result in a lighter mark or line. With pressure sensitivity, the user experiences a more natural approach to drawing on a computer.
Sizes:ÿWacom tablets come in various sizes, with the smallest being 7.6 cm by 12.8 inches and the larger tablets having more than these dimensions. The price of a Wacom pen and tablet varies with the size.
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8620,

Drop Your Question:

comments

ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ

About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

View all posts by Tanveer →

5 Comments on “AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8620 Autumn 2019”

Apni Assignments Ka Code Yahan Likhein