AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn 2019

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8619 Autumn 2019 assignments 1 and 2   Educational Technology (8619) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn 2019

Course: Educational Technology (8619)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 If you have to teach at primary level, how you will incorporate the basis of educational technology into your teaching? Discuss.
Answer:

Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field. Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization. Educational technology as practice refers to any form of teaching and learning that makes use of technology. Nevertheless, there are a few features on which most researchers and practitioners might agree:

  1. Use of technology is principled: Technology means the systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks. Therefore, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge drawn from different disciplines (communication, education, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.
  2. Educational technology aims to improve education. Technology should facilitate learning processes and increase performance of the educational system(s) as it regards to effectiveness and/or efficiency.
    In this short introduction we will try to give a preliminary definition of the field.
    Other definitions
    Educational technology is a very wide field. Therefore one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting.
  • Technology means the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task. Therefore, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge from different disciplines (communication, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge from educational practise (Natalie Descryver)
  • Educational technology is the use of technology to improve education. It is a systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training used to improve performance. Educational technology is sometimes also known as instructional technology or learning technology. (Wikipedia:Educational_technology)
  • The study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.)
  • A definition centered on its process: “A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning”
  • “One definition of Educational Technology is that it is a systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training used to improve performance” (Encyclopedia of Educational Technology)
  • Lachance et al. (1980:183) also focus on the the process idea: la technologie éducative en tant que processus systématique intégrant les diverses fonctions du processus éducatif. Elle vise, d’une part, à analyser des problèmes reliés à l’enseignement et/ou à l’apprentissage et, d’autre part, à élaborer, implanter et évaluer des solutions à ces problèmes par le développement et l’exploitation des ressources éducatives (cited by Lapointe, 1991).
  • Educational Technology (Information Technology) according to International Technology Education Association

Teaches with technology (uses technology as a tool)

Primarily concerned with the narrow spectrum of information and communication technologies

Primary goal: To enhance the teaching and learning process
Concept and scope of eductional technology:
By scope of educational technology we mean the jurisdiction, the limits or the boundaries within which it works. It needs demarcation of the boundaries within which the process of education can go on. Being a fast growing modern discipline it is almost practical all through and is expanding with a tremendous speed, aiming at all- round development in the area of education. AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 ,
The scope of Educational Technology can be accessed from the following points:

Determination of Objectives:
Educational Technology provides different methods and techniques for writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms such as Bloom Taxonomy Magar’s Approach and RCEM Approach. The needs and requirements of the people and hence education need be revised from moment to moment. Educational technology helps in fixing-up the right objectives in the light of the changed circumstances and changed environment.
2. Improvement in Teaching Learning Process:
It helps in improving the teaching learning process and makes it more purposive. It tries to discuss the concept of teaching, analysis of teaching process, variables of teaching, phases and levels of teaching, principles of teaching, maxims of teaching and relationship between teaching and learning.
3. Development of Teaching Learning Material:
Teaching learning materials are also as important as anything else in the teaching learning process. In this age of science and technology, the materials of teaching cannot be unscientific.
Everything of the society including values of life need be reflected in the materials. Only right type of material will be able to modify the behaviour of the learner suitably making him a fit person for the society.
4. Improvement in Teaching Training:
The change of environment with ne curriculum and new materials need be handled by the teachers. The teachers equipped with old strategies and methodologies of teaching will remain misfits.
Right type of training to the teachers is the need of the hour. Educational Technology can render its valuable help in the training of teachers also. The use of video tapes and close circuit T.V. will help the teachers to remodel and reshape their teaching behaviours suitably.
It includes micro teaching, simulated teaching, term-teaching, teacher effectiveness, modification of teacher-behaviour, class-room interaction and interaction analysis, etc.
Need of educational technology in primary level:
Educational technology is a field of study that investigates the process of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the instructional environment and learning materials in order to improve teaching and learning. It is important to keep in mind that the purpose of educational technology (also referred to as instructional technology) is to improve education. We must define the goals and needs of education first and then we use all our knowledge, including technology, to design the most effective learning environment for students.
Instructional technology can also be seen as a process of solving educational problems and concerns, which might include motivation, discipline, the drop-out rate, school violence, basic skills, critical thinking, and the whole list of educational concerns. First, the problem is identified, an analysis of the factors of the problem is made, and possible solutions to the problem are presented. Then, the student population and the curriculum are analyzed. The next step is to select the most appropriate instructional strategies for the particular situation. Next, instructional materials and resources are selected that are suitable for the curriculum and the mode of instruction chosen. Finally, the program is implemented, evaluated, and revised as needed in order to meet the stated goals for school improvement.
The learning materials today have greatly expanded because of the various technological advances. Instructional materials include more conventional materials, such as the blackboard, overhead projectors, televisions, VCRs, overhead projectors, slide projectors, and opaque projectors, as well as newer materials, such as the computer, various software applications, LCD projectors, camcorders, digital cameras, scanners, the Internet, satellite, interactive TV, audio and video conferencing, artificial intelligence, and so on.
Teachers in the public schools and faculty at universities need to understand what types of materials are available, how to use them, why they should be used, when they should be used, and how to integrate them into the teaching/learning environment in order to meet the ultimate goal of improving education. Teachers also need to seriously consider how these newer materials can affect what and how we learn and teach.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8619 Autumn 2019

Q.2 Discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
Answer:

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization.
Deficiency needs vs. growth needs
This five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).
Deficiency needs arise due to deprivation and are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the motivation to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become.
Maslow (1943) initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a needs is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges” (1987, p. 69).
When a deficit need has been ‘more or less’ satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged.
Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.
Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of a job, may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.
Therefore, not everyone will move through the hierarchy in a uni-directional manner but may move back and forth between the different types of needs.
The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes:
Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.
1. Physiological needs – these are biological requirements for human survival, e.g. air, food, drink, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.
If these needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally. Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs – after physiological and safety needs have been fulfilled, the third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. The need for interpersonal relationships motivates behavior
Examples include friendship, intimacy, trust, and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).
4. Esteem needs – which Maslow classified into two categories: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (ii) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).
Maslow indicated that the need for respect or reputation is most important for children and adolescents and precedes real self-esteem or dignity.
5. Self-actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. A desire “to become everything one is capable of becoming”(Maslow, 1987, p. 64).
Maslow posited that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy:
“It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled?
At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency” (Maslow, 1943, p. 375).
Maslow continued to refine his theory based on the concept of a hierarchy of needs over several decades (Maslow, 1943, 1962, 1987).
Regarding the structure of his hierarchy, Maslow (1987) proposed that the order in the hierarchy “is not nearly as rigid” (p. 68) as he may have implied in his earlier description.
Maslow noted that the order of needs might be flexible based on external circumstances or individual differences. For example, he notes that for some individuals, the need for self-esteem is more important than the need for love. For others, the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs.
Maslow (1987) also pointed out that most behavior is multi-motivated and noted that “any behavior tends to be determined by several or all of the basic needs simultaneously rather than by only one of them” (p. 71).
Hierarchy of needs summary
(a) human beings are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.
(b) needs are organized in a hierarchy of prepotency in which more basic needs must be more or less met (rather than all or none) prior to higher needs.
(c) the order of needs is not rigid but instead may be flexible based on external circumstances or individual differences.
(d) most behavior is multi-motivated, that is, simultaneously determined by more than one basic need.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8619 Autumn 2019

Q.3 Discuss theories of learning? How can learning theories play an important role in learning?
Answer:

Learning theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire, retain, and recall knowledge. By studying and knowing the different learning theories, we can better understand how learning occurs. The principles of the theories can be used as guidelines to help select instructional tools, techniques and strategies that promote learning.
Behaviorism
Behaviorism stems from the work of B.F. Skinner and the concept of operant conditioning. Behaviorism theorists believe that knowledge exists independently and outside of people. They view the learner as a blank slate who must be provided the experience. Behaviorists believe that learning actually occurs when new behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and responses. Thus, association leads to a change in behavior.
Learning process
The learning process is based on objectively observable changes in behavior. Behavior theorists define learning simply as the acquisition of a new behavior or change in behavior. The theory is that learning begins when a cue or stimulus from the environment is presented and the learner reacts to the stimulus with some type of response. Consequences that reinforce the desired behavior are arranged to follow the desired behavior (e.g. study for a test and get a good grade). The new behavioral pattern can be repeated so it becomes automatic. The change in behavior of the learner signifies that learning has occurred. Teachers use Behaviorism when they reward or punish student behaviors.
Examples and applications of behaviorist learning theory:

  • Drill / Rote work
  • Repetitive practice
  • Bonus points (providing an incentive to do more)
  • Participation points (providing an incentive to
  • participate)
  • Verbal Reinforcement (saying “good job”)
  • Establishing Rules
    Unfortunately, Behaviorism instruction does not prepare the learner for problem solving or creative thinking. Learners do what they are told and do not take the initiative to change or improve things. The learner is only prepared for recall of basic facts, automatic responses or performing tasks.
    Cognitive Information Processing
    (Cognitivism)
    Cognitive information processing is based on the thought process behind the behavior. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli (i.e. that think about what is happening). The changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indictor to what is going on in the learner’s head. The learner’s mind is like a mirror from which new knowledge and skills will be reflected.
    Cognitive information processing is used when the learner plays an active role in seeking ways to understand and process information that he or she receives and relate it to what is already known and stored within memory. Cognitive learning theories are credited to Jean Piaget.
    Learning process
    Cognitive learning theorists believe learning occurs through internal processing of information. Unlike behaviorism, cognitive information processing is governed by an internal process rather than by external circumstance. The cognitive approach to learning theory pays more attention to what goes on inside the learner’s head and focuses on mental processes rather than observable behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner’s mind.
    Learning involves the reorganization of experiences, either by attaining new insights or changing old ones. Thus, learning is a change in knowledge which is stored in memory, and not just a change in behavior. Examples and applications of cognitive learning theory:
  • Classifying or chunking information
  • Linking Concepts (associate new content with something known)
  • Providing Structure (organizing your lecture in efficient and meaningful ways)
  • Real world examples
  • Discussions
  • Problem solving
  • Analogies
  • Imagery / providing pictures
  • Mnemonics

Constructivism
Constructivism is based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, based on individual experiences and internal knowledge. Learning is based on how the individual interprets and creates the meaning of his or her experiences. Knowledge is constructed by the learner and since everyone has a different set of experiences and perceptions, learning is unique and different for each person.
Learning Process
Constructivist theorists believe that learning is a process where individuals construct new ideas or concepts based on prior knowledge and/or experience. Each of us generates our own mental models, which we use to make sense of our experiences. We resolve conflicts between ideas and reflect on theoretical explanations. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate our new experiences. This theory is used to focus on preparing people to problem solve. Therefore, to be successful, the learner needs a significant base of knowledge upon which to interpret and create ideas. Additionally, with Constructivism, outcomes are not always predictable because learners are constructing their own knowledge. Thus Constructivism does not work when the results always need to be consistent. Examples and applications constructivism:

  • Case studies
  • Research Projects
  • Problem based learning
  • Brainstorming
  • Collaborative learning / group work
  • Discovery learning
  • Simulations
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 Autumn 2019

Q.4 Discuss the hierarchy of objectives? Also differentitate between general and specific objectives? Give examples in support of your answer.
Answer:

The hierarchy of objectives is a tool that helps analyze and communicate the project objectives. It organizes these objectives into different levels of a hierarchy or tree. Different organizations use different names for the various levels and the types of objectives at each level, but otherwise there is a great deal of similarity in approach. This approach organizes objectives into three broad levels:

  • Policy
  • Strategic, and
  • Operational.
    In general, these levels correspond to the top, middle, and working levels of management in an organization. Broad, general objectives, some people call them “goals”, that policymakers deal with, for example: “improve economic growth”, fall into the top level and are called “policy objectives”. Objectives that are narrower in scope, such as “increase literacy for teenage girls”, fall into the middle level and are called “strategic objectives”. Objectives that relate directly to a project’s deliverables fall into the operational level and are called “project objectives”. Objectives that relate to project inputs, i.e. what is needed to make a project function, are also considered operational and are called “input objectives”. Operational objectives are usually the concern of working management, including project managers.
    Figure 1 shows an example of a hierarchy of objectives for an electric power plant. As shown, the hierarchy has four types of objectives: policy, strategic, project, and input and they are grouped into three levels: policy, strategic, and operational.

Figure 1
Policy Objective: The overall policy objective is to “Increase industrial production”. We then ask: How is this to be accomplished? That brings us to the next lower objective, the strategic objective.
Strategic Objective: One way that the country is trying to increase industrial production, the policy objective, is by producing “50 KW of electric power”. This is the strategic objective for the project. Of course, there may be other strategic objectives and additional projects that also support the overall policy objective. Again we ask: “How is the 50 KW of electric power to be obtained?” The answer takes us to the next lower level of objective in the hierarchy, i.e. the project objective.
Project Objective: The project objective in most cases is the same as the deliverable for the project. In this case, it is to “Build a new power plant.” Asking: “How is the power plant to be built?”, again takes us to the next lower level of objective, the input objective.
Input Objective: The input objectives relate primarily to the resources and conditions that are required to accomplish the project. For the power project, they consist of a “$10 million contract, land for the power plant, and necessary labor” as well as expertise
Differentitate between general and specific objectives:
Major difference between general objectives and specific objectives is that a general objective is a statement of the trend of the learning activity that describes the general orientation of a learning curriculum. A specific objective also defines the trend of the learning activity, but it is formulated in terms of observable behaviors. The general objective is the first level of specification derived from an aim.
Specific objective are usually expressed in terms of the student, and they are unequivocal, which means that they are expressed clearly and have only one interpretation. They also only describe behaviors that can be observed in the subject. UNESCO also indicates that specific objectives detail the unique conditions for the manifestation of certain behaviors and the criteria that must be met to determine whether the objective has been attained.
An example of a general objective is, “To make the student of information science capable of identifying the needs of users of a particular documentation system.” A specific objective derived from this general objective is, “The student must be able to identify different types of documentary information networks.” From these examples, it is evident that specific objectives are usually derived from general objectives.
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Q.5 Define motivation. Also discuss the methods of motivation which make the teaching learning process more effective and efficient.
Answer:

Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, willingness and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive in the English language which is defined as a need that requires satisfaction. These needs could also be wants or desires that are acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, etc. or generally innate. Motivation is one’s direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour, a set of force that acts behind the motives. An individual’s motivation may be inspired by others or events (extrinsic motivation) or it may come from within the individual (intrinsic motivation). Motivation has been considered as one of the most important reasons that inspires a person to move forward in life. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement e.g. in the worlds of elite sport, medicine or music. AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 ,
Methods of motivation which make the teaching learning process more effective and efficient:
Teachers spend years of hard work and thousands of dollars to become experts in their content areas, with degrees and teaching certification to prove it. We develop curriculum maps and teaching calendars to be sure to cover the appropriate standards. We endure hours of professional development so that we are well versed in all the current educational pedagogy. We collaborate with colleagues so that we are all using best practices in the classroom. We develop assessments for students so that we can track their progress. When all this doesn’t work, we have intentional interventions aimed at getting students back on track.
And students are still failing.
The problem is that many students are not motivated to learn. Even with the perfect lesson plan in place, an unmotivated student will not learn. Some teachers claim that motivating students is not their job. It is a teacher’s job to know the content and to teach it well; the student must take responsibility for his or her learning and find his or her own motivation. This old-fashioned idea is what limits many teachers to being average. A great teacher recognizes that student motivation is necessary for success in learning and that teachers are in the perfect position to improve student motivation. Here are some strategies that can be used in the classroom to help motivate students:

  1. Promote growth mindset over fixed mindset.
    In her book, Mindset, Carol Dweck argues that students have an underlying belief about learning: either a fixed mindset or a growth mindset. A fixed mindset belief suggests that people are born with or without certain abilities and talents, and that abilities cannot be changed. Fixed mindset learners try to prove themselves and will often shy away from challenges because they do not want to appear to be struggling. A growth mindset learner, on the other hand, believes that abilities and talents can be cultivated and improved through hard work. Growth mindset students enjoy a challenge and see struggles and failures as necessary parts of growth. Learners with a growth mindset are certainly more motivated to work hard.
    How do we foster a growth mindset in the classroom?
    One of the most powerful elements of feedback for our learners is to praise them for their efforts and hard work. “I can tell that you have been practicing your reading,” or “The practice is paying off on your times tables,” tells learners that they have the power to improve their academic success. That said, we must stop praising ability: “Wow, you are such a smart math student,” or “You are such an incredible reader.” Praise for abilities over efforts reinforces the fixed mindset that students have the ability or they don’t and no amount of hard work on the learner’s part can change the outcome. We are all learners, and should be encouraged as such.
    Throughout a learning cycle, teachers assess student progress by incorporating formative and summative assessments. The purpose of formative assessment is to pinpoint the learning needed for ultimate success on a later summative assessment. Formative assessment informs teachers and students about student and classroom needs for improvement so both can act accordingly to improve performance on the final assessment. Some formative assessments are: a thumbs up/thumbs down check for understanding, a quiz in small groups, or an exit slip at the end of a lesson. What is important is that students get timely and descriptive feedback from the assessment so that they can move forward in their learning. This cycle of learning will improve results on a later summative assessment.
    As teachers, we can model the growth mindset. Have courage! Ask students for feedback about your teaching and be willing to make necessary changes. Be dedicated! Work hard for students and share how hard work and dedication translates to success and growth. This feedback shows that we, too, are learners. It also invites our students to continue on the learning journey alongside us. Students are always willing to work hard for a teacher that is reciprocating that hard work.
  2. Develop meaningful and respectful relationships with your students.
    If we are going to truly inspire and motivate all of our students, we should know each of them on a personal level. We need to know their interests and hobbies, who they hang out with, their family situations, and what gets them excited. Each student is going to require different motivational strategies, and we have to know them to be able to predict what strategies might work.
    In order to begin that “knowing,” try allowing for five minutes where students may share “Good News.” For example, student A shares, “I am a new uncle! My sister had a new baby boy this weekend!” This is an opportunity for us to learn about our students as people and to let them know that we care about them individually. This also provides an avenue for teachers to share some details about their lives outside of school. When teachers are willing to share personally and become vulnerable, students are more likely to do the same. When learners see one another as whole people, they are more willing to take risks, and ask the questions they need to ask in order to obtain success.
    We all learn differently. In each classroom several types of learners exist: visual, tactile, verbal and more reserved. We can see it as our responsibility to discover this by knowing them and endeavor to teach them accordingly. This work results in our ability to know our students which leads to a more cohesive, open learning community.
  3. Grow a community of learners in your classroom.
    Students need a classroom environment that is safe, where they are willing to take risks and struggle. To achieve this goal, the students and teacher must work together towards common collective goals. Students must be willing to work with and assist other students in class. Struggle should be acceptable and encouraged as a part of the learning process.
    Traditional teaching consists of teachers lecturing and learners taking notes, followed by the learners doing independent work to check for understanding. Transforming this outdated model to include more time where students are talking to students brings about true community. Collaborative group work should be the activity between the teacher lecture and the independent work. This is the time when students can digest information and ask questions collectively. Learners participate in what could be considered the “problem solving” phase of their development with new ideas, and together they come to new learnings. This gradual release of responsibility from teacher to student encourages deeper understanding of lesson rather than rote memorization; thus the students are participants in their own learning, rather than witnesses to the instructor’s knowledge.
    Student work should be proudly displayed throughout the classroom. This sends a message to students that they are active participants in creating the knowledge in the classroom. The teacher is not the sole holder of knowledge. Additionally, teachers can use language that promotes the community of learners – including the teacher – rather than a room full of individual learners. Using the words “we” and “our” rather than “I” and “you” has a significant impact on classroom culture, and how students function as interdependent learners.
  4. Establish high expectations and establish clear goals.
    Setting high expectations and supporting students as they struggle allows learners to rise to meet those expectations. When expectations are transparent, students know where their learning is headed and are motivated to get there because it seems possible: the path is visible. Working towards daily, weekly, and yearly goals gives students a purpose and a meaning for the hard work that they do.
    Daily learning goals (learning targets, or “I can” statements) should be posted, visible and referenced on a daily basis. Establishing the “goal of the day” at the start of the lesson gives students a purpose for their learning. Students can also formatively assess themselves at the end of each lesson by checking to be sure they have met the learning goals.
    Maintaining high expectations for academics is tantamount to learning, but high standards for behavior, academic language, group work, and even the length and format of individual work is also necessary for deep learning. We cannot assume that students know these expectations. They must be clearly outlined. If we expect students to interact in a certain way together, we need to teach them how, and hold them accountable. If we want an assignment displayed in a certain format, we need to model it and expect it. Once the routines to support expectations are established and clear to the learning community, learning becomes the most important action in the classroom.
  5. Be inspirational.
    Most adults can recall a specific teacher from their childhood who had a lasting impact. These are the teachers that have inspired, challenged, and motivated students enough to be memorable years later.
    What makes these teachers inspirational?
    Inspirational teachers represent success to their students. Teacher success might be: completing a 10K race, owning a small business, or receiving a teaching award. We each have successes to share. Through our triumphs, students can learn what success looks like and go after it. Once our students decide that they want success, they pay close attention to the behaviors and choices and even sacrifices that led us to our success. These behaviors include hard work, willingness to struggle, and ability to learn from our mistakes. Students internalize our behaviors and strategies as a way to accomplish their own goals.
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Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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