AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8616 Autumn 2019

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8616 Autumn 2019 assignments 1 and 2 School Administration and Supervision (8616) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8616 Autumn 2019

Course: School Administration and Supervision (8616)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Define administration and school administration. Elaborate different levels of administration with reference to an educational institution?
Answer:

Educational administration is the study and practice of managing the resources, tasks and communications involved in running a school. The goal of the administrator is to keep the school’s overall process flowing smoothly, making decisions that facilitate successful education. The administrator identifies and articulates a school’s mission and goals and makes them happen by implementing programs, delegating tasks and allocating resources.
Meaning of Educational Administration
Educational Administration is a discipline within the study of education that examines the administrative theory and practice of education in general and educational institutions and educators in particular. The field ideally distinguishes itself from administration and management through its adherence to guiding principles of educational philosophy.
The concept of educational administration may not be totally different from what we are familiar with in the concept of administration. Education at different levels has its objectives, the most important of the objectives that cut across all the levels of education is teaching and learning. It is the function of the school to produce educated and enlightened human beings who would be able to contribute positively to the development of the society. This formed the opinion of Olaniyi (2000) who describes school as a social institution which does not exist in a vacuum. He said further that a school is a micro-community, existing within a macro community to mould the habits, interest, attitudes and feelings of children and transmit from one generation to another. The school also comprises certain personnel i.e. teaching and non-teaching staff as well as the students. These human resources in the school work with some materials, such as instructional materials, equipment, and financial resources in order to achieve the objectives of the school.
Administration is very germane to the realization of the school?s objectives ? indeed, the success of the school system depends largely on the administration of the school it handled.
The teachers, students, non-teaching staff and resources must be efficiently arranged, monitored and controlled, so that they would work harmoniously according to (educational plan). Even the National Policy on Education emphasizes the success of the entire educational system on proper planning, efficient administration and adequate funding. School administration is the process by which principles, methods and practices of administration are applied in educational institutions to establish, maintain and develop such institutions in line with the goals of the institutions. Akinwumi & Jayeoba (2004) define school administration as the scientific organization of human and material resources and programs available for education and using them systematically and meticulously to achieve educational goals.
Basically, educational administration implies the arrangement of the human and material resources and program available for education and carefully using them systematically for the achievement of educational objectives.
Thus educational administrator, whether in the ministry of education, the schools board, or in a school is essentially theÿorganizer, the implementer of plans, policies and program meant for achieving specific educational objectives. The educational administrator may contribute, one way or the other, in planning, policy?making and program designing, yet his major role rests with the effective and efficient implementation of such plans, policies and program for the benefit of education. Viewed from this angle, educational administration is concerned with organization and implementation ? it may be categorized under broad areas of:

  • Planning and Policy
  • Implementation
    ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Although such a categorization is essentially arbitrary and broad and these aspects of management are closely tied, inseparable and inductive, it is possible to separate the functions of administration from that of planning and policy?making in education. For example the administrator is concerned with formulating general plans and policies for education.
    Different levels of administration with reference to an educational institution
    Within TimeClick there are several different levels of administration that allow you to spread the work of administering TimeClick across different departments. Note that all three levels of administration are accessible with a unique administrative password. Having multiple admin users makes it easier to split the work among others and ensures the proper tasks are assigned to the appropriate administrator. Each of the three administration modes can be open on any of the TimeClick computers by clicking the administration button, choosing the administration mode you would like to enter and then typing the password.
    The first option is the main administration mode. This administrator will have access to everything in the time tracking system. This is where you will add and edit employees? records, modify times, view reports, set preferences, and manage your accruals.
    Next, you have the Level 2 ? Restricted Administration mode. This will allow anyone with the appropriate password to view reports and/or modify times if the main administrator ÿallows them to do so. By default, the Level 2 administration is only able to view reports in TimeClick. You can, however, allow them to modify times by going into the main administration mode, selecting preferences then password and misc controls and then check the box that reads allow level 2 and department supervisors to modify times.
    Last, there is a Department Supervisor administration level. Again, like a level 2 administration you can allow department heads the ability to just run reports or to modify times as well. In order to allow a department supervisor these administrative capabilities, you will first need to create the department, and then set them up as a department supervisor in the administration mode under Departments. After you?ve assigned an employee to be a department supervisor they will be able to access reports and modify times for employees listed within their department. The department supervisor(s) will be able to use their employee password to log in to this restricted area.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8616 Autumn 2019

Q.2 What are the school head?s responsibilities as an administrator? Visit any Secondary School and with the consultation of head teacher prepare a list of school records maintained in a school?
Answer:

Today, education has never been more important. The time is now to place leaders into schools districts that are passionate about children and the education they receive. School administrators embrace the extremely important role of ensuring the system is operating effectively and efficiently. Those placed in administration roles, such as a principal, dean, or head master; demonstrate a high level of excellent in every realm within education.
Common roles of administrators are to ensure all schools, teachers, counselors, are collaborating towards a common goal while improving standards and opportunities. Together, with proper leadership, school systems can meet goals set forth by school boards and foster students that are highly educated and prepared for their futures.
Administration has exciting leadership opportunities, which often play large roles in forming curriculums, goals, budgets, timelines, state regulations, mandated testing, as well as performance measures to ensure all educators are able to meet personal and professional goals. Together, administrators and faculty will carve a path to success for all.
Successful administrators form distinguished teams to support the goals and aspirations of students. With the assistance of vice principles, goals can be further achieved with greater outcome and acceptance.
Administrators often learn techniques to relate to children of all ages, of all backgrounds. Having the capability to relate to children is not only essential to administrators, but also vital to the overall success of school districts and standardized testing. School districts must regulate per guidelines set forth at local, state and federal levels. Administrators must remain active in continuing education programs, often returning to leadership programs such as a doctoral degree. A master?s degree is generally earned prior to entering an administrators role but this depends greatly on the school district and demand for administrators.
Administrators are leaders who take pride in their strategic planning, tremendous support in every sector, respect for the education system, including faculty, students, parents, and school board members. Often admin professionals are managing multiple situations at once and unlike teachers, work year round. Duties of an administrator are commonly budgets and proper allocation of funds to produce outstanding scholars to reach their highest potential.
Educational Administration:
As we know the very fact that educational administration needs integration and co-ordination of all the physical and human resources and educational elements. Besides this it requires a great efficiency with it based on human sympathy, understanding, knowledge and skill. The physical resources mainly contribute building equipment?s and instructional materials.
The human resources include pupils, teachers, supervisors, administrators and parents. The additional elements comprise the various aspects of educational theory and practice including philosophy of education, objectives of education, curriculum, method of teaching, discipline, role of the teacher, rules and regulations etc.
These elements are ?parts, made into whole? and are components brought into harmonious relationship. So the purpose of doing such vital task is to fulfill different purposes which are known as the objectives of educational administration.
These are:
1.ÿTo provide proper education to students:
This objective seeks to mention the fact that good education doesn?t mean education at a very high cost as is practiced in modern public schools. Rather it means the right type of education from the right type of teachers within reasonable cost. This objective also implies quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement of education.

  1. To Ensure Adequate Utilization Of All Resources:
    For adequate realization of the various purposes of educational programme there is the need of ensuring adequate utilization of all available resources-human, material and financial.
    3.ÿTo Ensure Professional Ethics And Professional Development Among Teachers:
    As teachers are the senior and mature human elements to accelerate the programme in time their role is highly felt in this regard. They are to be encouraged and given the facility to devise and try out innovative ideas on instruction and to participate in service education programmes. In this context, it can be visualized that educational administration should aim at developing a desire for hard work, dedication and commitment for their job among teachers.
  2. To organize educational programmes for acquainting students with the art of democratic living and giving them excellent training in democratic citizenship.
    5.ÿTo mobilize the community:
    Like general administration, educational administration seeks to maintain and improve the relations with the community. For this it should seek community support and co-operation for quantitative expansion, qualitative improvements, smooth and fair examination in the educational system.
  3. To organize co-curricular activities effectively for developing talents of students and work efficiency of educational teachers.
    7.ÿTo get the work done:
    The most important objective of administration is to get the work done effectively, efficiently and with satisfaction to the individuals and benefits to the society.
  4. To prepare students for taking their places in various vocations and avenues of life.
  5. To train the students in developing scientific attitude and objective outlook among them towards all aspects and activities of life.
    10.ÿTo ensure qualitative improvement of education:
    Good education can be provided to students by bringing qualitative improvement in instruction. Regular supervision of teaching and guidance of teachers help to ensure quality teaching in schools.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8616 Autumn 2019

Q.3 It is important to identify the task areas of the educational administrator. What are the main task areas of educational administration?
Answer:

Educational Management is a multi-faced activity. It is a social process that is designed to ensure co-operation participation, intervention and involvement of others in the effective achievement of given or determined objectives.
Management, being a social process, lays its major emphasis on the interaction of people-people, mar inside and outside the institutions and people above and below one?s operational position. Thereto% aims and objectives of educational management have to be understand from the above dimension,
Several attempts have been made byÿEarly Childhood Education Trainingÿto define aims and objectives of educational management different terms. Broadly the objectives:

To define the functions of the school.

To plan for the future and arrange the plan of operation.

To organize/build up the material and human resources required for proper running of the school

To command the staff both teaching and non-teaching to do their work efficiently

To co-ordinate the functions of various human elements and correlate all the activities.

To control and to ensure everything is done in accordance with the rules which have been down and the instructions which have been given.

To create environment and facilities for educational research etc
Functions of Educational Management/Administration
There are seven clearly defined functions of educational management which throw more light on viz. planning, organization, direction, control, co-ordination, evaluation and reporting. There are seven clearly defined functions of educational management which throw more believe it viz. planning, organization, direction, control, co-ordination, evaluation and reporting.
Planning
Planning is the crucial step in the educational management. An unplanned management/administration will not go very far. Only a planned approach can achieve the desired. Planning should precede every performance.
Organisation
It is the fundamental task in every administration. Organization is the machine for getting thing done. It mainly concerned with provision, arrangement, and manpower, which enable the administration to carry out its functions. In fact administration works through the available organization.
Direction
It is the process of guiding the human efforts and achieving aims/objectives. Direction represents leadership; which has a key role to play in administrative. This is the authority, which direct thing done direction shows the way. It channelizes the entire organization towards the common goal.
In administration there is always the involvement of number of persons,. Different functionaries of the machinery are made to pursue the common goal by proper control failing which they pull in different directions.
Co-ordination
It is the process of harmonizing in a uniform way all the elements-the persons, materials and services so as to interweave them to achieve a common objective. For this purpose the management should clearly define (1) division of labour (2) allocation of tasks and control & supervision over the Die human or material elements and establishing good rapport/relationship between them.
Evaluation
It is the process of formulating judgment i.e. stocktaking of an administration. Since administration is a dynamic process, it has to be reviewed from time to time examining the extent to which objectives have been achieved, and reasons for failures Proper evaluation enable the management to understand its own strengths and weaknesses and planning for introduction of better techniques or discovery of new knowledge or processes.
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8616 Autumn 2019

Q.4 Explain the central bodies of educational administration that play important role in administration.
Answer:

An education system with government as the major investor and social partners as co-investors. In current stage, local government is playing a key role in compulsory education, while central and provincial government are dominant in higher education. In occupational and adult education, social partners including industrial organizations, businesses and public institutions are playing a more and more important role. Ministry of Education of PRC is the supreme education administration body in China, which is responsible for carrying out related laws, regulations, guidelines and policies of the central government; planning development of education sector; integrating and coordinating educational initiatives and programs nationwide; maneuvering and guiding education reform countrywide.
Since 1978, Chinese government has promulgated such codes as Degree Statute of the People’s Republic of China, Law of Compulsory Education of the People’s Republic of China, Law of Teachers of the People’s Republic of China, Law of Protection over Juveniles of the People’s Republic of China, Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, Statute for Teacher’s Eligibility and Law of Higher education of the People’s Republic of China, and released more than ten sets of education administration regulations. The Ministry of Education, within its jurisdiction, has issued more than 200 sets of administrative rules and regulations, significantly facilitating development of education of different natures.
With regard to education budget, financial allocation is still the major source, while multiple fund channels have been opened up. At present, fund needed by schools directly controlled by the central government comes from the central financial pool; schools controlled by local governments are supported by local finance; schools sponsored by township and villageship governments and by public institutions are mainly financed by the sponsor institutions and subsidized by local governments; funds needed by schools operated by social partners and celebrities are raised by the sponsors themselves (including collecting tuition from students and soliciting contributions). In addition to these sources, the central government is advocating work-study programs, aiming at improving the education conditions through premium services.
Education administrators are employed in universities and colleges, schools, preschools, and daycare centres. They manage routine activities and provide instructional leadership at these institutions. They may also be employed at businesses, museums, correctional facilities, and community service organizations to direct their educational programs.
What does an Education Administrator do?
School administrators work in every level of education. They may direct programming, hire and supervise staff, manage budgets, and make decisions that affect the academic community. They are also in charge of developing a direction and mission for the facility at which they work.
The actual specific job functions for an education administrator will vary depending on the institution of employment. For schools, this job is usually the role of aÿprincipalÿor assistant principal. For private schools and businesses, the job may be as a director of programs or head master. Libraries and museums often employ administrators as instruction coordinators. For colleges and universities, education administrators are employed at all levels of the management structure ? as admissions officers, department heads, and as deans and provosts.
Making policies and procedures and setting educational aims and standards is the responsibility of an education administrator. They act as a supervisor for managers and support other faculty, such asÿlibrarians, coaches,ÿteachers, and aids. In small organizations, such as a daycare, there may be only one administrator in charge of all these duties. At larger institutions, such as universities or large school systems, several administrators share the workload, each having a specific responsibility. Education administrator’s responsibilities include:

handling relations with parents, students, employers, and the community

managing budgets and ensuring financial systems are followed

overseeing record-keeping

managing student services such as guidance programs

training, supervising, and motivating faculty including teachers and auxiliary staff

working on committees including academic boards, governing bodies and task groups

assisting with recruitment, public or alumni relations and marketing activities

providing administrative support to an academic team of lecturers, tutors or teachers

drafting and interpreting regulations and dealing with queries and complaints procedures

maintaining high levels of quality assurance, including course evaluation and course approval procedures

contributing to policy and planning

purchasing goods and equipment, as required, and processing invoices

liaising with partner institutions, other institutions, external agencies, government departments and prospective students

organizing and facilitating a variety of educational or social activities
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8616

Q.5 What is the difference between the administrative structure of public/government and private schools? Explain the functions of an educational administrative office.
Answer:
Which is better: Private school orÿpublic school? It’s a question many parents ask as they consider where their children should go to school. There are generally six factors for a family to consider when determining which is right for them.ÿ

  1. FACILITIES
    Many public school facilities areÿimpressive; others are mediocre. The same is true of private schools. Private school facilities reflect the success of the school’s development team and that of the school to continue to generate financial support from parents and alumni.
    Some private K-12 schools have facilities and amenities which surpass those found at many colleges and universities.ÿHotchkissÿand Andover, for example, have libraries and athletic facilities on a par with those atÿBrownÿandÿCornell. They also offer academic and sports programs which make full use of all those resources. It is hard to find comparable facilities in the public sector. They are few and far between.
    Public schools also reflect the economic realities of their location. Wealthy suburban schools will have more amenities than inner-city schools as a rule. Think Greenwich, Connecticut versus Detroit, Michigan, for example. The most important factor to consider is, what does your child need to succeed? If your son is an aspiring football player, than a school with great athletic facilities and coaching staffs will be a top priority.ÿ
  2. CLASS SIZE
    According to the NCES report,ÿPrivate Schools: A Brief Portrait,ÿprivate schools win out on this issue. Why? Most private schools have smaller class sizes. One of the key points of private education is individual attention. You need student/teacher ratios of 15:1 or better to achieve that goal of individual attention. Many private schools boast class sizes of 10-15 students with 7:1 student-teacher ratios. On the other hand, a public system is a challenge that private schools don’t: they have to enroll almost anyone who lives within its boundaries. In public schools you will generally find much larger class sizes, sometimes exceeding 35-40 students in some inner city schools. If the teacher is a strong teacher with a well-behaved class, this can be a suitable learning environment. But a student who is easily distracted may need something different.
  3. QUALITY OF TEACHERS
    Teacher salaries can make a difference in the quality of teachers, as can the methods for hiring. Public sector teachers are generally better paid and have superior pension programs. Naturally, compensation varies widely depending on the local economic situation. Put another way, it’s cheaper living in Duluth, Minnesota than it is inÿSan Francisco. Unfortunately,ÿlow starting salariesÿand small annual salary increases result in low teacher retention in many public school districts. Public sector benefits have historically been excellent; however, health and pension costs have risen so dramatically since 2000 that public educators will be forced to pay or pay more for their benefits.
    Private school compensation tends to be somewhat lower than public.
    Again, much depends on the school and its financial resources. One private school benefit found especiallyÿin boarding schoolsÿis housing and meals, which accounts for the lower salary. Private school pension schemes vary widely. Many schools use major pension providers such asÿTIAA-CREF
    Both public and private schools require their teachers to be credentialed. This usually means a degree and /or a teaching certificate. Private schools tend to hire teachers with advanced degrees in their subject over teachers who have an education degree. Put another way, a private school hiring a Spanish teacher will want that teacher to have a degree in Spanish language and literature as opposed to an education degree with a minor in Spanish.
  4. Budgets
    Since local property taxes support the bulk of public education, the annual school budget exercise is a serious fiscal and political business. In poor communities or communities which have many voters living on fixed incomes, there is precious little room to respond to budget requests within the framework of projected tax revenue. Grants from foundations and the business community are essential to creative funding.
    Private schools, on the other hand, can raise tuition, and they also can raise significant amounts of money from a variety of development activities, including annual appeals, cultivation of alumni and alumnae, and solicitation of grants from foundations and corporations. The strong allegiance to private schools by their alumni makes the chances of fund-raising success a real possibility in most cases.
  5. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
    The bigger the bureaucracy, the harder it is to get decisions made at all, much less get them made quickly. The public education system is notorious for having antiquated work rules and bloated bureaucracies. This is as a result of union contracts and host of political considerations.
    Private schools on the other hand generally have a lean management structure. Every dollar spent has to come from operating income and endowment income. Those resources are finite. The other difference is that private schools rarely haveÿteacher unionsÿto deal with.
  6. COST
    A major factor in determining what’s right for your family is the cost. Not just of tuition, but in terms of time and commitment. Most private schools require students be driven to and from school and there are significant obligations for students to participate in activities outside of normal school hours. This means a lot of hours and miles for families every week to make it happen. A family needs to weigh the financial costs, time investment and other factories So, who comes out on top? Public schools or private schools? As you can see, there are no clear-cut answers or conclusions. Public schools have their advantages and disadvantages. Private schools offer an alternative. Which works best for you? That’s a question you’ll have to answer for your own family.ÿ
    Functions of an educational administrative office:
    Education administrators often work within the central administrative (academic registrars) department and for individual faculties, departments and sections of universities and colleges of further and higher education. Opportunities also arise within private, tertiary and specialist training colleges. There is no ?typical’ job profile: administrators may have student recruitment, funding, quality assurance, marketing, or public relations roles, or they may be responsible for budgetary/financial administration, project management or human resources management. Many work in a general capacityÿ? undertaking tasks from all of these areas.
    Typical responsibilities of the job include:
  • handling correspondence
  • organising and servicing committee and academic board meetings (producing agendas, taking minutes etc)
  • researching and writing reports
  • preparing statistics and handling data, such as attendance figures
  • processing invoices
  • purchasing equipment/other goods
  • liaising with potential students, other institutions, government departments and external organisations
  • helping with course approval and evaluation activities
  • formulating and implementing regulations/policies
  • timetabling and planning events
  • administering and coordinating student recruitment, examinations and assessment activities
    The job can be busy at key times in the academic year, when some long hours may be necessary. There are good opportunities for career progression via promotion into senior administrative, managerial and project management roles, or transfer/secondment between departments.
    {=============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8616,

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Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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