AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8615 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8615 Management Strategies in Educational Institutions 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615) Level: B.Ed (1.5 Year) Semester: Autumn, 2018 Assignment No.2
Q. 1 What are the four major models of organizational behavior that organizations operate? Explain their
philosophies in details.
Answer: Organizational Behavior – Our inherent power of generalization helps us to predict the behavior of other people, however sometimes our generalizations and predictions fail. This happens as we fail to analyze and go into the depth of the patterns that are affecting the behavior of people at that particular time or period. This calls for understanding and following the systematic approach to the study of the organizational behavior. The study helps in increasing our predictive ability to understand the behavior of the people particularly in the group or an organization, and how their behavior impacts the performance of an organization. Organizational Behavior Model In management, the focus is on the study of the five organizational behavior models:
1. Autocratic model This model has its roots in the historical past, and definitely became a most prominent model of the industrial revolution of 1800 and 1900s. It gives the owners and manager’s power to dictate and form decisions while making employees obey their orders. The model asserts that employees need to be instructed and motivated to perform while managers do all the thinking. The whole process is formalized with the managers and authority power has the right to give command to the people, “You do this or else…”, is a general dictatorship command. As Newstrom suggests, “the psychological result of the employees is dependence on their boss, whose power to “hire, fire and perspire” is almost absolute. Employers receive less wages as they are less skilled and their performance is also minimum, which they do it rather reluctantly as they have to satisfy the needs of their families and themselves. But there are some exceptions as many employees do give higher performance because either they would like to achieve or have a close association with their boss, or either they have been promised a good reward, but overall their performance is minimum.
2. Custodial Model Now the time came when managers began to think the security of the employees is imperative- it could be either social as well economic security. Now managers have begun to study about their employees needs, they found out that though in the autocratic setup employees does not talk back yet they have many things to say but incapability to speak result in frustrations, insecurity, and aggressive behavior towards their boss. Since they are not able to display their feelings, they would vent these feelings on their family and neighbors. This causes suffering to the entire community and relationships and this often results in bad performance. Newstrom gave the example of a wood processing plant where the employees were treated very cruelly even to the extent of physical abuse. Since workers were not able to strike back directly they show their aggression by destroying the good sheets of veneer destroying the supervisor’s credibility. Employers now had begun to think of the ways to develop better relations with the employees and to keep them satisfied and motivated. In 1890 and 1900 many companies started the welfare programs for the employees which began later to be known as paternalism. In the 1930s, these welfare programs evolved in many fringe benefits to provide security to the employees which resulted in the development of the Custodial model of organizational behavior.
3. Supportive Model Unlike the two previous approaches, the supportive model emphasis on motivated and aspiring leader. There is no space for any control or authoritative power in this model or on the incentives or reward schemes but it is simply based on motivating staff through the establishment of the manager and employee relationship and the treatment that is given to employees on daily basis. Quite contrarily to the autocratic mode, it states that employees are self-motivated and can generate value that goes beyond their day to day role or activity. But how the employees get self –motivated? That’s through creating a
positive workplace where they are encouraged to give their ideas and there is some kind of “buy -in” in the organizational behavior setup and the direction that it takes. One of the key aspects of the supportive model has been studies conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of Electric in the 1920s and 1930s. The study was led by Elton Mayo and F.J Roethlisberger to implore on the human behavior at work by implementing and placing keen insight on the sociological, psychological perspective in the industrial setup. They came up to a conclusion that a single organization is a social system and a worker is an important component in the system. They found that worker is not a tool that can be used in any way but has its own behavior and personality and needs to be understood. They suggested that understanding of group dynamism including the application of supportive supervision is imperative to make workers contribute and be supportive.
4. The Collegial Model In this scheme, the structure of an organization is developed in a way that there is no boss nor subordinates, but all are colleagues who have to work as a team. Each one of the employees has to participate and work in coordination with each other to achieve the target rate. No one is worried about his status or a job title. Manager’s role is here like a coach whose function is to guide the team to perform and generate positive and motivating work environment, instead of focusing on his own personal growth. The team requires adopting new approaches, research and development and new technologies to better their performance. We can also say Collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. The success of the collegial model depends on the management’s ability to foster the feeling of partnership between the employees. This makes the employees feel important and needed. They also feel that managers are not just mere supervisors but are also giving their equal contribution to the team. To make the collegial model success many organizations have abolished the use of bosses and subordinates during working, as these terms create the distance between the managers and subordinates. While some of the organizations have abolished the system of allotting reserved space for executives. Now any employee can park their vehicle in the common parking space, which increases their convenience and makes them more comfortable.
5. The System Model The most emerging model of the today’s corporate era is the system model. This model emerged from the rigorous research to attain the higher level of meaning at work. Today’s employees need more than salary and security from their job, they need the hours they are putting towards the organization is giving them some value and meaning. To add to it, they need the work that is ethical, respectful, integrated with trust and integrity and gives a space to develop a community feeling among the co-workers. In the system model, the expectations of the managers are much more than getting the work done by the employees. The managers have to show their emotional side, be more compassionate and caring towards their team and they must be sensitive towards the needs of the diverse workforce. They have to devote their attention to creating the feeling of optimism, hope, trustworthiness, courage, self-determination, and through this, they try to develop the positive work culture where the employees feel more at ease and work as if they are working for their family. This ultimately results in the long time commitment and loyalty of the employees and the success of the company. Managers also try to foster two main concepts; authenticity and transparency and social intelligence. Managers always try to make the employees feel the part of the project and the organization and give them all the support so that they can increase their efficiency and output. In turn, the employees feel more emotionally and psychologically part of the organization and become more responsible for their actions. Employees feel more inspired, motivated, important and feel that what they are doing and what they think would be good for the organization which goes beyond their personal achievements.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8615 Autumn 2018
Q. 2 What is ‘quality management’ and its importance? Describe process approach for quality management
in education sector.
“Quality management” ensures superior quality products and services. Quality of a product can be measured in terms of performance, reliability and durability. Quality is a crucial parameter which differentiates an organization from its competitors. Quality management tools ensure changes in the systems and processes which eventually result in superior quality products and services. Quality management methods such as Total Quality management or Six Sigma have a common goal – to deliver a high quality product. Quality management is essential to create superior quality products which not only meet but also exceed customer satisfaction. Customers need to be satisfied with your brand. Business marketers are successful only when they emphasize on quality rather than quantity. Quality products ensure that you survive the cut throat competition with a smile. Quality management is essential for customer satisfaction which eventually leads to customer loyalty. How do you think businesses run? Do businesses thrive only on new customers? It is important for every business to have some loyal customers. You need to have some customers who would come back to your organization no matter what. Would you buy a Nokia mobile again if the previous handset was defective? The answer is NO. Customers would return to your organization only if they are satisfied with your products and services. Make sure the end-user is happy with your product. Remember, a customer would be happy and satisfied only when your product meets his expectations and fulfills his needs. Understand what the customer expects from you? Find out what actually his need is? Collect relevant data which would give you more insight into customer’s needs and demands. Customer feedbacks should be collected on a regular basis and carefully monitored. Quality management ensures high quality products and services by eliminating defects and incorporating continuous changes and improvements in the system. High quality products in turn lead to loyal and satisfied customers who bring ten new customers along with them. Do not forget that you might save some money by ignoring quality management processes but ultimately lose out on your major customers, thus incurring huge losses. Quality management ensures that you deliver products as per promises made to the customers through various modes of promotions. Quality management tools help an organization to design and create a product which the customer actually wants and desires. Quality Management ensures increased revenues and higher productivity for the organization. Remember, if an organization is earning, employees are also earning. Employees are frustrated only when their salaries or other payments are not released on time. Yes, money is a strong motivating factor. Would you feel like working if your organization does not give you salary on time? Ask yourself. Salaries are released on time only when there is free cash flow. Implementing Quality management tools ensure high customer loyalty, thus better business, increased cash flow, satisfied employees, healthy workplace and so on. Quality management processes make the organization a better place to work. Remove unnecessary processes which merely waste employee’s time and do not contribute much to the organization’s productivity. Quality management enables employees to deliver more work in less time. Quality management helps organizations to reduce waste and inventory. It enables employees to work closely with suppliers and incorporate “Just in Time” Philosophy. Quality management ensures close coordination between employees of an organization. It inculcates a strong feeling of team work in the employees. Process approach for quality management in education: Directions for an educational organization development meet the requirements of society to the effectiveness and quality of educational activities in high dynamics of external and internal environment. The article examines the potential of the process approach, which considers management as a continuous performance of certain interrelated activities complex and general management functions when developing a quality management system of an educational organization. In the submitted article the components of the educational activities process are defined, which are based on the quality standard of the final product. Quality, as a scientific theoretical problem, involves economic, social, educational and cultural aspects of education, and is an integral characteristic of educational activities and their results. To provide quality assurance in accordance with the specified requirements for learning outcomes from consumers, there should be quality management systems present, meeting not only the requirements of vocational education modernization, but also the existing organizational and technological conditions of educational institutions, their innovative development.
The current trends in the national education (integration, globalization, internationalization, regionalization, democratization, diversification, humanization, informatization) lead to the necessity to understand education as a continuous process, and not as a rigid structure, therefore only through “processes quality management in the educational system it is possible to provide quality management of the educational process results” (Selezneva, 2002).The purpose of quality management of training in an educational organization is to improve the quality of educational activities and to improve the quality management system of the organizational performance in the sphere of rendering the educational services to the consumers.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8615 Autumn 2018
Q. 3 Enlist different sources of resistance during change. Explain different techniques to manage resistance
during change management process in an educational organization.
Answer: The sources of resistance to change are discussed in the following paragraphs: 1. Insecurity: For people working in a comfortable environment for quite some time, a change of environment often brings about uncertainty and people no longer know exactly what to expect from the implementation of change. A sense of insecurity prevails in people who are subjected to change from one environment to another. For example, when a person moves from high school to college, or from one job in a city to another job in another city, a sense of insecurity may occur.
2. Possible social loss: Change has a potential to bring about social loss. The informal work group may be extremely strong. If a change causes an individual to be transferred, the power of the group is likely to be diminished. The individual who is transferred gets affected as he or she loses the association with the other members of the group. This loss is referred to as ‘social loss’ 3. Economic losses: ADVERTISEMENTS: New technology may enable a firm to produce the same amount with fewer employees. Even though some of the employees rendered surplus in some department because of automation, may be redeployed and retained, some other workers may suffer an economic loss. 4. Inconvenience: Even when a change is not associated with a social or economic loss, new procedure and techniques may have to be learnt. Physical and mental energy need to be expended and some may not like the same. 5. Resentment of control:
When employees are told that a change is to take place, they are made to realise that they do not have any other option other than implementing the change. This may create some resentment that employees may not have any control over their destiny. Even though the change may be for better, they are likely to resent the change. For example, if the management makes it compulsory for the employees to wear uniform, then such change may be resented because the employees feel that they do not have any other choice but to wear uniform. 6. Unanticipated repercussions: Because the organisation is a system, a change in one department or division is likely to have unforeseen repercussions in another. For example, a newly designed job may require a change in supervisory behaviour and supervisors may resist this change even if they initially supported the concept of job enrichment by redesigning the jobs. 7. Threats to influence: When a change is likely to reduce the power base of a group, department or division, even if it is good for the organisation as a whole, it is likely to meet resistance of employees concerned with the change.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8615
Q. 4 Discuss the concept of DDIM with your colleagues in your institution. Then draft the ‘sub-goals’ and
‘objectives’ for Mathematics and Science at Elementary Level.
Answer: Learn the correct way to use objectives when creating lesson plans, with this article of advice. New teachers will find this resource particularly valuable as the article explains and demonstrates how your objectives are your “road map” of your lesson. A well-planned lesson with objectives will lead to successful learning in your classroom. The crux of a good lesson plan is its objectives. Using a roadmap analogy, getting to your final destination (Carbondale, Colorado, for example) is your objective. In a lesson plan, the final destination (identifying iambic pentameter or listing important events in the life of Benjamin Franklin, for example) for your students is the objective(s) of the lesson. To take the analogy one step further, objectives are what drive a lesson. They power it forward. Most important, everything you do in a lesson must be tied to one or more objectives. Every activity, every instructional devise, every teaching resource, and every means of evaluation and assessment must be linked to the lesson’s objective(s). Writing good objectives will be challenging at first. However, everything in the lesson must revolve around the objectives; thus, you must construct them with care and attention to detail. A well-crafted objective has two components:
• The audience: The students for whom the objective is intended
• The terminal behavior: The anticipated performance Here’s an example of an objective for a third-grade science lesson: students will list the nine planets of our known solar system. Objectives are built around good verbs. I like to think of verbs as the gasoline that keeps a lesson moving forward. Thus, the verbs you use in your lesson objectives should be action verbs or verbs you can use to measure performance. Passive verbs are often immeasurable and make an objective weak. As you’ll note in these examples, it would be relatively easy to assess students’ ability to add (e.g., Students will be able to add a column of two-digit numbers), but quite difficult to assess a students’ ability to realize (e.g., Students will be able to realize Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg). Action verbs in your objectives help you assess students and be sure they know or can do what you taught them. These are just a few sample verbs (among hundreds possible).
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8615
Q. 5 Elaborate process of Organizational Communication System.
Answer: Institutional researchers are often called on to conduct or assist with enroll- ment forecasts. Occasionally, personnel in institutional-planning offices, in state agencies, or in the marketing offices of continuing education divisions will be called on to produce such forecasts. Enrollment forecasts are fundamental elements of planning and budgeting at any higher education institution that depends on student enrollments or at any agency or organization that has responsibilities for supporting those institutions. Numerous institutional pol- icy issues are related to enrollment forecasts—tuition policy, budget forecast-
ing, faculty staffing, institutional closure or consolidation, and optimizing objectives related to the size and composition of enrollment (Weiler, 1987a). There is no one right way to forecast enrollment. In this chapter, we dis- cuss a variety of approaches and associated issues. We relate choices of method or technique to specific circumstances and situations in an effort to provide some guidance to readers in choosing their own approaches. We focus on fore- casting institutional enrollments. Institutional researchers are often called on to conduct or assist with enroll- ment forecasts. Occasionally, personnel in institutional-planning offices, in state agencies, or in the marketing offices of continuing education divisions will be called on to produce such forecasts. Enrollment forecasts are fundamental elements of planning and budgeting at any higher education institution that depends on student enrollments or at any agency or organization that has responsibilities for supporting those institutions. Numerous institutional pol- icy issues are related to enrollment forecasts—tuition policy, budget forecast- ing, faculty staffing, institutional closure or consolidation, and optimizing objectives related to the size and composition of enrollment (Weiler, 1987a). There is no one right way to forecast enrollment. In this chapter, we dis- cuss a variety of approaches and associated issues. We relate choices of method or technique to specific circumstances and situations in an effort to provide some guidance to readers in choosing their own approaches. We focus on fore- casting institutional enrollments. Like defining communication study, many definitions of organizational communication exist. Deetz argues that one way to enlighten our understanding of organizational communication is to compare different approaches. However, for the purpose of this text, we want to define organizational communication so you have a frame of reference for understanding this chapter. Our definition is not definitive, but creates a starting point for understanding this specialization of communication study. We define organizational communication’ as the sending and receiving of messages among interrelated individuals within a particular environment or setting to achieve individual and common goals. Organizational communication is highly contextual and culturally dependent. Individuals in organizations transmit messages through face-to face, written, and mediated channels. Organizational communication helps us to 1) accomplish tasks relating to specific roles and responsibilities of sales, services, and production; 2) acclimate to changes through individual and organizational creativity and adaptation; 3) complete tasks through the maintenance of policy, procedures, or regulations that support daily and continuous operations; 4) develop relationships where “human messages are directed at people within the organization-their attitudes, morale, satisfaction, and fulfillment” (Goldhaber 20); and 5) coordinate, plan, and control the operations of the organization through management (Katz & Kahn; Redding; Thayer). Organizational communication is how organizations represent, present, and constitute their organizational climate and culture—the attitudes, values and goals that characterize the organization and its members. Organizational communication largely focuses on building relationships and interacting with with internal organizational members and interested external publics. As Mark Koschmann explains in his animated YouTube video, we have two ways of looking at organizational communication. The conventional approach focuses on communication within organizations. The second approach is communication as organization — meaning organizations are a result of the communication of those within them. Communication is not just about transmitting messages between senders and receivers. Communication literally constitutes, or makes up, our social world. Much of our communication involves sending and receiving relatively unproblematic messages and acting on that information. Other times things are a bit more complex, such as when you need to resolve conflict with a close friend or family member. There is much more going on in these situations then merely exchanging information. You are actually engaging in a complex process of meaning and negotiating rules created by the people involved. For organizations to be successful, they must have competent communicators. Organizational communication study shows that organizations rely on effective communication and efficient communication skills from their members. A number of surveys (Davis & Miller; Holter & Kopka; Perrigo & Gaut) identify effective oral and written communication as the most sought after skills by those who run organizations. The U.S. Department of Labor
reported communication competency as the most vital skill necessary for the 21st century workforce to achieve organizational success (Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills). The Public Forum Institute maintained that employees need to be skilled in public presentation, listening, and interpersonal communication to flourish in an organization. Organizations seek people who can follow and give instructions, accurately listen, provide useful feedback, get along with coworkers and customers, network, provide serviceable information, work well in teams, and creatively and critically solve problems and present ideas in an understandable manner. Developing organizational communication awareness and effectiveness is more than just having know-how or knowledge. Efficient organizational communication involves knowing how to create and exchange information, work with diverse groups or individuals, communicate in complicated and changing circumstances, as well as having the aptitude or motivation to communicate in appropriate manners. How the Field of Organizational Communication Began As you now know, communication study is deeply entrenched in the oral rhetorical traditions of ancient Rome and Greece. Similar to the many of the early concepts that shaped the discipline, some of the founding principles of organizational communication originated in the East. As early as the fourth century, Chinese scholars concentrated on the “problems of communicating within the vast government bureaucracy as well as between the government and the people” (Murphy, Hildebrandt & Thomas 4). Ancient eastern scholars focused on information flow, message fidelity, and quality of information within their governmental bureaucracy (Krone, Garrett & Chen; Paraboteeah). These still remain areas of focus for organizational communication that you will learn in your classes today.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8615