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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8612 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8612 Spring 2019 assignments 1 and 2  Professionalism in Teaching (8612) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8612 Spring 2019

Course: Professionalism in Teaching (8612)
Semester: Spring, 2019
Level: B. Ed (1.5 Years)
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

Q. 1     Explain the concept of profession. Discuss teaching as profession?

Answer:

A profession is something a little more than a job, it is a career for someone that wants to be part of society, who becomes competent in their chosen sector through training; maintains their skills through continuing professional development (CPD); and commits to behaving ethically, to protect the interests of the public.

We all rely on professionals at many points of our lives – from dentists to teachers, from pension managers to careers advisers, from town planners to paramedics. We rely on professionals to be experts and to know what to do when we need them to.

Back in the nineteenth century, the professions were defined as law, religion, and medicine. Nowadays, the number of professions is much wider and ever-increasing, as occupations become more specialised in nature and more ‘professionalised’ in terms of requiring certain standards of initial and ongoing education – so that anything from automotive technicians to web designers can be defined as professionals.

A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.[1] The term is a truncation of the term “liberal profession”, which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term “profession libérale”. Originally borrowed by English users in the 19th century, it has been re-borrowed by international users from the late 20th, though the (upper-middle) class overtones of the term do not seem to survive retranslation: “liberal professions” are, according to the European Union’s Directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications (2005/36/EC) “those practiced on the basis of relevant professional qualifications in a personal, responsible and professionally independent capacity by those providing intellectual and conceptual services in the interest of the client and the public”.

The professions are for you if you want…

  • an occupation which will help you to build your skills and develop your expertise in a field which interests you;
  • to keep learning, be challenged and stay up to date with the latest developments in your chosen area;
  • to solve problems, do good work, and be involved in making decisions which help to improve people’s lives.
  • to earn more money! Professionalism pays: people with professional body membership will earn more than those without (an average of £152,000 more in fact).

THE FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROFESSION:

  1. Great responsibility: Professionals deal in matters of vital importance to their clients and are therefore entrusted with grave responsibilities and obligations. Given these inherent obligations, professional work typically involves circumstances where carelessness, inadequate skill, or breach of ethics would be significantly damaging to the client and/or his fortunes.
  2. Accountability: Professionals hold themselves ultimately accountable for the quality of their work with the client. The profession may or may not have mechanisms in place to reinforce and ensure adherence to this principle among its members. If not, the individual professional will (e.g. guarantees and/or contractual provisions).
  3. Based on specialized, theoretical knowledge: Professionals render specialized services based on theory, knowledge, and skills that are most often peculiar to their profession and generally beyond the understanding and/or capability of those outside of the profession. Sometimes, this specialization will extend to access to the tools and technologies used in the profession (e.g. medical equipment).
  4. Institutional preparation: Professions typically require a significant period of hands-on, practical experience in the protected company of senior members before aspirants are recognized as professionals. After this provisional period, ongoing education toward professional development is compulsory. A profession may or may not require formal credentials and/or other standards for admission.
  5. Autonomy: Professionals have control over and, correspondingly, ultimate responsibility for their own work. Professionals tend to define the terms, processes, and conditions of work to be performed for clients (either directly or as preconditions for their ongoing agency employment).
  6. Clients rather than customers: Members of a profession exercise discrimination in choosing clients rather than simply accepting any interested party as a customer (as merchants do).
  7. Direct working relationships: Professionals habitually work directly with their clients rather than through intermediaries or proxies.
  8. Ethical constraints: Due to the other characteristics on this list, there is a clear requirement for ethical constraints in the professions. Professionals are bound to a code of conduct or ethics specific to the distinct profession (and sometimes the individual). Professionals also aspire toward a general body of core values, which are centered upon an uncompromising and unconflicted regard for the client’s benefit and best interests.
  9. Merit-based: In a profession, members achieve employment and success based on merit and corresponding voluntary relationships rather than on corrupted ideals such as social principle, mandated support, or extortion (e.g. union members are not professionals). Therefore, a professional is one who must attract clients and profits due to the merits of his work. In the absence of this characteristic, issues of responsibility, accountability, and ethical constraints become irrelevant, negating any otherwise-professional characteristics.
  10. Capitalist morality: The responsibilities inherent to the practice of a profession are impossible to rationally maintain without a moral foundation that flows from a recognition of the singular right of the individual to his own life, along with all of its inherent and potential sovereign value; a concept that only capitalism recognizes, upholds and protects.

Teaching as a Profession

The continued professionalization of teaching is a long-standing goal of the Alberta Teachers’ Association. The Association continues to work to advance teaching as a profession. Professionalism is a complex and elusive concept; it is dynamic and fluid. Six generally accepted criteria are used to define a profession. The teaching profession in Alberta fulfills those criteria in the following ways:

1. Its members have an organized body of knowledge that separates the group from all others. Teachers are equipped with such a body of knowledge, having an extensive background in the world and its culture and a set of teaching methods experientially derived through continuous research in all parts of the world.

2. It serves a great social purpose. Teachers carry responsibilities weighted with social purpose. Through a rigid and self-imposed adherence to the Code of Professional Conduct, which sets out their duties and responsibilities, teachers pass on their accumulated culture and assist each student under their care in achieving self-realization.

3. There is cooperation achieved through a professional organization. Cooperation plays an important role in the development of the teaching profession because it represents a banding together to achieve commonly desired purposes. The teaching profession has won its well-deserved place in the social order through continuous cooperation in research, professional preparation and strict adherence to the Code of Professional Conduct, which obligates every teacher to treat each student within a sacred trust. Teachers have control or influence over their own governance, socialization into teaching and research connected with their profession.

4. There is a formal period of preparation and a requirement for continuous growth and development. Teachers are required to complete a defined teacher preparation program followed by a period of induction or internship prior to being granted permanent certification. This period includes support for the formative growth of teachers and judgments about their competence. Teachers are devoted to continuous development of their ability to deliver their service.

5. There is a degree of autonomy accorded the professional. Teachers have opportunities to make decisions about important aspects of their work. Teachers apply reasoned judgment and professional decision making daily in diagnosing educational needs, prescribing and implementing instructional programs, and evaluating the progress of students. Teacher judgment unleashes learning and creates the basis for experience.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8612 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

Q. 2     Write in detail about professionalization of teaching profession?

Answer:

Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true “profession of the highest integrity and competence.” The definition of what constitutes a profession is often contested. Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification). It is also likely to create “occupational closure”, closing the profession to entry from outsiders, amateurs and the unqualified.

Occupations not fully professionalized are sometimes called semiprofessions. Critique of professionalization views overzealous versions driven by perverse incentives (essentially, a modern analogue of the negative aspects of guilds) as a form of credentialis.

The process of professionalization creates “a hierarchical divide between the knowledge-authorities in the professions and a deferential citizenry.” This demarcation is often termed “occupational closure”, as it means that the profession then becomes closed to entry from outsiders, amateurs and the unqualified: a stratified occupation “defined by professional demarcation and grade. The origin of this process is said to have been with guilds during the Middle Ages, when they fought for exclusive rights to practice their trades as journeymen, and to engage unpaid apprentices. It has also been called credentialism, a reliance on formal qualifications or certifications to determine whether someone is permitted to undertake a task or to speak as an expert. It has also been defined as “excessive reliance on credentials, especially academic degrees, in determining hiring or promotion policies.”. It has been further defined as where the credentials for a job or a position are upgraded, even though, there is no skill change that makes this increase necessary.

Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: “a narrow elite … a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes.”

The professionalization process tends to establish the group norms of conduct and qualification of members of a profession and tends also to insist that members of the profession achieve “conformity to the norm.” and abide more or less strictly with the established procedures and any agreed code of conduct, which is policed by professional bodies, for “accreditation assures conformity to general expectations of the profession.” Different professions are organized differently. For example, doctors desire autonomy over entrepreneurship. Professions want authority because of their expertise. Professionals are encouraged to have a lifetime commitment to their field of work. Eliot Freidson (1923–2005) is considered one of the founders of the sociology of professions.

ou not only need to understand the topic yourself, but you also need to know how to explain it to another person and work through any disconnections for that learner. Now, add 25 more people to that experience — each with their own needs and realities — and it’s easy to see why teaching is such a demanding, challenging, and rewarding profession.

Yet many people don’t see teaching as a profession; they view it as a job that attracts people who want summer breaks. But those of us in the industry know that this couldn’t be further from the truth, and it’s up to us to lend authority to the profession.

Here are four steps you can take to professionalize teaching:

  1. Recognize the importance of your work. Doctors aren’t the only professionals with bragging rights. The ability to inspire others to learn can be just as impactful as fixing a broken limb. In fact, some would argue that it’s more influential. 

Start encouraging conversations about the significance of your work, and explain the challenges of doing it well. Most people have spent at least one year in the classroom of a teacher that inspired them to learn, and they would probably agree that this person had a greater impact on their future than their pediatrician.

  1. Use supporting research. There’s plenty of research that highlights how highly trained, effective teachers are critical to students’ short- and long-term success.

A study by the RAND Corporation found that teachers have two to three times the impact on a student’s test performance in reading and math than any other school-related factor, including leadership.

Another study by a trio of economists out of Harvard and Columbia universities tracked 2.5 million students for 20 years and found that a “high value-added teacher” provided a variety of benefits, including an immediate increase in end-of-year test scores. Students of high value-added teachers are also more likely to attend college, avoid teen pregnancy, and earn more money. In fact, learning under a high value-added teacher for just one year can increase a child’s lifetime income by an average of $80,000.

  1. Stress the multifaceted nature of teaching. As a teacher, you can’t assume you know enough about a subject to teach it to a room full of students with 100 percent success 100 percent of the time. Much like other professions, to teach effectively, you need to have experience in a wide range of topics — often with hands-on experience and in-depth training.

Additionally, teachers must be effective communicators, social organizers, problem solvers, and (depending on the district) school counselors. On top of that, it takes a great deal of innovation to find the funds — sometimes out of your own pocket — to secure necessary supplies.

  1. Contribute to the teaching community at large. While it can take just one teacher to inspire a student, it’s important to remember that you’re not the only teacher shaping minds. That being said, it’s essential to be involved in the general teaching community.

Look for ways to work with colleagues to create a supportive and successful learning environment and identify opportunities for improvement and ongoing education about the craft of teaching. Learning Forward, an association devoted to the advancement of professional learning for student success, has a number of learning opportunities available, including conferences, seminars, webinars, e-learning courses, and a training academy.

But continued education isn’t always enough. Even the best teachers struggle with putting new learning approaches into practice, and it can actually take upward of 20 separate practice teaching exercises to master a new skill. Instituting a mentorship program at your school to advise teachers before, during, and after a class can make continued education more worthwhile. If the school becomes a successful learning environment, you further legitimize the importance of your profession.

Professionalizing the teaching industry advances the profession as a whole and goes a long way to create better opportunities for student success. But it also has a significant impact on attracting more talented people to the profession and retaining the highest performers, which creates a win-win situation for students and teachers.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8612 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

Q. 3     Describe the code of professional conduct and values in teaching profession.

Answer:

Yes, in most cases businesses will combine both of these documents into one as there is significant overlap between them. It is rare to find businesses that have two separate policies. Whilst they are technically different documents, employees will have less difficulty recalling important points around conduct and ethics if they have a single document to refer to.

Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Sample Template:

1. Be inclusive.

We welcome and support people of all backgrounds and identities. This includes, but is not limited to members of any sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, social and economic class, educational level, color, immigration status, sex, age, size, family status, political belief, religion, and mental and physical ability.

2. Be considerate.

We all depend on each other to produce the best work we can as a company. Your decisions will affect clients and colleagues, and you should take those consequences into account when making decisions.

3. Be respectful.

We won’t all agree all the time, but disagreement is no excuse for disrespectful behavior. We will all experience frustration from time to time, but we cannot allow that frustration become personal attacks. An environment where people feel uncomfortable or threatened is not a productive or creative one.

4. Choose your words carefully.

Always conduct yourself professionally. Be kind to others. Do not insult or put down others. Harassment and exclusionary behavior aren’t acceptable. This includes, but is not limited to:

  • Threats of violence.
  • Insubordination.
  • Discriminatory jokes and language.
  • Sharing sexually explicit or violent material via electronic devices or other means.
  • Personal insults, especially those using racist or sexist terms.
  • Unwelcome sexual attention.
  • Advocating for, or encouraging, any of the above behavior.

5. Don’t harass.

In general, if someone asks you to stop something, then stop. When we disagree, try to understand why. Differences of opinion and disagreements are mostly unavoidable. What is important is that we resolve disagreements and differing views constructively.

6. Make differences into strengths.

We can find strength in diversity. Different people have different perspectives on issues, and that can be valuable for solving problems or generating new ideas. Being unable to understand why someone holds a viewpoint doesn’t mean that they’re wrong. Don’t forget that we all make mistakes and blaming each other doesn’t get us anywhere.

Different kinds of standards in teaching profession:

Commitment to Students and Student Learning: Members are dedicated in their care and commitment to students. They treat students equitably and with respect and are sensitive to factors that influence individual student learning. Members facilitate the development of students as contributing citizens of Canadian society.

Professional Knowledge: Members strive to be current in their professional knowledge and recognize its relationship to practice. They understand and reflect on student development, learning theory, pedagogy, curriculum, ethics, educational research and related policies and legislation to inform professional judgment in practice.

Professional Practice: Members apply professional knowledge and experience to promote student learning. They use appropriate pedagogy, assessment and evaluation, resources and technology in planning for and responding to the needs of individual students and learning communities. Members refine their professional practice through ongoing inquiry, dialogue and reflection.

Leadership in Learning Communities: Members promote and participate in the creation of collaborative, safe and supportive learning communities. They recognize their shared responsibilities and their leadership roles in order to facilitate student success. Members maintain and uphold the principles of the ethical standards in these learning communities.

Ongoing Professional Learning: Members recognize that a commitment to ongoing professional learning is integral to effective practice and to student learning. Professional practice and self-directed learning are informed by experience, research, collaboration and knowledge.

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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

Q. 4     Discuss professionalism and teaching profession in Islamic teachings?

Answer:

Teaching is one of the most respectful and valuable professions in the world. In religion Islam, this profession has more importance as our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW) introduced himself as a teacher. Allah Almighty says in Holy Quran:  “Like (a favor which you have already received) in that We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our verses, and purifying you, and instructing you in scripture and wisdom, and in new knowledge”(Quran, 2:  151).  According to this verse of Holy Quran Holy Prophet (SAW) were sent to teach about the Holy Book Quran, the wisdom and unknown things to the people of this world.

As we all know that the person who teaches is a teacher, a man of obedience and respect. Teachers are some of the most influential people in society and have great importance in modern society. Teachers bear the responsibility of molding students’ personalities and educating them. Teachers are considered the most honored person in every religion. Due to the important role of teachers, Islam has granted high status and rights to teachers. Islam has paid great attention to teachers for their being the first brick in the structure of social development and perfection and the cause of guiding and developing behaviors and mentalities of individuals and communities. We can understand the highest rank of teachers from the Quote of Hazrat Ali (RA) in which He (RA) stated that: “If a person teaches me one single word, he has made me his servant for a lifetime. “

The teacher is considered the profound father in religion Islam. All Prophets were the teacher that sent before Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and obviously, Holy Prophet (PBUH) was also the great teacher for all mankind. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) teaches us how to worship Allah, how to implement teachings of the Quran in our daily lives and many other things. Islam lays great emphasis on knowledge. At numerous times and instances, Allah Almighty ordered the Muslims to acquire knowledge and learn. Islam lays so much stress on seeking knowledge and also on giving the respect to the ones who imparted knowledge. That’s why teachers have the highest status in Islam.  In Holy Quran Almighty Allah says: “Allah elevates to high positions those from amongst you who are faithful and those who have acquired knowledge”.
(Quran, 58:11)

Rights of Teachers

A teacher teaches the person so he has some rights some of them are mentioned below:

  • Lead his pupil means it’s the duty of the teacher to make his student smarter and have a good Akhlaq.
  • Get reward and appreciation. The teacher is the spiritual father of the student as he is the one who provides spiritual nourishment and improves the behavior of learners. That’s why we should appreciate teachers for their great work.
  • Teachers should have freedom of expression, obstacles and intervention should be cleared.
  • Teachers should get respect from other people. We need to respect the teacher who is willing to give us the knowledge.
  • Teachers should get good treatment to make his job easier.
  • Teachers should have freedom in giving judgment.
  • Teachers should acquire and utilize learning facilities and infrastructure.
  • Teachers should get physical and spiritual needs.

In short, we should know respect and become closer to the teacher who is willing to give us education and knowledge.  Always respect your teacher.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Spring 2019 Code 8612

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

Q. 5     Critically comment on changing the role of teacher in 21st century.     

Answer:

A nation depends on the activities of the teachers. Identically, they are working to grow the basement of the students. No matter it is school, college or university, a qualified teacher is the builder of a student. Even a teacher on the special skills or technical courses is keeping role responsibilities on the societies. For this reason, the leader of tomorrow is created by a teacher. At the same time, if a teacher fails to discover the eternal power of a student, the student fails in his whole life. That means a teacher is the best mentor for a life of the student.

The education system of the 21st century has changed radically with the integration of the technology in every sector. At the same time, the students are more matured than the previous time. Now, in the twenty-first-centuryeducation depends on Thinking Skills, Interpersonal Skills, Information Media, Technological Skills as well as Life Skills. Especially, the education of the present time emphasis on life and career skills. Now there has no value for rote learning. In general, it needs to meet the industry need. To clarify, the teaching will be effective when a student can use the lesson outside of the classroom.

Changing role of teachers in the 21st century

For changing the globalizing world, the role of the teachers is essential to improve the sustainable education. At the same time, inspiring and guiding the students in increasing employability skills with the digital tools is the prerequisite for a teacher. Thus a teacher in the twenty-first century will be a digital teacher. Teachers are not the facilitator for learning of the students only, and now they are responsible for training the students for increasing employability skills, expanding the mind, growing digital citizenships, critical thinking, and creativity as well as sustainable learning. Thus, the winning of the students is the win of the teachers.

With the passes of time and integration of technology in every sector, the teacher’s role has changed a lot. They need to enrich some skills to develop their students. Otherwise, the students will not get the lesson, and it will increase the of educated unemployed in the digital era. Let’s see the changing role of a teacher in the 21st century.

1. A Planner for 21st Century Careers

This is the most competitive world, and there has the diverse option to choose the next career for a student. In this case, a teacher needs to become a big planner to support them according to their psychology. The future of a student will depend on 4C’s (Critical thinking, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity). It is the duty of a teacher to introduce them the mentioned terms very clearly. The students will need to try several multidisciplinary jobs. So the teachers will define where they will give more importance and which skills are just for adding value or keeping as optional. Besides, if an educator can provide a proper guideline to build the career in the 21st century for the students, he will be the all-rounder in his career and life. Do you know the quotes from the American Philosopher Nancy Kassebaum?

If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow.

2. A Resource Provider

In this digital age, the internet is full of supportive resources. When a teacher teaches the students from a collaborative perspective, the students will learn more deeply if they get the resources. It can be YouTube Video Tutorial, Digital Content, eBooks or even the printing documents. If the student receives the supportive materials on how to enrich Critical thinking, Communication skills, Collaboration, and Creativity, they can lead their own future. A teacher can show the resources according to their interest. Even a teacher can’t be expert on the topics, albeit he can easily point the links of the supportive materials. It will ensure better learning environments and the students will be engaged with the lesson.

3. A digital Instructor for Different Ways of Learning

Effective teachers don’t limit the learning resources for the students. Correspondingly, they are the best instructor for the students. In contrast, they will create the learning materials entertaining. In the digital age, you can find a lot of resources who are teaching the course efficiently. The instructor knows how to make the meaningful learning opportunities for all students. Providing practical examples in the classroom or collaborating in a class with another teacher can also help them to learn perfectly. To emphasize, they know mixing the knowledge with an expert collaborator can make the student motivated.

4. Learning Facilitator

A digital teacher or leader in the teaching profession don’t teach the students only. Also, they help their colleagues to become the supporter of technology and show them how to find the online resources and how to stay updated on their subject. They know how to enjoy the work and how to make the lesson enjoyable. That means they are the facilitator for all the students and teachers. Remember, if you can share your knowledge you will learn more deeply. Similarly, the people will love you.

5. A Technology Lover for Learning

Now, it is so tough to attract the students without the use of technology. If you don’t teach the right use of technology and how to find the internet resources, they will get the evil resources. Important to realize, a teacher needs to learn how to read the psychology and what the students want. With attention to, if you can’t maintain the online community with the students, you will not be able to inform the students about the world. Indeed, there has no way of the teachers to deal with the students without learning the technology and internet world. As a result, when you want to build the nation, you have to develop yourself first. Must be remembered, you have to know how the Google Advanced Search process works.

6. A digital Learner for the lifetime

Effective teachers who are the builders of a nation are the lifetime learner. To point out, they keep knowledge of the latest changes in their subject. Then again, they keep knowledge about which jobs will be available in the next decade. In addition, they learn the newest technology to help the students. To put it differently, they know how to combine the technology, pedagogy, and content which will ensure Real-World Problem Solving and cooperative learning. To summarize, a teacher needs to follow the quotes from Henry Ford.

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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8612

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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