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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8612 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8612 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8612 Professionalism in Teaching 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Assignment No. 2

AUTUMN 2018

Professionalism in Teaching  (8612)

Q.1.Howteachersareregardedasrolemodels?DiscussatlengthlifeofProphet Muhammad(PBUH)asarolemodelforwholehumanityingeneralandMuslimsin particular.

TEACHERSASAROLEMODEL

Arolemodelisapersonwhoinspiresandencouragesustostriveforgreatness,liveto ourfullestpotentialandseethebestinourselves.Arolemodelissomeoneweadmire andsomeoneweaspiretobelike.Welearnthroughthem,throughtheircommitmentto excellenceandthroughtheirabilitytomakeusrealizeourownpersonalgrowth.We lookatthemforadviceandguidance.

Arolemodelcanbeanybody:aparent,asibling,afriendbutsomeofourmost influentialandlife-changingrolemodelsareteachers.Afterparent,studentslearnfrom theirteachers.Teachersteachtheirstudentsfrompre-primary,toprimary,elementary andsoon,uptothestagewhentheybecomeyoungadult.

AccordingtoRobyn(2008)teacherasrolemodel,canmakepositiveimpacton studentsbysevendifferentways.Accordingtohimtheseare;

1.Studentsareverygoodobserversandtheireyeswatchandtheirearslistenwhatever theirteachersdoorsayinsituations.Teachersmustkeepinmindthatthechoicesthey makeinparticularsituationdonotonlyimpactthemselvesbutthesealsohavegreat impactonthose(students)whoregardthemastheirsuperheroes.Itmeanswhenever studentswouldfacesimilarsituation,theywouldthinkwhattheirteachershaddonein suchasituationandtheytrytorepeatactionsorwords.

2.Teachersasrolemodelshouldthinkaloudwhentheyfacetoughsituationsandwhen theyhavetodecideindifficultcircumstances.Theymustsharewhataretheprosor consofdifferentdecisionssothatreasoningskillsmaybedevelopedinstudents.The processofmakinggooddecisionisaskillwhichneedsreasoningpowers.Theteachers

mustsharewithstudentswhyparticulardecisionisthebestandhowtheydecideit. Thisthinkaloudtechniquewillworkasguidelineforstudentstomakesuchagood decisionsindifficultsituations.

3.Nobodyisperfect,everyonemakesmistakesbuttheimportantisthatwhenyou commitamistakeormakeabaddecisionletthosewhoarewatchingorlearningfrom youhowyouareplanningtocorrectit.Thisactionwillhelpthemunderstandmistakes arecommon;itisnottheendofworld;everyonecancorrectmistakes;andaboveallas ateacheryoumusttakeresponsibilityasearlyaspossible.Afterapologizingon mistakes,admittingbadactionsordoing,compensatethedamageyouaresetting examplesforthosewhoarelearningfromyoudirectly.Bydemonstratingthisactivity youareguidelinelittlemindsanimportantskillwhichisoftenoverlookedinpracticallife.

4.Stickinesswithcommitmentsandfollowingthepromisesaregreatandnoble characteristicsofarolemodel.Asanadult,sometimeweremainbusy,distractedorbit lazybutasarolemodelteachermustdemonstrateselfdisciplinebyreflecting; punctuality;finishingtaskwhenoncestarted;donotquit;keepingyourwords;and acceptingthechallengesindifficultsituations.Thisdemonstrationwillteachstudents anattitudeof“ifs/hecandoit,socanI”

5.Asarolemodel,teachersaresupposedtoteachstudentstreatothersasyouwantto betreatedbyothers.Youractionswillreflectwhetheryoustepotherstogoahead?How youdealwithyourspouse,friends,colleagues,andstaff?Howyoushowyourgratitude orattitudewhenothershelpyou?Thiswillteachstudenthowtobesuccessfulinlife withrespecttoothers.Howtoshowrespectforallinlife.

6.Greatrolemodelsarenotjustteacherstheymaybegoodswimmers,chefs, architecture,sportsman,etc.Whenstudentsseetheirrolemodelsindifferentactivities, theywilllearnthattheydon’tneedtopigeon-holethemselvesinordertobesuccessful.

PROPHETMUHAMMAD(PBUH)ASAROLEMODEL

BeingaMuslim,HolyProphetMuhammad(PBUH)isthebestrolemodelforthewhole humanitytofollowingeneralandMuslimsinparticularforeachandeveryaspectoflife. Fortunatelyhewassentasateacher.TherearenumerousreasonstoconsiderHis personalityasarolemodelfewofwhichcanbeexplainedasunder;

HeisoursourceofinspirationforourconnectionwithAllah.Wefindourselvesvery closetoAllahwhenweawaketoHiswords,“ThanksyouAllahforyourgiftoflife;health andremembrance.”Hekeepsuscompany–proddingustotakeGod’snameaswedo ourdailychores,rituals,bathroom,ablutions,yawning,sneezing;aswehaveour

breakfast,aswetalktoourfamily;whenwegooutofourhome;asweenterintoa mosque,aswewaitforprayer;asweconversewithpeople.Healsoremindsushowto beconsciousofAllah:tosmile,tobegentle,toshowmercytotheyoung,torespectthe elders,togreeteveryone,towalkhumbly,torendertendercaretoallGod’screatures, bigandsmall.

Asweaccomplishourtasks,andderivesatisfactionfromourachievements,weare remindednevertoallowourselvestoslipintoafeelingsofvainglory-theProphet Muhammad’scompletehumilitywhichHeshowedduringHisgreatestvictoryof Makkahcanneverbeforgotten.

WhenweseethegreatleadersoftheworldwedefinitelyfindMuhammad(PBUH)at thetopwhohasnomatchinthehumanhistory,Hewastheonlyonewhowonsomany battleswithverysmallnumberofcasualties.

Hewastheleader,whotoldushowtowintheheartofenemiesthroughamoral characterandmagnanimity.

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Q.2.Discussmajorissuesofteachereducationinnewmillennium.Alsosuggestsolutions.

NEWMILLENNIUM:PRESSURESANDPOSSIBILITIES

Teachereducationiscurrentlyfacinganumberoftensionsaspressureshavecomefrommany quartersinthelastdecade,withperhapsthemostintensefocusbeingontheissueofteacher quality.

Theissueofincreasinglyvarieddemographicconditionsthathaveledtostudentsfromallover theworldbeinginasingleclassroom,withtheassociatedneedforteacherstodealwith multiculturalism,whethertheylikeitornot,hascreatedanewcomplexitynotfacedbymost teachersadecadeorsoago.Teachershortagesinsomepartsoftheworldhasledtothe possibilityofteachersmovingfromonecountrytoanotherasthedemandforteachersand associatedwageratesmaketeachingamarketunlikewehaveexperiencedbefore.Asteachers, increasinglyareblamedforlackofstudentperformance,aspoliticianschoosetooffsetany responsibilitytheyhavefortheconditionsunderwhichteacherswork,sotoo,teachereducators aretargetedasbeingoneoftheproblemsassociatedwithwhatisperceivedtobelowlevelsof studentachievement.

Theseandotherdilemmasforteachereducationinstitutionsandteachereducatorsopenupthe opportunityforadetailedanalysisofanumberofmajorissuesusingdatacollectedfrom aroundtheworld.Thekeyissuesofglobalizationversusdiversity,theneedforhighqualitypre-

serviceprograms,forwellmanagedandsupportedintegrationofnewteachersintothe teachingforceandongoingprofessionaldevelopmentforthatworkforce,leadtotwoofthe majorfactorsthatwillimpingeontheteachingprofessioninthefuture;theneedfortheteacher tobecomeaconsistent,reflectivepractitionerandtheneedtouserapidlydeveloping technologies,bothICTandotherlearningtechnologies,inanincreasinglyeffectivemanner,to promotehighqualitystudentlearningforallstudents.

Followingarethemajorissuesinteachereducation

GlobalizationandDiversity

Increasingglobalizationhasimpactedonteachereducationintermsofteachersnowhavingto understandandcaterforadiversepopulation.Incertainpartsoftheworldtherearenow classroomswhereamultitudeoflanguagesarespokenandwheredifferentreligiousand culturalunderstandingsmustbeconsideredwhenteaching.

Thishasbroughtabouttheneedforasubstantialshiftinteacherattitudesaboutthetaskand substantialchangeintermsoftheteachereducationprogramofferedbyuniversities.

Thisisnotseenasbeingpositivebyallcommentators.Theimpactoftheglobaleconomyon educationcanmakelifedifficultforteachersandmayevenmakeitimpossibleforteachersto providethetypeofeducationtheyweretrainedfor:

Theroleandfunctionofeducationareundergoingdramaticchangesinresponsetothese economicimperatives.Thenotionofabroadliberaleducationisstrugglingforitsverysurvival inacontextofinstrumentalismandtechnocraticrationalitywherethecatchwordsare “vocationalism,”“skillsformation,”“privatization,”“commoditization,”and “managerialism.”(SmythandShacklock,1998,p.19).

Certainly,thediversityofmostcommunitiesinmanypartsoftheworldhasmadeteachingand educatingteachersmuchmoredifficultthanithaseverbeenbeforeandthereareexpectations thatteachereducationneedstodevelopteacherswhohavelearnedtoteachwithaculturaleye (Irvine,2003).Aswell,peoplewhoaretrainedtoteachinaparticulargeographicalareaofthe world(andgovernmentsareprettyspecificaboutwhattheywantthesedays)mayendup teachinginadifferentpartoftheworldor,attheveryleast,beteachingstudentsfrommany partsoftheworldandwhosecultureandcontextwerenotconsideredatallduringtheperiodin training.

StandardsandAccountability

TheStandardsandAccountabilitymovement,whichstartedinschoolsmorethanadecadeago, hasnowmovedtothetrainingofteachersasthenextstepintheprocess.Ithasbeenargued thatthereareanumberoffactorsthathaveledtotheincreasingsurveillanceofteacher education:

Amongtheseareadeep-seatedandgrowingdistrustofteachereducation;achangeinthe locusofcontrol,withnationalpolicyemergingasadominantinfluence;restructuringof licensingandgovernance;andreconceptualizingthenatureofstandards,withperformanceand outcomesassumingapreeminentrole(Roth,1996,p.242citedinTellez,2003).

Unlikemostotherreformsineducation,incurriculum,inpedagogyandinareasofstudent welfareandsupport,thataremostlydrivenbyteachersandadministratorsseekingtoimprove whattheydoonadaytodaybasis,thestandardsandaccountabilitymovementhasbeendriven bypeopleoutsideofeducation,basedmostlyontheideathatwecannolongertrusteducators todowhatisright.Tellez(2003,p.11)argues:

Likenearlyeveryotherreformofthetwentiethcentury,theaccountabilityreformsoftodaydid notemergefromtheranksoflocaleducators’wishesoroutcriesofstudentneed.Rather,such reforms,inretrospect,havetheiroriginsingroupsororganizationswithenoughpower,money, orcombinationofthetwotodictatethereformdimensions.

TeacherPreparation

Theconcernsidentifiedintheprevioustwosections,increasingglobalizationanddiversityand afocusonstandardsandaccountabilityforteachereducationcomeatatimewhenmany westernnationsarefacingateachershortageofunprecedentedproportions.Therearevarious predictionsintheUSthatnationaldemandswillreach2millionteachersinthenextfewyears duetothefactorsmentionedabove(DarlingHammondetal.,1999;Oakes,etal.,2002).So,ata timewhentherearehigherandhigherdemandsforthegraduatesofteachereducation institutions,theneedforputtingbodiesinfrontofclassroomshasledtoaloweringofentry standardsforpeoplewhoenterthroughothermeans.

However,itisnecessarytomakesurethatsuchteachershavetheskillsrequiredforthejob, regardlessofhowtheycameintotheprofession.Itisnotjustfindinganyteacherthatis important,butfindingtherightteacher,withtherightskillsfortherightsituation.

So,theissueofrecruitingandtrainingnewteachersismuchmorecomplexthanitwasa decadeago.

TeacherInduction

Educationsystemsandteachereducationprogramsneedtosupporttheinductionofyoung teachersintotheworkforceinwaysthatensuretheirretentionovertime.Hulingetal.(2001,p. 326)arguethattheteachershortageintheUShascomeaboutbecauseofthreeintersecting issues:

Today,thenationisfacinganunprecedentedteachershortagethatwillundoubtedlyresultin increasedattentiontoalternativecertificationpro-gramsasapossiblemeansofaddressingthe

school-staffingcrisis.Theteachershortageisbeingcreatedbya“triplewhammy”ofincreasing studentenrollments,anagingteacherforcetransitioningfromtheclass-roomintoretirement, andahighteacherattritionrate,especiallyamongnoviceteachers.

Thereisgrowinginterestintheproblemofteacherinductionandwide-spreadsupportforthe ideaofassigningexperiencedteacherstoworkwithbeginningteachers.Still,weknowrelatively littleaboutwhatthoughtfulmentorteachersdo,howtheythinkabouttheirwork,andwhat noviceslearnfromtheirinteractionswiththem.

ContinuousDevelopmentofTeachers

LevinandRock(2003,p.135)argue:

Recentscholarshiponprofessionaldevelopmentforteacherscallsforchange.Accordingto SparksandHirsh(1997),itistimetofindwaystomovebeyondthedominanttraining-focused modelsofprofessionaldevelopmenttomodesthatsupportlearnercenteredviewsofteaching. Lieberman(1995)characterizedeffectiveprofessionaldevelopmentasthatwhichisgrounded ininquiry,reflection,andparticipantdrivenexperimentation,namingtheroleofteacher- researcherasanappropriatemeans.

Themovementtowardsdevelopingprofessionallearningcommunitiesandnetworksof teachersandothersworkingtogetherhasbecomeamajorforceinchangingwhathappensin schools.Lieberman(2000,p.221)argues:

Educationalreformnetworksareparticularlywellsuitedtomakinguseofnewtechnologyand institutionalarrangements.Bytheirverynature,theyareflexible,borderless,andinnovative;they areabletocreatecollaborativeenvironments,focustheirefforts,anddevelopagendasthat growandchangewiththeirparticipants.

Thishaschangedtheinteractionsthatteachershavewitheachotherandhasresulted,inmany cases,inmuchmorecrossfertilizationofwhatteachersdo.Meier(1992,p.602)argues:

Attheveryleast,onemustimagineschoolsinwhichteachersareinfrequentconversationwith eachotherabouttheirwork,haveeasyandnecessaryaccesstoeachother’sclassrooms,take itforgrantedthattheyshouldcommentoneachother’swork,andhavethetimetodevelop commonstandardsforstudentwork.

TheReflectivePractitioner

Inrecenttimes,therehasbeencallforchangeinteachereducationinwaysthatwillpromote teachersbeingmuchmorereflectiveintheirpractice(Jones,1998;KorthagenandKessels, 1999;Ball,2000;WiseandLeibbrand,2001).KorthagenandKessels(1999,p.4),argueteacher educationprogramsneedtolinktheoryandpracticeand“tointegratethetwoinsuchawaythat itleadstointegrationwithintheteacher”.Similarly,Ball(2000,p.244)maintains“Wemust understandbettertheworkthatteachersdoandanalyzetheroleplayedbycontentknowledge

inthatwork”.Theimportanceofteachersengaginginreflectivepracticeisrecognizedby numerousresearchers(Schön,1983;Cochran-SmithandLytle,1999;Ball,2000).Loughran, (2002,p.33)argues:forreflectiontogenuinelybealensintotheworldofpractice,itis importantthatthenatureofreflectionbeidentifiedinsuchawayastoofferwaysof questioningtaken-forgrantedassumptionsandencouragingonetoseehisorherpractice throughothers’eyes.

Thebestwayforteacherstoimprovewhattheydoisforthemtoreflectontheirpracticeand workwithotherteacherstohelpthemunderstandwhatisneededforhighachievement. However,Cochran-Smitharguesthatthecurrentstandardsmovement,whichreducestherole ofateachertotheimplementationofafewnarrowlyfocusedoutcomes,hasanegativeeffect ofthisactivity:

Theimageofteachersasprofessionalswholearnfrompracticeanddocumenttheeffectof theirteachingonstudents‘learningisaclearpartofthediscourseofthenewteachereducation. Experiencedaswellasprospectiveteachersareexpectedtofunctionasreflectivepractitioners, workcollaborativelyinlearningcommunities,anddemonstratethattheirteachingleadsto increasedstudentachievement.But,anarrowinterpretationofhigherstandards-andonethat islurkingbeneaththesurfaceofthediscoursethatheraldstheparadigmshiftinteacher educationfrom“inputstooutputs”-threatenstheideaofteachingforchange(Cochran-Smith, 2001b,p.180).

TheImpactofTechnology

Thelasttwodecadeshaveseenadramaticincreaseintheuseoflearningtechnologiesof variouskinds.Theoldimageoftheteacherwithapieceofchalkandafewtextbooksisnow wellinthepast.Theintroductionofcomputertechnologyinparticularfindsteachersusing PowerPointfortheirclasses,accessingknowledgefromallaroundtheworldviatheworld-wide- web,beingemailedbystudentsatallhoursofthedayandnightandaccessingvastdatabases toentertheirdatarelatedtostudentprogressareallpartandparceloftheteachingday.This hasbroughtwithithugeimplicationsforteachereducatorswhoneedtobeaheadofthegame iftheyaretoprovidetheirstudentswiththebestunderstandingofhowtheseactivitiesmightbe used.Thisischallengingformanyteachereducatorswhomayhavebeencomfortablewiththe oldwayofdoingthingsandnowfindmanyoftheirstudentswellinadvanceoftheirown knowledgeaswell.Oteroetal.(2005,p.8)argue:

Thisimpliesthatuniversityfacultyinteachereducationprogramsmustbecomeproficientat technologyuseandmustcometounder-standcontent-specific,pedagogicalusesof technologyfortheirowninstruction.

TheUSNationalResearchCouncil(1999,p.218)madethecasefortheintroductionof computer-basedtechnologies:

Whathasnotyetbeenfullyunderstoodisthatcomputer-basedtechnologiescanbepowerful

pedagogicaltools–notjustrichsourcesofinformation,butalsoextensionsofhuman capabilitiesandcontextsforsocialinter-actionssupportinglearning.Theprocessofusing technologytoimprovelearningisneversolelyatechnicalmatter,concernedonlywith propertiesofeducationalhardwareandsoftware.Likeatextbookoranyotherculturalobject, technologyresourcesforeducation–whetherasoftwaresciencesimulationoraninteractive readingexercise–functioninasocialenvironment,mediatedbylearningconversationswith peersandteachers.

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Q.3.Explaintheimpactofteachervaluesinteachingingeneralandvalueseducationin particular.

INTERPLAYWITHVALUEEDUCATIONANDTEACHINGPROFESSION

Twoquestionsseekinganswersinordertoaddresstheproblemofdeterminingtheimpactof teachervaluesonteachingingeneralandvalueseducationinparticular:

1.Iseffectiveteachingtheexpressionofageneralsetofteacherpersonalvaluesthatinform teacherbehaviorsandrelationshipswithstudents?

2.Aretherespecificteachervaluesthatinformqualityvalueseducation?

Itisnecessarytoestablishthatteachingisvalues-ladenbeforefocusingonthesequestions.In onesenseteachersaresocialandmoraleducators.Teacherstakepositionsonavarietyof socialandemotionalissuesanddevelopvaluesthatareinformedbythesechallenges regardlessoftheinstitutionallimitationswithinaschool.

Clement,2010unravelsstudentperceptionsaboutthecaringattitudeofteachers.Research revealedthatteacherswithprofessionalvaluesdealtheirstudentsequally,respectthemasa person,considerindividualdifferencewhilemakingexpectations,offerinstantconstructive feedbackandactasrolemodelfortheirstudents.Professionalismandcommitmentare apparentintheplanning.Twoofthearguablymoreenduringprofilesofteacherqualitiesand valuesthataredesirableinestablishingteacher-studentrelationshipstooptimizelearningare thoseofCarlRogers(1969)andPauloFreire(1998).Theypresentanidealoftheteacherand humanbeingasemotionallyandpsychologicallystable,andaredescribedbytheauthoras follows:

1.Realness

Thisincludestheteacherbeinghimselfwithoutpresenceofdifferentclassroomidentity. Teachermaybeenthusiastic,uninterested,interested,annoyed,sympatricandsensitive becausetheyacceptsthesefeelingsasher/hisown,she/hehasnoneedtoenforcethem.

2.Prizing,Accepting,Trust

Thiscomprisestheteacherwayofrecognizingandacknowledginghisstudents.Recognition shouldbeinthewaythatitmaynotdiscourageotherstudentswhileencouragingoneinfrontof class.Forthatpurposeprivaterecognitionisencouragedascomparedtopublicrecognition. Caringfortheminsuchawaythattheirfeelingsandopinionsareaffirmed.

3.EmpathicUnderstanding

Thiscontainstheteacherqualitytodemonstrateasensitiveunderstandingofhowhisstudent perceiveandfeelsaboutlearning.Consideringthecontextasamajorrequisiteforlearning, Rogers(1969)saidaboutthestudentvoicethatatlastsomeoneunderstandshowitfeelstothe studentswithoutwantingtoanalyzingorjudgingthem.Inthiswaystudentscangrowandlearn inahealthyteachingandlearningenvironment.

4.TheFullyFunctioningPerson

Theseteachersareemotionallysecureandhavenoneedtobedefensive.Thisinvolves teachersintheprocessofbeingandbecomingthemselvesbybeingopentotheirfeelingsand evidencefromallsources,andbydiscoveringthattheyaresoundlyandrealisticallysocial.

“Freire’s(1998)‘CentralQualitiesofProgressiveTeachers’alsoportraytheessentiallyhuman andemotionallyresponsiveteacher:

Humility:beingperceptiveabouttheirownlimitationsandimplementingademocraticrather thananauthoritarianclassroom.

Lovingness:showingloveforbothstudentsandteachingandpracticingarmedlove(fighting forwhatisright).

Courage:removingone’sownfearsandinsecurities.

Tolerance:respectingdifferencebutnot‘acquiescingtotheintolerable

Decisiveness:makingoften-difficultchoicesforthebest,yetbeingcarefulnotto‘nullify oneselfinthenameofbeingdemocratic.

Livingthetensionbetweenpatienceandimpatience–preservingthetensionbetweenthetwo yetneversurrenderingtoeither.

Joyofliving:committingtobothteachinginparticularandlifeingeneral.”

WhiletheeducatorestimationsofRogers(1969)andFreire(1998)areapparentlypersisting,if testingtoinstruct(realness,lovingness,lowliness,thecompletelyworkingindividual,andthe delightofliving),differentarticulationsofperfectinstructoresteemsandpracticesunavoidably advanceasimpressionofeducatingandlearningchange.Brady(2006)followsadevelopment inexpansivewaystodealwithtakinginandinstructingfromconventionaltodynamicto collective,andcharacterizesamodelofcontemporarylearningandshowingthatdependson

socialconstructivism,andthatiscommunicatedbyBruner’s(1996)assertthatlearningought tobeparticipative(understudiesbeingoccupiedwiththeirlearning),proactive(understudies steppingupwithregardstotheirlearning),andcooperative(understudiesworkingwitheach otherandtheireducatortoadvancetheirlearning).Suchadynamicperspectiveofstudents, combinedwithasimilarlypowerfulpartforinstructorsasco-constructorsoflearning,has apparentlychangedpriorpicturesoftheperfecteducatorasthe’wellspringofallintelligence’, thequintessentialexplainer,oronewhocan’separate’andpresentdatasuchthatitis acceptableforunderstudies.Ithaslikewisehadtheimpactoffeaturingtherequirementfor instructorresilienceandlackofbiasinesteemstraining,andhighlightingtherequirementfor understudysupportandexpertactivity.

5.DesirableTeacherValuesThatInformValuesEducation

Thechallengeofteachingvalueseducationistofocusontheneedforteacherstocreatewarm andsupportiveclassroomenvironmentsinwhichstudentsfeelfreetoexpresstheirthoughts andfeelingsorevenexperiencecatharsis,andtobetolerantofdifferentstudentopinions.A moredemandingstrategyfordecidingifcertainesteemsaremorecriticalinvaluesinstruction thandifferentregionsoflearning,istoinspecttheeducating/learningsystemsthatinstructors mustembraceinencouragingeachofthesignificantcontemporarywaystodealwithesteems training,andtodeducetheeducatoresteemsthatareexpectedtoilluminatehone.

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Q.4.Defineethics.Differentiatebetweenethicsandmorality.Alsodescribegeneralprinciplesof ethicsinteaching.

DEFINITIONSOFETHICS

Ethicsarethefundamentalwaysofhumanbehaviororbasicprinciplesofsocialandpersonal life.Itstudiesthevaluesofallmenandwomen,humanornaturalrights,concernforhealthand safetyinnaturalenvironment.

Ethicsareconcernedwiththemoralphilosophyorcodespracticedbyapersonorgroupof people.

Ethicsasetofmoralprinciples:theoryorsystemormoralvalues.Thedisciplinedealingwith whatisgoodandbad.

Ethicscanbeviewedasa‘philosophyofmorality’asitdealswithoughtandoughtnot.(Mohony, 2009).

Ethicalprinciplesprovideguidanceonhowindividualslivetheirlivesaccordingtodefined criteria.Manythinkersdiscussedvirtuesofanethicallife.Ithasbeenagreatdebateonroleof ethicsorethicalbehaviorinprofessionallife.Thedemandofethicsisessentialpartoflifemost importantlytoperformdutiesinprofessionalsetting.Ineveryfieldoflifeethicaldemand

becomescrucialdaybyday.Doctors,lawyers,accountants,scientistsandseveralprofessions followrulesandregulations.Theyareallrestrictedtofollowethicsforthebenefitoftheir stakeholders.Teachingisamoralandethicalactivity.Teachersarerepresentativeofmoral valuesandvirtues.Hence,thedutyofprincipalsandteachersincreasesmore.Theyarethetrue exchangersofvaluestonextgeneration.

DifferenceBetweenEthicsandMorals

Ethicsandmoralsrelatewithhumanattitude,behaviorandwaysofinteractingwitheachother. Thesearethecodeofconduct‘whatisright’andwhatiswrong’.Usually,bothtermsuse interchangeablybuttheyaredifferentfromeachotherEthicsconsideredtobetheruleorcode ofconductprovidedbyexternalsourcesintheworkplaceorgoverningbodies.Moralsarethe internalprinciplesofanindividuallife.

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Q.5.Discussethicalissuespertainingtoeducationandschooling.

ETHICALISSUEPERTAININGTOEDUCATION

1.RighttoEducation

DuetotheimportanceofeducationinIslam,TheHolyProphet(PBUH)said:“Gettingknowledge isobligatorytoeveryMuslimmanandwoman”.Itisthemoraldutyofgovernmentand concernedauthoritiestoprovideopportunitiesforstudents.

2.ShouldTeacherStudentsbeFriends?

Schoolingistheactofinteractingpeoplewitheachothertowardsthemutualgoal.Herethe relatedpersonsarestudentandteacher.Nowadays,therenownedphilosophyofeducation leadstowardsthefriendshiprelationshipsofstudentteacher.But,theaddressingquestionhere isthatshouldteacherexceedthelimitsorshouldprovidesomemeasurestomaintainpositive relations.

3.ToWhatExtentHelpisRequired?

Thisissueismoreconsiderablethatismorerequiredinrelationshipofprincipals,teachersand students.

4.Communication

Communicationistheheartofanyeducationalprocesswhetheritiscarriedinclassroomor beyondtheclassroom.Beingpoliteandhumblecanuplifttheethicalenvironmentofschools.

5.ConflictManagement

Conflictscanbeeasilyresolved,byadoptingethicalframeworks.

6.LanguageofLearning

Biesta(2006)foundconceptofthelanguageoflearning.Inthisregard,hehasidentifiedfour contributingtrendswhichinfluenceonethicineducationalsystem:

1)newtheoriesoflearningwhichshiftedtheattentiontostudentsandtheiractivitiesrather thanteachersandteaching,wherelearningbecamemorecentralandteachingconceptualized intermsoffacilitatinglearning;

2)postmoderndoubtframededucationasamodernprojectinneedofquestioning;

3)thegrowingmarketfornon-formaladultlearningasamainlyindividualisticactivityhasmade useofthewordlearning

4)withthedestructionofthewelfarestatetherelationshipbetweengovernmentsandcitizen hasbee,inmanycases,re-conceptualizedintoaneconomicalrelationshipbetweentheprovider andtheconsumerofpublicservices.Allofthesetrendscontributetoriseofthelanguageof learning.Abovementionedtrendsineducationnarrowsteachers’possibilitiesforprofessional influenceontheeducationalsystem.

7.TeacherAutonomy

Theconceptofteacherreferstotheprofessionalindependenceofteachersinschools, especiallythedegreetowhichtheycanmakeautonomousdecisionsaboutwhattheyteachto studentsandhowtheyteachit.Duetothemarketinfluenceineducationitdecreasesthe independenceofteachers(Hargreaves,2000).

ETHICALISSUESPERTAININGTOSCHOOLING

1.RelationalProfessionalism

Relationalworkskillisthetermusedtodescribethewaysinwhichprofessionalsinteractwith eachother.Relationalskillsgobeyondknowledgeofbusinessmodelsandprofessional experiencetoincludepersonaltraits.Aswithprofessionalskills,relationalskillsdifferfrom persontoperson.Teacherinteractwithstudentswhattheypracticeinrelationalmannersare: knowledgeofstudents,pedagogicalknowledge,principlesofclassroommanagement.Teacher shouldadoptrelationalqualities(engagement,authenticity,understanding)toenhancepositive environmentinschools.Thisrelationalprofessionalismimpactsonoverallschoolethical environment(Frelin,2013)

2.SocialDiversity

Therearedifferentgroupsinaschool.Theyhavecultural,religiousandeconomicdifferences. Ethicallytocopeupallthesediversepeopleisthechallengingtasks.

3.Discipline

Duetothelackofethicalconsiderationsinalleducationalsetups,thedisciplineproblemsare increasingdaybyday.Practiceofethicsandmoralityisleadtowardsthefulfillmentof educationalgoals.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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