AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8611 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8611 Critical Thinking And Reflective 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Critical Thinking And Reflective (8611) Level: B.Ed Semester: Autumn 2018
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 what is action research? What types of problem are addressed in action research? Develop a short proposal conduct an action research on specific problem.
A succinct definition of action research appears in the workshop materials we use at the Institute for the Study of Inquiry in Education.
That definition states that action research Is a disciplined process of inquiry conducted by and for those taking the action? The primary reason for engaging in action research is to assist the “actor” in improving and/or refining his or her actions. Practitioners who engage in action research inevitably find it to be an empowering experience. Action research has this positive effect for many reasons. Obviously, the most important is that action research is always relevant to the participants. Relevance is guaranteed because the focus of each research project is determined by the researchers, who are also the primary consumers of the findings. Perhaps even more important is the fact that action research helps educators be more effective at what they care most about—their teaching and the development of their students. Seeing students grow is probably the greatest joy educators can experience. When teachers have convincing evidence that their work has made a real difference in their students’ lives, the countless hours and endless efforts of teaching seem worthwhile.
Types of problem are addressed in action research
Action research design is an educational research involving collecting information regarding current educational programs and outcomes, analyzing the information, developing a plan to improve it, collecting changes after a new plan is implemented, and developing conclusions regarding the improvements. The main purpose of action research is to improve educational programs within schools. The four main types of action research design are individual research, collaborative Individual Individual action analyze a specific learning. The action is performed, helpful.
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have concerns about a school-wide problem. This can be lack of parental involvement or research to increase students’ performance in a certain subject. The entire staff works together through this research to study the problem, implement changes, and correct the problem or increase performance.
District-wide research is used for an entire school district. This type of action research is usually more community-based than the other types. This type may also be used to address organizational problems within the entire district. For district- wide research, staff from each school in the district, collaborates in correcting the problem or finding ways to improve the situation.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611 Autumn 2018
Q.2 Write down critical essay on the current syllabus of languages taught at grade 4-6
There are many guides and permutations available for conducting action research in the classroom. I will link to some of these resources in the citations section at the conclusion of this post. The purpose of this post is to get you up and running with four basic steps needed to conduct action research in your own practice.
Selecting a focus The first step in conducting action research is to identify and define the focus of your investigation. You’ll want to develop some questions about the area of your focus. Finally, you’ll need to identify a plan to effectively study and answer the questions you’ve developed. Please note that action research typically will include an examination of the school, programs, students, and instructional practices. You’ll want to consider what aspects of these areas you will need to study in your research. Specifically, will you need to examine student outcomes (dispositions, achievement); curriculum (instructional materials, content standards, frameworks); instruction (teaching strategies, use of technology); school climate (student morale, teacher morale, relationships between teachers and supervisors); parental involvement (participation on committees, attendance at events)? As you develop your focus and identify a specific frame to guide your thinking, you should also adjust your research questions. As an example, if you’re concerned with issues of school climate, you might want to consider the following guiding questions:
• How can I document the morale of teachers?
• What impact does possible low morale of teachers have on student achievement?
• Will increased relationships between teachers and supervisors yield higher teacher morale?
• How might we increase more positive relationships between students, teachers, and supervisors?
Developing and revising the focus and guiding questions for your action research will help you understand what elements you are interested in examining. You will also need to identify questions you can effectively gather information about and conduct your research. What research questions do you want to answer? What research questions do you think you can answer?
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may also choose to share your data with others to help prove a point or connect your findings with others.
Analyzing and interpreting data After identifying your focus and collecting data, you’ll need to analyze and make interpretations from your materials. In this you’ll want to describe or summarize the data clearly. You’ll also look for consistent patterns or themes across the data. Finally, you’ll want to use the data to answer your research questions and/or prove your hypotheses. There are multiple strategies and techniques that can be used as you analyze your data. In my own work I find it is helpful to lay out all of my data and the identified themes or patterns in an area that is easily visible while working. I’ll save these themes and patterns written on paper on my desk, or on a white board in my office. I also find it helpful to just write and think through the data, themes, and patterns as I make sense of the results.
Taking action The fourth step includes you making a decision about your research and identifying next possible actions. Let us suppose you have researched the question above about teacher morale and have uncovered the root cause of the problem. You’ve surveyed the students, teachers, and supervisors and you know exactly how to “fix” the problem. Your decision on how you take action will be determined by a multitude of factors…some of which may be out of your control. Please note that action research typically follows a cycle as you move through each of the steps. As you work through the sequence, you’ll learn a bit more about the problem or research question. You’ll use this information as a way to improve your focus, research, or action in subsequent steps through the cycle. This most likely will not be the end of the cycle. You’ll continue to observe, act, and reflect as you continue to plan and operate in the classroom.
Q.2 Write down critical essay on the current syllabus of languages taught at grade 4-6.
Fourth through Sixth Grade Students in the Intermediate grades are engaged in greater rigor, as they get ready for the challenges of junior high school. They are prepared to do research, write reports, demonstrate comprehension skills, use technology, utilize math skills that are necessary for a solid base in algebra, engage in the scientific method, understand the importance of history and current events, and have exposure to the arts.
Years 4-6 Primary Syllabuses This document includes the set of six syllabuses for the following subjects at Years 4 to 6:
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French are the official when students use their vernacular languages in the early years of schooling they enhance their future level of literacy. A vernacular language is defined by the National Language Policy (2012) as the language most used at home, in the school community or as being the student’s mother tongue. The vernacular language might be a local language, Balsam, French or English. The National Language Policy (2012) advocates using vernacular language as the language of instruction in Years 1 and 2, introducing English or French half way through Year 2, and using English or French as the language of instruction in Year 3. Communities or their elected representatives will determine the agreed vernacular tube used in their schools. Teachers should continue to use the vernacular to support students ‘learning and students will use their knowledge and skills in the vernacular to assist their learning across the curriculum. Teachers of Years 1 to 3 will extend and build a good base in students’ vernacular language and this language will be the vehicle or bridge to the introduction of the official languages of instruction English or French at Year 3.
This approach will enable students to move into the official languages of instruction with More ease because in Years 4 to 6 they will be taught by teachers using either French or Teaching English or French as a foreign language As resources and more teachers capable of teaching either French or English as a foreign Language become available, all primary and secondary students will learn French and English. Eventually, all students at the Primary level will learn both official languages from Year 4. Whatever official language has been the language of instruction at Year 3, the other official Language will be introduced at Year 4.
Inclusive Curriculum Children need to have access to an education which supports them to be successful. Teachers Need to meet the needs of all children, both girls and boys. They can adapt the curriculum content, environment and materials where necessary, particularly for children with disabilities, those with special gifts and children from rural and remote areas. All children should be encouraged to attend school regularly.
Teachers may use some of the following strategies to help all children achieve to their full Potential:
• ability grouping
• providing different activities for different ability levels within the class
• creating individual learning programs for some students
• using modelling and demonstration
• explicitly teaching new concepts and skills
• using cooperative learning activities
• using scaffolding to help children learn e.g. visual frameworks, examples/models of Completed texts
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In words and to present information. Children may write information reports about their observations in Science or describe natural disasters or engage in debates to support particular point of view on an issue. Children may write plans and create designs with captions. Teachers need to model subject-specific language features and text structures and link them back to what is learned in language lessons. Teachers must explicitly teach the language features and structures for different text types relevant to each subject across the curriculum. This will support children’s development in literacy and their ability to use language effectively at school and in their community.
Mathematics across the Curriculum Mathematical literacy or numeracy includes basic mathematical skills, knowledge and attitudes needed in all subjects and our daily lives when calculating, measuring, solving problems, drawing and constructing and when using money. Teachers need to support mathematics development across the curriculum since all subjects provide meaningful contexts
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for learning Mathematics. Mathematics has subject-specific vocabulary and different text structures that are used to convey information. Teachers need to model these specific characteristics in all subjects and link them back to what is learned in mathematics lessons.
Assessment, Recording and Reporting Assessment Assessment is the ongoing process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information About children’s achievement of the learning outcomes described in the subject syllabuses. Teachers record evidence of children’s learning and use this to make judgements about their Achievements of the learning outcomes. To ensure that assessment is fair and balanced, Teachers must use a range of assessment methods including:
• testing Teachers should provide opportunities for children to assess their own learning (selfassessment) And the learning of others (peer assessment), according to set negotiated criteria. The overall purpose of assessment is to improve student learning. Policy to ensure that children are treated fairly and given many opportunities to demonstrate their achievement of the learning outcomes in each subject. Assessment in primary schooling is a continuous process of finding out if children have Achieved the learning outcomes. Assessment should:
• be integrated into teaching and learning activities
• use a range of assessment methods
• use local cultural approaches to assess and report children’ achievements where Appropriate
• be used to provide quality feedback to children about what they do well and how to Make improvements
• be used for diagnostic purposes for grouping children
• Be used at a national level for gathering data.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8611 Autumn 2018
Q.3 Write down critical essay on the current syllabus of languages taught at grade 4-6Explain why example how do assessment schedule as well as pear support and mentoring help improving school performance.
Fourth through Sixth Grade
Students in the Intermediate grades are engaged in greater rigor, as they get ready for the challenges of junior high school. They are prepared to do research, write reports, demonstrate comprehension skills, use technology, utilize math skills that are necessary for a solid base in algebra, engage in the scientific method, understand the importance of history and current events, and have exposure to the arts.
Oral Language (Speaking, Listening, Discussion) – Demonstration of effective oral communication skills during presentations, including class discussions, book reports and project presentations
Reading – Demonstration of successful word study skills – Effective application of phonics skills – Demonstration of high rates of fluency and accuracy – Effective application of a variety of comprehension strategies – Demonstration of strategic vocabulary development, decoding base words, compound words, prefixes and clues found in context – Introduction to critical thinking skills – Demonstration of effective dictionary and thesaurus skills – Focus on a variety of reading genres – Demonstration of strong comprehension skills with both fiction and nonfiction texts
Writing – Continuation of focus on the further development of the Five Step Writing Process – Demonstration of editing techniques and strategies – Application of spelling strategies – Recognition of word forms, sentence types and parts of speech – Demonstration of paragraph and story writing – Demonstration of competence with the narrative and descriptive writing. – Continuation of expository, persuasive and poetry writing – Demonstration of effective utilization of dictionary and thesaurus skills – Evaluation of written work using the six criteria: Overall development of ideas and content, Organization, Support, Sentence structure and sentence fluency, Word choice, Mechanics
Fourth Grade Curriculum
Geometry and Measurement – Solve problems involving plane figures and various units of measurement – Perimeter, area and volume
Number Sense and Operations – Solve problems using estimation and rounding strategies
Other Focus Areas – Patterns, relationships and algebra – Computations with fractions, whole numbers, decimals – Multi-digit multiplication and division
Chemistry – Introduces periodic table of elements
Earth – Studying water, weather, climate, Earth and beyond
Life Science – Studying vertebrates and invertebrates – Studies on plant soil and the water cycle
Physical – Friction, energy, light and matter
Economics – Identify supply and demand – Graph skills
Pennsylvania – Settlement patterns and – Geography and map skills
Political – Branches of federal and local government
Other Focus Areas – Local history
Sixth Grade Curriculum
Oral Language (Speaking, Listening, Discussion) – Demonstration of effective oral communication skills during presentations, including class discussions, book reports and project presentations
Reading – Demonstration of successful word study skills – Demonstration of high rates of fluency and accuracy – Application of effective comprehension strategies – Demonstration of strategic vocabulary development, decoding of base words, compound words, prefixes and clues found in context – Demonstration of application of critical thinking skills – Demonstration of effective dictionary and thesaurus skills – Introduction to a variety of literary genres – Demonstration of strong comprehension skills with both fiction and non-fiction texts – Implementation of reading strategies appropriate for various thematic units and genres, including: Short stories, Longer narratives, Biographies, Poetry, Reference and informational texts – Demonstration of the ability to: Differentiate face from opinion, Understand context clues, Identify main ideas and supporting details, Identify story and character elements, Understand and recognize point of view
Writing – Continuation of focus on the further development of the Five Step Writing Process – Demonstration of editing techniques and strategies – Application of spelling strategies – Recognition of word forms, sentence types and parts of speech – Demonstration of the five paragraph essay – Introduction of expository, persuasive and critical thinking essays – Demonstration of proficiency with the informational essay – Demonstration of effective utilization of dictionary and thesaurus skills – Evaluation of written work using the six criteria: Overall development of ideas and content, Organization, Support, Sentence structure and sentence fluency, Word choice, Mechanics – Demonstration of composing essays when provided with a standard prompt.
Mathematics – Place value and expanded form – Add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers, decimals and fractions/mixed numbers and integers – Recognize patterns, relationships – Evaluate algebraic expressions using order of operations – Scientific notation
– Identify and classify lines, angles and polygons – Measure length (integrated with science) – Perimeter and area of circles and polygons vocabulary – Surface area of simple figures – Construct graphs to represent data – Collect, organize, interpret data
– Expected, theoretical probability including simulate
Types of Evaluations
There are three main types of evaluation in visitor studies: Planning, Formative and Summative. Each has a distinct timing in the life of an exhibit, respectively: at conception, during the design and prototype process, and finally the end results. Although performed at different points of the development process, each is highly dependent on the goals and objectives of the museum in general and the exhibit specifically. So the first step, before any of the evaluations begins is to determine both broad and detailed goals. These goals usually tie directly into the mission of the museum in general, which should be continually referred back to during the design process.
A planning evaluation is performed prior to development of a given exhibit or program. The focus is on concepts and how the average visitor will interpret them. Exhibit designers must determine what concepts are above the level of comprehension for their audience, how best to present the information, and what subjects are of actual interest to the intended audience. This type of evaluation is not formal, but is quite important as it can eliminate working on a project that has little demand or will be too difficult for the target audience to comprehend. Planning evaluations are also useful for future exhibit development projects and should be considered part of the exhibit design research process.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8611
Q.4 Join a group of teacher in your area or on social media. Initiate a discussion regarding student failure write down the report of what did different people say and then what is your conclusion.
My students never know what to make of my “I hope you fail” lecture. After years of teachers asking for the right answers, they aren’t accustomed to someone highlighting or requesting the wrong ones. Students’ failures tend to linger,
creating mental baggage that interferes with learning. Lifting the burden requires us to address failure head-on and encourage students to accept it as a natural part of getting educated.
Here’s how teachers can help students see the benefits and advantages of making mistakes:
Don’t let ideas become precious Student benchmarks have become more complicated, forcing students to transcend content knowledge and develop critical-thinking skills. This means more guessing, which can be intimidating for students.
In a discussion with Scientific American podcaster Steve Mir sky, Arizona State University physicist Lawrence Krauss recently pointed out that real-world problems are “not solvable exactly” and that students must be able to change the course of their thinking for a variety of reasons. The flexibility and the stick-to-it-iveness of facing failure head-on are fundamental to long-term student success. While educators have to ensure that students have the right content and support to avoid chronic failure, it is just as important to embrace mistakes as an inevitable part of education. Adopting a “fail faster” attitude makes students more likely to do the difficult work we ask of them. Often, even their failures tell us something about their understanding.
Give students permission to get things wrong Our culture is so focused on success or perfection that we miss the benefits of failure. To encourage students to accept failure as essential to progress, I share with them a decontextualized Samuel Becket quote: “Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better.”
I also show them a video on game design by Extra Credits that reinforces the “fail faster” ethos. Both the quote and the video help students see something really essential to education: We are going to mess up, and that’s OK. In videos as great Make Using I that writing. thinking In their immediately. Incorporating invested Take often this her much a answers. way a sentence, a failure piece and exercise, ask few technique An to in from to articles students their being astronomy risks
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Students who integrate mistakes into the educational process are prepared for the feedback that helps them grow. A classroom that thinks this way provides an additional bonus for teachers: Once unleashed from our own struggle for perfection, we can take risks ourselves. In fact, we must take risks, get feedback and be ready to incorporate failure.
Students are not the only ones who can learn from their mistakes
Monica Fug lei is a graduate of the University of Nebraska in Omaha and a current faculty member of Arapahoe Community College in Colorado, where she teaches composition and creative writing.
What Is a Concussion?
A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury or TBI caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, creating chemical changes in the brain and sometimes stretching and damaging brain cells.
Concussions Are Serious Medical
Providers may describe a concussion as a “mild” brain injury because concussions are usually not life-threatening. Even so, the effects of a concussion can be serious. Because the brain is very complex, every brain injury is different. Some symptoms may appear right away, while others may not show up for days or weeks after the concussion. Sometimes the injury makes it hard for people to recognize or to admit that they are having problems. The signs of concussion can be subtle. Early on, problems may be missed by patients, family members, and doctors. People may look fine even though they’re acting or feeling differently. Because all brain injuries are different, so is concussion recovery. Most people with mild injuries recover fully, but it can take time. Some symptoms can last for days, weeks, or longer. In general, recovery is slower in older persons. Also, persons who have had a concussion in the past may find that it takes longer to recover from their current injury. This article explains what can happen after a concussion, how to get better, and where to go for more information and help when needed.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611
Q.5 Write a reflective essay about this course elaborating what were your experience. How did your learning improved regarding critical thinking and refracting practice, and how useful is this course for your teacher.
Writing a reflective essay
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writing a reflective essay is to provide a platform for the author to not only recount a particular life experience, but to
also explore how he or she has changed or learned from those experiences. Reflective writing can be presented in various
formats, but you’ll most often see it in a learning log format or diary entry. Diary entries in particular are used to convey
how the author’s thoughts have developed and evolved over the course of a particular period.
The format of a reflective essay may change depending on the target audience. Reflective essays can be academic, or
may feature more broadly as a part of a general piece of writing for a magazine, for instance. For class assignments,
while the presentation format can vary, the purpose generally remains the same: tutors aim to inspire students to think
deeply and critically about a particular learning experience or set of experiences. Here are some typical examples of
reflective essay formats that you may have to write:
A focus on personal growth:
A type of reflective essay often used by tutors as a strategy for helping students to learn how to analyse their personal
life experiences to promote emotional growth and development. The essay gives the student a better understanding of
both themselves and their behaviours.
A focus on the literature:
This kind of essay requires students to provide a summary of the literature, after which it is applied to the student’s
own life experiences. While the format of a reflective piece of writing may change, there is one element that will
mostly remain the same, and that is the structure. You may be relieved to know that, much like any essay, a reflective
essay is typically comprised of an introduction, body and conclusion.
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It sounds obvious, but the reflective process forms the core of writing this type of essay, so it’s important you get it right
from the outset. You need to really think about how the personal experience you have chosen to focus on impacted or
changed you. Use your memories and feelings of the experience to determine the implications for you on a personal
level.One you’ve chosen the topic of your essay, it’s really important you study it thoroughly and spend a lot of time
trying to think about it vividly. Write down everything you can remember about it, describing it as clearly and fully as
you can. Keep your five senses in mind as you do this, and be sure to use adjectives to describe your experience. At this
stage, you can simply make notes using short phrases, but you need to ensure that you’re recording your responses,
perceptions, and your experience of the event
The organization of a reflective essay is very similar to other types of essays. An outline of a great reflective essay is laid out for your use below.
• Your first paragraph should be an introduction in which you identify the subject and give the reader a general overview of the impression it made on you. Your introductory paragraph should also include a thesis statement that will serve as the focal point of your paper.
• Example Thesis: “Why was I feeling so peaceful while walking down this beach? I realized it was because the beach had always been a place of rest to me.”
1. In the first body paragraph, write about one reason your subject made the impression on you that it did. Then, write about why. This is a reflective essay, which means you can speculate. There are no right or wrong answers in this type of essay.
2. In the second body paragraph, write about the second reason your subject made the impression on you that it did.
Then, write about why.
In the third body paragraph, write about why. Recap your thesis statement some final thoughts on Example Conclusion: much I appreciate her our busy lives. Now, I can take a trip to the beach write about and the your subject, “I sent my photo help in letting want to find a together.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8611