AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8611 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8611 Critical Thinking And Reflective 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Critical Thinking And Reflective (8611) Level: B.Ed
Semester: Autumn 2018
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Choose an article of your local newspaper and write a critical review of it using four steps of raising vital question, gathering further information, reflecting open mindedly, give your own conclusion.
Writing a Critical Review
A critical review is not to be mistaken for the literature review. A ‘critical review’ is a complete type of text, discussing one particular article or book in detail. The ‘literature review’, which also needs to be ‘critical’, is a part of a larger type of text e.g. a chapter of your dissertation.
Most importantly: Read your article / book as many times as possible, as this will make the critical review much easier.
1. Read and take notes 2. Organising your writing 3. Summary 4. Evaluation 5. Linguistic features of a critical review 6. Summary language 7. Evaluation language 8. Conclusion language 9. Example extracts from a critical review 10. Further resources Read and Take Notes To improve your reading confidence 1. What kind of article is it (for 2. What is the main area under 3. What are the main findings? 4. What are the stated limitations? 5. Where does the author’s data Organising your writing Summary You first need to summarise the have read the text. In your summary, you will
• focus on points within the • summarise the author(s) main • Explain how these ideas / data that they have collected? An overview of the necessary interviews and asking the right written work that includes unbiased Gathering Information
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The first step to writing a story involves gathering information about your topic. In order to do so, you need people who witnessed the event first hand or have extensive knowledge on said topic. In writing, especially in journalism, the information you use is the heart of your writing. Perhaps without details, sources, evidence, one’s writing will not have the intended impact of informing your audience. Conducting an Interview
When interviewing someone related or involved with a story, you are receiving information from primary sources. Before you begin interviewing someone, you need to make sure you know what questions to ask and how to ask them. Plan your interview as best you can and think carefully about the topics you want to cover. It would be helpful to write your questions out beforehand if you have time.
Questions to ask yourself before the interview:
1. What do you know and what do you need to know? 2. What are you trying to inform your audience about? 3. What are some of the outcomes? Not everyone will like your story or the topic you choose to write about so be
prepared for negative feedback. Be aware of any ethical issues pertaining to your topic as well.
Rich Martin author of the book, “Living Journalism”, who has more than 30 years of reporting and teaching experience, offers his advice about interviewing. These are some questions adopted from his list:
1. What organizational policies or professional guidelines should you consider? 2. How can you bring people with different perspectives and ideas into your decision making? 3. Who will be affected by your decision? Think about your topic and who will be reading about it. 4. How would you feel if roles were reversed and you were the subject of the story? 5. Are there ways to minimize harm while remaining true to the facts of the story?
Once you have answered these questions and feel as though you know a lot about the subject of matter then you can consider questions that you want to find out from the person you are interviewing. It’s a given that you want to hear all sides of the story to prevent a biased opinion , but also keep in mind that there may not always be two sides to a story, so do your research. University of Delaware Professor of Journalism Ben Pagoda refers to this instance as False Equivalency. He refers to this example:
• The flu vaccine. The question parents are asking themselves is should or shouldn’t my child get the flu vaccine? Reporters may think there are two sides of this story and the truth lies in the middle, but it doesn’t. “That would be saying that only a portion of children should get the flu vaccine when medical reports prove that all children should,” says Yagoda. Evaluation Evaluation your Explicit Explicit article thought are Implicit Implicit language do your Critical You example, a
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8611 Autumn 2018
Q.2 Explain gets and SOCIAL affected EXCLUSION MARGINALIZATION of exclusion.
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Social exclusion and marginalization is a theme that transcends all other areas of research. Human development outcomes often reflect the exclusion of disadvantaged groups, markets and economic institutions reproduce social inequalities and political systems can both restrain and empower marginalized voices.
Although exclusion and marginalization are often interchangeable, it’s worth noting a slight distinction. Marginalization refers to the set of processes through which some individuals and groups face systematic disadvantages in their interactions with dominant social, political and economic institutions. The disadvantages arise from class status, social group identity (kinship, ethnicity, caste and race), political affiliation, gender, age and disability.
Exclusion, when not synonymous with marginalization, describes the outcomes of marginalization. Examples of this include political under-representation, poor access to legal systems and a denial of public services.
This research cluster advances existing knowledge about social exclusion and marginality, raises the salience of these issues in policy and political debate and promotes more grounded perspectives on change agents.
Current academic debates widely notice that education contributes to reduce poverty and inequality. Actually, most researchers think that education is helpful to break processes of disadvantage and social exclusion insofar as it ‘endows’ individuals with both the cognitive and non-cognitive resources and skills that they need for their social inclusion. However, the relationship between education, poverty, inequality and social exclusion is neither mechanical nor linear. Although education can break the circles of social disadvantage, it also contributes to produce and reproduce these very circles.
Aiou Solved Assignments code 8611 Autumn 2018
Q.3 Observe classroom of social studies for five days, write down teaching strategies use in the classroom and explain which strategies help most in promoting critical thinking among students.
Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking Skills You can use the techniques below for teaching critical thinking skills in every lesson and subject. Get creative and find different ways to incorporate them into your teaching practices.
1. Begin with a Question This is the simplest foray into critical thinking. What do you want to explore and discuss? It shouldn’t be a question you can answer with a ‘yes’ or a ‘no.’ you want to develop essential questions here, ones that inspire a quest for knowledge and problem-solving. They’ll support the development of critical thinking skills beautifully. When you lose your question to students, encourage brainstorming. Write down possible answers on a chalkboard or oversized pad as a student reference. Having open discussions with students is a big part of defining the problem in Solution Fluency. 2. Create a Foundation Students cannot think critically if they do not have the information they need. Begin any critical thinking exercise with a review of related information. This ensures they can recall facts pertinent to the topic. These may stem from things like:
• reading assignments and other homework
• previous lessons or critical thinking exercises
• a video or text
3. Consult the Classics Great literary works are a perfect launch pad for critical thinking, with challenging narratives and deep characterization. Use them for specific lessons on character motivation, plot predictions, and theme. Here are some links to explore for resources:
• Skeptic North
• Shakespeare and Critical Thinking
• The Critical Thinking Community 4. Creating a Country This could be great project-based learning scenario requiring sufficient research to discover what actually makes a country. In the process students learn history, geography, politics, and more. Leave this assignment open-ended over a couple of days or weeks so they can really dig deep. Here are some resources to help you:
• The Geography Site
• Could You Start Your Own Country?
• How to Start Your Own Micro-nation
• 5. Use Information Fluency Part of critical thinking is knowing when to pursue and when to discard information. Students must learn to amass the appropriate knowledge to inform that thinking. Teaching critical thinking skills can be supported by an understanding of Information Fluency.
Mastering the proper use of information is crucial to our students’ success in school and life. It’s about learning how to dig through knowledge in order to find the most useful and appropriate facts for solving a problem. Critical thinking is deeply embedded in the process of Information Fluency. 6. Utilize Peer Groups There is comfort in numbers, as the saying goes. Digital kids thrive on environments where critical thinking skills develop through teamwork and collaboration. Show kids their peers are an excellent source of information, questions, and problem-solving techniques.
7. Try One Sentence Try this exercise: form groups of 8-10 students. Next, instruct each student to write one sentence describing a topic on a piece of paper. The student then passes the paper to the next student who adds their understanding of the next step in a single sentence. This time, though, that student folds the paper down to cover their sentence. Now only their sentence is visible and no other, so each time they pass students can only see one sentence. The object of the task is for students to keep adding the next step of their understanding. This teaches them to really home in on a specific moment in time. Additionally, they learn to critically apply their knowledge and logic to explaining themselves as clearly as possible. 8. Problem-Solving Assigning a specific problem is one of the best avenues for teaching critical thinking skills. Leave the goal or “answer” open-ended for the widest possible approach. This is the essence of asking essential questions requiring discovery and synthesis of knowledge through critical thinking. 9. Return to Roleplaying Roleplaying has always been an excellent method for exercising critical thinking. It’s why actors do tireless research for their roles as it involves inhabiting another persona and its characteristics. Becoming someone else calls upon stretching both your analytical and creative mind. Pair students up and have them research a conflict involving an interaction between two famous historical figures. Then lead them to decide which character they each choose to play. They’ll each have opposite points of view in this conflict. Have them discuss it until they can mutually explain the other’s point of view.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 8611
Q.4 Present a review of theories given by Dewey (1939) and Schön (1983), regarding reflection and reflective practice.
John Dewey (1859–1952) – Experience and Reflective Thinking, Experience and Reflective Thinking The starting place in Dewey’s philosophy and educational theory is the world of everyday life. Unlike many philosophers, Dewey did not search beyond the realm of ordinary experience to find some more fundamental and enduring reality. For Dewey, the everyday world of common experience was all the reality that man had access to or needed.
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For Dewey, learning was primarily an activity which arises from the personal experience of grappling with a problem. This concept of learning implied a theory of education far different from the dominant school practice of his day, when students passively received information that had been packaged and predigested by teachers and textbooks. Thus, Dewey argued, the schools did not provide genuine learning experiences but only an endless amassing of facts, which were fed to the students, who gave them back and soon forgot them.
Dewey distinguished between the psychological and the logical organization of subject matter by comparing the learner to an explorer who maps an unknown territory. The explorer, like the learner, does not know what terrain and adventures his journey holds in store for him. He has yet to discover mountains, deserts, and water holes and to suffer fever,
starvation, and other hardships. Finally, when the explorer returns from his journey, he will have a hard-won knowledge of the country he has traversed. Then, and only then, can he produce a map of the region. The map, like a textbook, is an abstraction which omits his thirst, his courage, his despairs and triumphs–the experiences which made his journey personally meaningful. The map records only the relationships between landmarks and terrain, the logic of the features without the psychological revelations of the journey itself. School and Life Ideas and experiences which are not woven into the fabric of growing experience and knowledge but remain isolated seemed to Dewey a waste of precious natural resources. The dichotomy of in-school and out-of-school experiences he considered especially wasteful, as he indicated as early as 1899 in The School and Society:
Thus Dewey affirmed his fundamental belief in the two-sidedness of the educational process. Neither the psychological nor the sociological purpose of education could be neglected if evil results were not to follow. To isolate the school from life was to cut students off from the psychological ties which make learning meaningful; not to provide a school environment which prepared students for life in society was to waste the resources of the school as a socializing institution. Democracy and Education Dewey recognized that the major instrument of human learning is language, which is itself a social product and is learned through social experiences. He saw that in providing a pool of common meanings for communication, the language of each society becomes the repository of the society’s ideals, values, beliefs, and accumulated knowledge. To transmit the contents of the language to the young and to initiate the young in the ways of civilized life was for Dewey the primary function of the school as an institution of society. But, he argued, a way of life cannot be transmitted by words alone. Essential to acquiring the spirit of a way of life is immersion in ways of living.
More specifically, Dewey thought that in a democratic society the school should provide students with the opportunity to experience democracy in action. For Dewey, democracy was more than a form of government; it was a way of living which went beyond politics, votes, and laws to pervade all aspects of society. Dewey recognized that every social group, even a band of thieves, is held together by certain common interests, goals, values, and meanings, and he knew that every has and A among according limitations from The epistemology The argued experimentation’ in His Rein policy design capabilities. democratic the been last interests processes heart (a the such professional controversies and, groups that colleague major effects attained of to group of it in this and was Dewey, of society, the particular, are new and of practice study interact (op. social also at in minimized, ‘susceptible development development economic literary MIT). can any cit.). therefore, comes the was, group be society based the freely schools Frame project His reconciled. he role inequalities.
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Donald Schön died September 13, 1997 at Brigham and Women’s Hospital after a seven-month illness.
Public and private learning, and the learning society While it is Donald Schon’s work on organizational learning and reflective practice that tends to receive the most attention in the literature, his exploration of the nature of learning systems and the significance of learning in changing societies has helped to define debates around the so called ‘learning society’. Indeed, Stewart Ranson (1998: 2) describes Donald Schon as ‘the great theorist of the learning society’. He was part of the first wave of thinkers around the notion (other key contributors include Robert M. Hutchins 1970; Amitai Etzioni 1968; and Torsten Husen 1974). Hutchins, in a book first published in 1968, had argued that a ‘learning society’ had become necessary. ‘The two essential facts are… the increasing proportion of free time and the rapidity of change. The latter requires continuous education; the former makes it possible (1970: 130). He looked to ancient Athens for a model.
Donald Schon (1973, first published 1971) takes as his starting point the loss of the stable state. Belief in the stable state, he suggests, is belief in ‘the unchangeability, the constancy of central aspects of our lives, or belief that we can attain such a constancy’ (Schon 1973: 9). Such a belief is strong and deep, and provides a bulwark against uncertainty. Institutions are characterized by ‘dynamic conservatism’ – ‘a tendency to fight to remain the same’ (ibid.: 30). However, with technical change continuing exponentially its pervasiveness and frequency was ‘uniquely threatening to the stable state’ (ibid.: 26). He then proceeds to build the case for a concern with learning (see inset).
Exhibit 1: Donald Schon on learning and the loss of the stable state
The loss of the stable state means that our society and all of its institutions are in continuousprocesses of transformation. We cannot expect new stable states that will endure for our own lifetimes.
We must learn to understand, guide, influence and manage these transformations. We must make the capacity for undertaking them integral to ourselves and to our institutions.
We must, in other words, become adept at learning. We must become able not only to transform our institutions, in response to changing situations and requirements; we must invent and develop institutions which are ‘learning systems’, that is to say, systems capable of bringing about their own continuing transformation.
The task which the loss of the stable state makes imperative, for the person, for our institutions, for our society as a whole, is to learn about learning.
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at the same time be capable of transforming themselves. (Schon 1973: 57) Schon’s great innovation at this point was to explore the extent to which companies, social movements and governments were learning systems – and how those systems could be enhanced. He suggests that the movement toward learning systems is, of necessity, ‘a groping and inductive process for which there is no adequate theoretical basis’ (op. cit). The business firm, Donald Schon argues, is a striking example of a learning system. He charts how firms moved from being organized around products toward integration around ‘business systems’ (ibid.: 64). In an argument that has found many echoes in the literature of the ‘learning organization’ some twenty years later, Donald Schon makes the case that many companies no longer have a stable base in the technologies of particular products or the systems build around them. A firm is:
… an internal learning system in which the system’s interactions… must now become a matter of directed
transformation of the whole system. These directed transformations are in part the justification for the business
systems firm. But they oblige it to internalise processes of information flow and sequential innovation which have
traditionally been left to the ‘market’ and to the chain reactions within and across industry lines – reactions in which
each firm had only to worry about its own response as one component. The business firm, representing the whole
functional system, must now learn to effect the transformation and diffusion of the system as a whole. (Schon 1973:
75) In many respects, we could not ask for a better rationale for Peter Senge’s later championship of the Fifth Discipline (systemic thinking) in the generation of learning organizations. Two key themes arise out of Donald Schon’s discussion of learning systems: the emergence of functional systems as the units around which institutions define themselves; and the decline of centre-periphery models of institutional activity (ibid.: 168). He contrasts classical models of diffusing innovation with a learning system model.
Classical models for the diffusion of innovations or Learning systems’ models around the diffusion of innovation
The unit of innovation is a product or technique. The unit of innovation is a functional system.
The pattern of diffusion is centre-periphery. The pattern of diffusion is systems transformation.
Relatively fixed centre and leadership. Shifting centre, ad hoc leadership.
Relatively stable message; pattern of replication of a central message.
Evolving message; family resemblance of messages.
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Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8611
situations isn’t systems… all undertakes significance capacity whenever projective secondary simply from that of secondary the [G]overnment for social something it a models centres. of behaviour ‘ways continuing, acquires networks, change. of that to that knowing’ new primary in can as Donald directed is flexibility, which a capacity be individual. learning carried offered government Schon inquiry for feedback system forward Scope ‘Feedback’ throughout Learning behaviour, looks by into the carries learns to limited the and dominant into a can nature, more the organizational and loops further for with also by systems learning the ‘existentially’-oriented infrastructure rational/experimental operate it causes be instances society the social:
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The need for public learning carries with it the need for a second kind of learning. If government is to learn to solve new public problems, it must also learn to create the systems for doing so and discard the structure and mechanisms grown up around old problems. (Schon 1973: 109)
The opportunity for learning, Donald Schon suggests, is primarily in discovered systems at the periphery, ‘not in the nexus of official policies at the centre’ (ibid.: 165). He continues, ‘the movement of learning is as much from periphery to periphery, or from periphery to centre, as from centre to periphery’. Very much after Carl Rogers, Donald Schon asserts that, ‘Central comes to function as facilitator of society’s learning, rather than as society’s trainer’ (ibid.: 166).
Taken together, the themes that emerged in Beyond the Stable State provided a rich and highly suggestive basis for theorizing about both ‘the learning society’ and ‘the learning organization’. Yet for all his talk of networks and the significance of the ‘periphery, Donald Schon’s analysis falters when it comes to the wider picture.
While his critical analysis of systems theory substitutes responsive networks for traditional hierarchies, his theory of governance remains locked in top-down paternalism. Only an understanding of the role of democratic politics can provide answers to the purposes and conditions for the learning society he desires. The way societies learn about themselves, and the processes by which they transform themselves, is through politics, and the essence of politics is learning through public deliberation, which is the characteristic of effective learning systems. (Ranson (1998: 9)
Donald Schon’s later work with Martin Rein around frame reflection does attend to some matters of public deliberation – but the broad line of argument made by Stuart Ranson here would seem to stand. It was the contribution of two of Schon’s contemporaries – Ivan Illichand Paulo Freire – that takes us forward. The formers focus on learning webs, the debilitating impact of professionalization, and the need for an ecological appreciation; and the latter’s championship of dialogue and concern to combat oppression allow for a more committed and informed engagement with the ‘learning society’ and ‘learning organization’. Double-loop learning and theories in use Donald Schon’s work on learning systems fed nicely into a very significant collaboration with Chris Argyris around professional effectiveness and organizational learning. Their (1974) starting point was that people have mental maps with regard to how to act in situations. This involves the way they plan, implement and review their actions. Furthermore, they asserted that it is these maps that guide people’s actions rather than the theories they explicitly espouse. One way of making sense of this is to say that there is split between theory and action. Chris Argyris and Donald Schon suggested that two theories of action are involved. They are those theories that are implicit in what we do as practitioners and managers, and those on which we call to speak of our actions to others. The former can be described astheories-in-use. The words we use to convey what we, do or what we would like others to think we do, can then be called espoused theory. This was an important distinction and is very helpful when exploring questions around area).To (1974) Governing impact Action Consequences: and Q.5 school we writing 1. Begin have unintended. Write initially upon professional strategies: helps managing the fully with variables: a opportunity a us appreciate personal a number looked gracious what In become the addition activity and happens moves of to those organizational to note better theory-in-use three such heart: build those dimensions .Develop and on as variables elements:
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and grammar, or even having the nicest handwriting. Letting go of what we think we should write about requires courage and can lead to boundless creative possibilities. A journal is a safe place for us to work things out, express our innermost feelings and engage with our own thoughts.
2. Set the tone: Carve out a special time and place to write. We each have a time of day when we are more productive. For some, writing in the mornings is more productive and helps face the day while others prefer writing in the evening to help process the day’s events. Whether in a quiet area of the house, or in a bustling coffee shop, finding
the right time and environment for reflective writing can help us relax. Carrying a small journal in our bag or purse can help us record and retrieve special moments in our day.
3. Decide what type of journal to begin: Gratitude journals focus on life’s blessings, prayer journals record life moments or people in need prayer, and personal development journals track career goals. Fitness journals help maintain accountability and encouragement with healthier living choices, travel journals record experiences encountering new places and people, and art journals serve as a way to collect inspirational thoughts, images, sketches and clippings. Take your pick! 4. Use a variety of reflective prompts: a) Ask questions with a limit: Write about two moments you’ll never forget, five words that best describe you and 10 things that make you smile. Limiting ourselves to certain parameters helps us focus.
b) Stream of consciousness writing: Based on Julia Cameron’s The Artists Way, write down whatever comes to mind for three minutes. Putting un-edited thoughts to paper is an excellent meditative practice for our busy lives. c) Write a letter to yourself: Record your goals, what you want your life to look like in a year’s time, and ways you can attempt to achieve it. Seal it and open it in six months to see how you are doing. d) Pick a memento: Choose an object and write about when, where and from who it was received. Discuss its importance and meaning. Objects have the power to open floodgates to meaningful memories. 5. Seek out community resources: Look for local writers’ groups either at the library or community centre, local creative arts classes that have writing components, or even swap ideas with friends and family.Remind yourself there is not a right or wrong way to write reflectively; it’s a “space for questions that may not have answers, a place for thoughts the My The matter and the Prepare During different made always Or As flexible. remember students such, world.” experience. Student help student sure into things my You you for that ways I realized that that student action. (Kelly would teaching the Teaching become may never that to you I In had Unexpected present fact, otherwise would Brown) You require that teaching need know all experience the here I Experience: get of to needed the go kind what’s much the be to are experience, wrong. not information test while materials prepared of some have to more allows teacher going the be Technology Student waters things a prepared time home to for you and I that for spent come changes. and to other that under each Teaching
you and put as a explanation up would I lot want a things lesson. much learned everything the or safe Figure of what supervision to time fail. as container that I be. during looked possible, will out than Students preparing I If that needed alternative you catch expected.
my for you’ve for of embrace but, time would an emotions the activities before each experienced more students’ learned as activities lesson complete a the class importantly, student that so opportunity, about that plan. started. attention. my in teacher activities teacher. order they students education I worked Even I do to needed who When you not help quicker then, would hard can can and have creating your to there guide learn your to prepare enjoy, than to day research be were subject a you lessons, planned. lot go loose and to along as from
be I or in smoothly as possible and allow your students to gain the most from the lessons.
Teaching is difficult. You’re going to have rough days, and you’re going to need help sometimes. Introduce yourself to the librarian, cafeteria staff, administrators, custodians, secretaries, and other teachers. As I talked to other teachers about lessons that I was working on, they had plenty of suggestions for activities that I could use. I loved getting ideas for tried and true activities for my students, but I also enjoyed the tips and ideas that they could provide to help me grow as a teacher. They could also help you land a teaching job, too. Not only can making friends prove to help you as a teacher, but it can also make your day more fun. Rather than eating lunch in your room every day to catch up on work, go to the lunch room and mingle with other teachers. Talk to teachers on the playground. Use the time to get to know others, and you just might end up making a friend for life
NTRODUCTION The following reflective writing essay will centre on a particular event that I witnessed. I will be using Gibbs’ model of reflection, from Gibbs, G. (1988). For confidentiality purposes, I will name my family member as Estelita who is a fifty five year old female.
DESCRIPTION Estelita was experiencing shortness of breath and chest pain. She called an ambulance, whereby a FRU car arrived, followed by a backup ambulance crew. The FRU responder performed a primary survey on Estelita, after which she was transported to the nearest hospital by the backup crew who made her walk to the ambulance at the start of the journey and on her arrival at A&E.
FEELINGS My initial feelings towards the
Von Essen (1994) opposed the view that patients placed interpersonal aspects of caring as more important than care
tasks. Interestingly, patients made few comments about technical excellence of health care professionals. Halldorsdottir
and Hamrin’s (1997) study found that ‘patients emphasised the importance of professional competence over
interpersonal aspects of care’. I think that as patients or family members, we automatically assume our health carers are
technically competent and I felt that a more humanistic approach would not have exacerbated an already distressing
situation. Thorne (1988) reported that patients perceived that communication with health care professionals was
important in enhancing care quality.
The doctor found states is a form of and a letter of apology ACTION PLAN
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be A attributed backup complaint to the HPC crew, to was standard her I sent will condition try to of the to conduct remain ambulance Fibromyalgia at professional all service times which
and regarding at Wallace, try all Daniel J. (2003)
the crew’s conduct
to continue the chain times even though I
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