AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8610 Autumn 2019

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8610 Autumn 2019. Solved Assignments code 8610 Human Development and Learning 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Assignment No. 1

AUTUMN 2018

Human Development and Learning (8610)

Q.1.Discussissues/controversiesinchilddevelopment.

Developmentisaprocessthatentailstheentirelife-spanofanindividual,fromconceptionto death.Someofusareintriguedtounderstandhowdoesdevelopmentevolveovertheyears, whatarethechangesthatoccurandhowdotheyoccurduringthelife-span?Astudyofall changesthroughoutthelife-spanofanindividualisreferredtoasdevelopmentalpsychology, developmentalscienceorhumandevelopment(Keenan&Evans,2009).However,whenwe focusourattentiontounderstandthegrowth,changesandconsistencies,onarathernarrower portionoflife-span,fromconceptionthroughadolescence,wearereferringtothestudyofchild development.Thefieldofchilddevelopmentismultidisciplinary,whichdrawsitsknowledge fromseveralotherfieldssuchaspsychology,sociology,anthropology,biologyand neurosciencetonameafew(Berk,2013).Likewise,itinformsthepracticesofvariousexperts whoarekeentoimprovethelivesofchildren.Theseinclude:educators,pediatricians, psychologists,childcareserviceproviders,socialserviceprofessionals,andparents.Inthisway, thefieldofchilddevelopmenthasbothscientificaswellaspracticalrelevanceandutility.

Whilethestudyofchilddevelopmentisimportantinitsownright,italsoinformsusaboutthe natureofhumandevelopment.Abetterunderstandingofthegrowth,changesandstabilityin theearlierbehaviorsoflifehasthepotentialtoinformlaterbehavior,alsoreferredtoasadult behavior.Aswefocusonthegrowthanddevelopmentofchildreninthisunit,wedrawuponthe principlesoflife-spandevelopmentalpsychologytoinformourunderstanding.

ISSUES/CONTROVERSIESINCHILDDEVELOPMENT

Anumberofcontroversiesexistinthefieldofchilddevelopmentduetoitscomplexnature. Researchersvaryintheiropinionabouthowchildrenchangeanddevelopovertime,whatare thesechangeslike,andwhatarethesimilaritiesanddifferencesetc(seeKeenan&Evans, 2009).Thesevariedperspectivesadvancetheknowledgeaboutchilddevelopmentand psychologybyguidingresearchindiverseareasofchilddevelopment(e.g.,social,emotional,

intellectual,andphysicaldevelopment)andcontradictingandintegratingdifferentviews.The followingsectionspresentthemostrecurrentissuesinthestudyofchilddevelopment.

Continuousordiscontinuous

Oneofthepuzzlingissuesinthestudyofchilddevelopmentishowtocharacterizethenatureof changesthatoccurwithtime?Aretheybestviewedasapartofacontinuousprocessordothey takeplaceindiscontinuousstages?Sometheoristsbelievethatdevelopmentisasmooth, continuousprocessinwhichrathersimpleknowledge,skillsandbehaviorsaregradually accumulatedtoformcomplexknowledge,skills,andbehaviors.Thisimpliesthattheprocessof developmentproceedsinanorganizedandorderlywayinwhichnewerandcomplexbehaviors areformedonthebasisofpreviousabilities.Contrarytothisview,othertheoristsbelievethat developmentisadiscontinuousprocessinwhichnewskillsandbehaviorsemergeinrather abruptanddisconnectedways.Fromthisperspective,developmenttakesplaceinstagesand mostlyinvolvesaqualitativereorganizationofknowledge,behaviors,skillsandfunctioning.Itis importanttonotethathowwechoosetoexaminedevelopment(i.e.,asacontinuousor discontinuousprocess)affectsourunderstandingandinterpretationoftheprocessaswell.

However,insteadoffocusingondevelopmentasacontinuousordiscontinuousprocess, developmentalpsychologistsurgetofocusonthesourcesofcontinuityordiscontinuity.Overall, itisassumedthatdevelopmenthasbothcontinuousanddiscontinuousaspects.

Singleormultiplecourses

Anotherissuewhichconcernsdevelopmentalpsychologistsiswhetherthereisasinglerouteof developmentoristheremany?Stagetheoristswhobelievethatdevelopmentoccursinaseries ofuniversalstagesarguethatthesamesequenceisfollowedeverywhere.Yet,others acknowledgespecificfeaturesofindividualsandthedistinctcontextualfactorsinwhichthey arebroughtup.Theybelievethatchilddevelopmentisinfluencedbyuniquecombinationsof personal(e.g.,heredityandbiologicalfactors)andenvironmental(e.g.,home,schooland communitysettings)circumstances,andthus,followsmultipleandvariedtracks.Overall, researcherstoday,aremoreconcernedaboutthecontextualfactorsthatinfluencethecourseof childdevelopment.Mostofthemacknowledgebothuniversalfactorsaswellastheunique personalandcontextualfeaturesinthestudyofchilddevelopment.

NatureorNurture(stabilityvs.plasticity)

Perhapsoneofthemostcontroversialquestionsinthestudyofchilddevelopmentisaboutits underlyingcause.Howdoesdevelopmenttakeplace?Whatarethebasicfactorsthatinfluence development?Theanswertothesequestionssparksadebateaboutthepossibleroleofnature versusnurtureinhumandevelopment.Thetermnatureimpliesthatthebiologicalandhereditary traitsthatwereceivefromourparentsareresponsibleforourdevelopment.Thetheoristswho stresstheroleofheredityinhumandevelopmentalsoemphasizestability(i.e.,thechildrenwho aregeneticallyhighorlowincertaintraitswillalsoremainsoinadulthood).Whereas,theterm nurturesuggeststhatthecomplexenvironmentalandculturalinfluencesareaccountablefor humandevelopment.Likewise,thetheoristswhoemphasizenurturebelievethatdevelopmentis substantiallyplasticandopentochangesthroughoutthelife-span.Thus,whilethetheorists attendtobothnatureandnurtureinexplaininghumandevelopment,theyvaryintheiremphasis.

However,theextremepositionsonnatureornurturearenolongersupported.Rather,itis arguedthatdevelopmentisinfluencedbyaninteractionofbothgeneticandenvironmental factors.Thisinteractionitviewisbecomingincreasinglypopularamongtheresearchersaswell asthegeneralpublic,forexample,parents.Inturn,researchersareencouragedtostudythe interplaybetweenthesetwofactorsinordertounderstandhowdevelopmenttakesplace.

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Q.2Whatkindofphysicalactivitiesshouldbeofferedatschool.

.Physicaldevelopmentisoneofthemajortopicalareasinthestudyofchilddevelopment.It focusesonthewaysinwhichtheoverallbody’sstructureincludingthebrain,nervoussystem, muscles,organs,sensesandthebodilyneeds(e.g.,hunger,thirst)determineanindividual’s behavioranddevelopment.Forexample,adevelopmentalpsychologistmightbeinterestedto seehowmalnutritionaffectsthephysicalgrowthofachild.

However,physicaldevelopmentisnotonlyspecifiedtothebiologicalandmaturationalchanges thatoccurovertimewithlittleornoinfluencefromthecontext.Rather,itisbelievedtooccur withinanenvironmentalcontext,wherefactorssuchasnutrition,opportunitiesforplay,cultural practicesetcplayasignificantrole.

ACTIVITIESINSCHOOLS

Physicalactivitiesplayacriticalroleindevelopingthebasicmovementskillsofchildren.Since itisdifficultforchildrentoworkonsedentaryactivitiesforlongerdurationoftime,thissection presentssomeideasaboutdevelopingphysicalactivitiesforchildreninthepreandelementary schoolyears.Theseideascanbemodifiedandexpandedincertainotherwaystosupportthe

physicaldevelopmentofchildren.

PreschoolandKindergarten

Preschoolchildrenaregenerallyagedbetweenthreetofiveyears.Atthisage,childrentendto developsufficientcontrolovertheirfinemotorskillswhichhelpthemtodraw,write,copy shapesandengageinactivitiesthatrequireprecisecontrolofhandandbodymovement. Childrenatthisagelearnbestthroughintrinsicinterestsandphysicalinvolvement.

Sometraditionalphysicalactivitiesforthisagelevelinvolverunning,jumping,hopping,skipping, drawing,coloring,painting,cutting,pasting,gluing,usingplaydough,rollers,andshapecutters etc.However,teachers,caregiversorparentscancertainlyextendthisnetworkinsomenon- traditionalways.Thismayinvolveusingoutsideplayasarewardforchildren,freeplaydays, dramaticplay,roleplay,sand,wetmudorclayplay,collage,cooking,buildingandrelaxation (e.g.,stretching,breathinginandbreathingout,closingeyes)activitiesetc.Besides, manipulativeactivities(e.g.,lego,scienceexperimentwithmagnets)andmusical,groupand movementactivities(e.g.,locomotorsmovementswhichinvolvechildrenrapidlymovingfrom placetoplace,nonlocomotorsmovementswhichinvolvechildrenperformingwhilekeeping stationary,andmanipulativemovementswhichinvolvechildrenusingtheirbodypartsto manipulateanobject)mayprovideexcellentopportunitiesforahealthyphysicaldevelopment.

Overall,physicalactivitiesthataremeaningfulandenjoyablearemorelikelytoproducepositive learningoutcomesamongyoungchildren.Suchactivitieslaythefoundationformanyother skillssuchasliteracy,numeracy,creativity,andemotionalstabilitywhichareneededinlater years.

ElementaryLevel

Theschoolagechildrencontinuetodeveloptheirgrossandfinemotorskills.Withthis refinement,theybecomeadeptatactivitieswhichrequireprecisehandandbodycontrol,for example,writing.Dailyphysicalactivitiesshouldbeincorporatedintotheschoolroutineof elementaryschoolchildrentomaintainactivephysicaldevelopment.Thiscanbedonein differentways,forexample,introducinghealthandphysicaleducationclassesandintegrating physicalactivitiesintootherareasofcurriculum.Besidesphysicaleducationclasses,thereare manyotherwaysinwhichteacherscanengagestudentsinphysicalactivities.Theseinclude, forexample,allocatingsometimeforphysicalactivityondailybasis,incorporatingconcepts fromotherareasofcurriculumintophysicalactivitytimeandviceversa,andprovidingchildren withhandsonexperiencesasmuchaspossible(e.g.,ratherthanteachingthemtheconcepts oflivingandnon-livingthingswithinthefourwallsofclassroom,takingthemoutonaschool

roundandhelpingthemunderstandtheconceptfromtheirsurroundings).Moreover,physical activitiesdescribedbeforecanalsobeeffectivelyusedforelementaryschoolchildrenbyadding consistentyetrealisticchallenges.Forexample,thesequentialpatternsforlocomotor movementscanbemademorecomplexasthechildlearnstocoordinateandcontrolhisbody movements.

Theoverallgoalofsuchactivitiesshouldbetomakechildrenmovetheirbodiesatamoderate orrigorouslevelofintensityforatleast20minutesduringtheschooltime.Someeducationists alsoarguethatengagingstudentsineffectivephysicalactivitiesatelementaryschoolislikely tohaveapositiveimpactontheiroverallhealthandwellbeingduringadulthoodby incorporatingalife-stylechange

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Q.3ExplainGardner’stheoryofMultipleIntelligence.

Gardner’stheoryofmultipleintelligence

Incontrasttotheviewthatintelligenceiscomposedofasingleorasmallnumberof overarchingabilities,HowardGardnersuggeststhatanindividualmayexhibitseveraltypesof intelligences.Hecategorizedtheseintelligencesintoeightidentifiableformsandarguesthat therecouldbepossiblymorethantheseforms.Hislistofintelligencesincludesthefollowing: logical-mathematical,linguistic,spatial,musical,bodilykinesthetic,interpersonal,intrapersonal andnaturalistic.Thisisfurtherelaboratedin

Gardner’stheoryofmultipleintelligencehasbeenwarmlyreceivedintheeducational communitysinceitgelswellwiththenotionsofindividualdifferencesamonglearnersand teacher’sexperiencesabouthowchildrenlearn(Woolfolk,2014).However,itiscriticizedthat thereisalackofaspecificcriterionaswellasempiricalevidencetosupportthe conceptualizationofintelligencebyGardner.

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Q.4Discussintellectualdevelopmentfrombirthtoadolescencewithreferencetopaigetian theoryofcognitivedevelopment.

Piaget’stheoryofcognitivedevelopment

Piagetbelievedthosechildren’scognitivedevelopmentprogressesthroughfourstageswhich involvesensori-motor,preoperational,concreteoperational,andformaloperationalperiods. Thesestagesaretreatedasfixedanduniversalandrepresentageneralsequencewhichis observableinalltypesofcognitivechange.Piagetarguedthatchildren’sthinkingandtheways throughwhichtheymakesenseoftheirexperiences(schemes)changewithage.Theinfancy periodismarkedbysensorimotoractionpatternsduringwhichachildactsontheobjects aroundhim/hertoformschemes.Soon,he/shebeginstoformmentalimageswhichhelpto transformthinkingandexperiencesintomeaningful,manageableandmemorablepatterns.This transformationinthinkingissupportedbytwocriticalprocessesincludingadaptationand organization.Adaptationinvolvestheprocessofdevelopingschemesbydirectlyworkingupon theenvironmentthroughassimilationoraccommodation.However,ifthebalancebetween thesetwoisdisturbed,itcausesacognitiveconflictordisequilibriumwithinthemindsof children.Itisimportanttoresolvetheconflictthrougheitherassimilationoraccommodationto bringthemindbacktotheequilibriumstate.Theseresultedindevelopingmoreeffective schemesthathelpthechildtoadvancehis/herthinking.

i.Thesensori-motorstage.

Thesensorimotorstageischaracterizedbythefirsttwoyearsoflifeduringwhichinfantsthink throughtheirfivesenses.Atthebeginningofthisstage,thesensoryreflexesofthechildserve tomakeupforhis/herintelligence.Thechildengagesincircularreactions(repeatingchance behaviors)whichhelphim/hertoadapttohis/hersurroundings.Later,thechilddeliberately

employsintentionalorgoaldirectedbehaviorsbycoordinatingdifferentschemestosolve simpleproblems.Objectpermanence(theabilitytounderstandthatobjectsexistevenwhen theyarenotseen)emergestowardstheendofthisperiodwhichhelpstosetthestagefor mentalrepresentationsandengagesthechildinmakebelieveplay.

ii.Thepreoperationalstage.

Aschildrengrow,theyenterinthepreoperationalstage(2to7years)whichcharacterizestheir immenserepresentationalorsymboliccapacities.Childrenmakeadvancementsintheirmental representationsastheydevelopmoreeffectiveschemes.Forexample,astheygetpastthefirst twoyearsoftheirlife,theirmake-believeplaygetsmoresophisticated.Thiscognitivechangeis seenwhenachildolderthan2yearsofagepretendstouseanobject(cup)indifferentways,for example,usingittodrinkwateraswellasusingitasahat.Similarly,children’sdrawingsget moremature,realisticanddetailedduringthepreschoolyears.However,theirexpanding cognitivecapacitiesarelimitedbytheirinabilitytotakeintoaccountsomeoneelse’sperspective, referredtoasegocentrism.

iii.Theconcreteoperationalstage.

Theconcreteoperationalstageextendsfrom7to11years.Asthechildrenenterthemiddle childhood,theyaccomplishanumberofcognitiveadvancements.Forexample,childrenatthis stageperformmentaloperationsthatfollowlogicalrules.Theyarecapableofthinkinginmore thanonedirectionandarecapabletoseeaproblemfromdifferentangles(decentration). Consequently,theyunderstandthatcertaincharacteristicsremainthesameeveniftheychange theoutwardappearance(conservation).Theirunderstandingofspaceismoreprecisewhen comparedwiththepreschoolchildren.Theyarecapableofdevelopinglogicalhierarchiesand classificationsystemsandcanperformreversibleactionswhichdemonstratesthatthechildren havenowdevelopedlogical,flexibleandorganizedschemesthanbefore.

iv.Theformaloperationalstage.

Childrendevelopthecapacityforanabstractandsystematicthinkingaround11yearsofage. Piagetreferredtothisstageasformaloperationalstage.Whilethechildrencanperform operationswiththerealobjectsattheconcreteoperationalstage,theyarenowreadyto performmental,abstractoperationswithoutanyconcretethingsorevents.Themainfeatures ofthisstageincludehypothetical-deductivereasoningandpropositionalthought.These abilitiesrefertothechildren’scapacitytoformandevaluatelogicalpropositionswithout referringtotherealworldcircumstancesandsystematicallyreachingaconclusion. Accompanyingthisstage,comestheindividual’sdesiretogetnoticed,oftenreferredtoas adolescentegocentrism.Thisisaheightenedself-consciousnessphaseinwhichthegrowing

adolescentstendtobelievethatothersareinterestedintheminthesamewayastheyare themselves.Thisstatecausesirresponsibleanduncontrolledbehaviorsoftenleadingtosuicide attempts,negativethoughts,anddruguseetc.

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Q.5Whatissocialdevelopment?Whyisitimportant?

.CONCEPTOFSOCIALDEVELOPMENT

Socialdevelopmentisanimportantaspectofchilddevelopment.Itistheabilitytoformpositive andpleasingrelationshipswithothers(Cohenandothers2005).Socialdevelopmentincludes learningthevalues,knowledgeandskillsthatenablechildrentorelatetootherseffectivelyand tocontributeinpositivewaystofamily,schoolandthecommunity.Thiskindoflearningis deliveredontochildrenbythreemeans:directlybyparentsandteachers;indirectlythrough socialrelationshipswithinthefamilyorwithfriends,andthroughchildren’sparticipationinthe culturearoundthem.Throughtheirrelationshipswithothersandtheirdevelopingawarenessof socialnorms,valuesandexpectations,childrenconstructasenseofidentity(whotheyare).As childrendevelopsocially,theynotonlylearnhowtoreactappropriatelyinvarietyofsituations butalsoplayroleinshapingtheirrelationships.

Thedevelopmentofthesocialandemotionalhealthofachildisimportantforthedevelopment ofhisappropriate(right)behavior,understandingoflifeandshifttoadulthood.Socialemotional developmenthelpsshapeachildintowhathewillbecomelaterinlifebyteachingproper reactionstoemotionalmatters.Socialskillsareallaboutachild’sabilitytocooperateandplay withothers,payingattentiontoadultsandteachers,andmakingreasonabletransitionsfrom activitytoactivity.Emotionaldevelopmentistheprocessoflearninghowtounderstandand controlemotions

SocialDevelopment:Whyisitimportant?

Humanbeingsarenaturallysocial.Developingskillsinthisdomainincreaseschild’scapacityto besuccessfulatschoolandinsociallife.Developmentinsocialskillsenhancesmentalhealth, successatwork,andtheabilitytobeusefulcitizen.Socialskillsincludevariousabilitiessuchas communication,problem-solving,decisionmaking,self-management,andpeerrelations.These skillsenableanindividualtobuildandmaintainpositivesocialrelationshipswithothers. Extremesocialbehaviorsinterferewithlearning,teaching,andtheclassroom’sorganization. Socialcompetenceisrelatedtopeeracceptance,teacheracceptance,presentsuccess,and future(postschool)success.Ifachilddoesnotdisplayappropriatesocialskills,otherchildren

don’tlikehimandwillnotmakefriendswithhim.Sometimeschildrenworkhardtodisplaythe newandbetterbehaviorsthey’vebeentoldtoshow,butarestillexcludedbyothers,perhaps duetopastreputationormaybebecauseothersdon’tlikethenewlylearnedbehaviorswhich don’tseem”natural.”Atothertimes,studentsmaystillfailbecausetheyhavedifficulty monitoringandcontrollingtheirbehaviorwhenunexpectedreactionsoccur.Teachercanhelp studentshowtocopewithsuchsocialproblemsanddevelopadjustmentabilityinthecircle.

Thesocialcontextsinwhichchildrenlivehaveimportantinfluencesontheirdevelopment. AccordingtoBronfenbrenner,threeofthecontextsinwhichchildrenspendmuchoftheirtime arefamilies,peers,andschools.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8610 Autumn 2018

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