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Home / AIOU Tutors / AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8610 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8610 Human Development and Learning 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Assignment No. 2

AUTUMN 2018

Human Development and Learning (8610)

Q.1.Howcanteachersimproveemotionaldevelopmentatpreschoolandkindergarten level?

EMOTIONALCHARACTERISTICSOFLEARNERSATPRESCHOOLLEVEL

Emotionsofpreschoolchildrenarelargelyonsurface.Childrenatthislevelexhibit followingcharacteristics:

Childrenlaughwhenadultslaughoronanoddevent.Itshowsexpansionofhumor

Lessnegativism

Commencementofphobiasandfearsthatmayprolongtoagefive

Atfouryearsintentionallyingmaybegin

ActivitiesforSocialandEmotionalDevelopmentatPreschoollevel

Followingsectionpresentssomeclassroomactivitiesateachercanusetodevelop socioemotionalskills.Youcangettheideaanddesignyourowninnovativeactivities accordingtotheleveloflearnersandaccessiblesources.

ICanHelp

Itwillbedifficultforchildrenofpreschoolagetofullygraspemotionalconcepts, especiallycomplexemotions.Thereforeteachershouldfocusonbasicemotionssuch ashappy,sad,angry,andhurt.

Materials:

•Largepiecesofchartpaper/posterboard

•Markers

Whattodo:

1.Drawahappyfaceontopofthechartpaperandaskthechildwhatheseesandwhat itmeans.

2.Askhimtotellthingsthatmakehimhappy.

3.Askwhathecandotofeelhappy.

4.Drawanunhappyfaceandrepeattheprocess.Alsoaskthechildwhathecandoifhe seesafriendwhoisunhappy.

5.Drawanangryfaceswellassomeonewhoisupset.

Variation:

Talkingaboutemotionswithachildcanbemadeeasierbyusingbooks.Findoutsome booksinUrdulanguageorinmothertongue,whicharewrittenanddesignedforchildren ofthisage.

EMOTIONALCHARACTERISTICSOFLEARNERSATKINDERGARTENLEVEL

Atagefivechildrenbegintocontrolemotionsandtrytoexpresstheminsocially acceptableways.

Frequentquarrelsamongchildrenbutthesequarrelsareofshortduration.

Atsixthereischangeinemotionsandchildseemstobeinemotionalconfusion.New kindofworriesarisebyjoiningschool.

Angeroutburst(explosion;expressionofanger)mayappear

Developmentofconscience(senseofrightandwrong)atfivestarts

Atsixacceptanceofrulesdevelopsandoftenthereisrigidinsistenceonobeying

therulesinallconditions.

i.Activitiestodevelopemotionalskillsatkindergarten

MakingaTrain

Groupprojectshelpyoungchildrenbyprovidingthemwiththeopportunitytoshareand worktogethertoachievesomegoal.

Materials:

•Cardboardboxes

•Paint

•Crayons

•Markers

ii.Whattodo:

1.Arrangecardboardboxesforthechildrentomakeatraintogether.

2.Askchildrentodecoratetheboxesandthenputthemtogetherlikeatrain(orany otherobjectthatmightbeinterestingtothem).

3.Havelimitedsuppliesavailabletosupportchildreninsharingthematerialsasthey makethetraintogether.

4.Talkaboutsharingwhilethechildrenarebuildinganddecoratingthetrain.Givepraise commentsoracknowledgementwhenchildrenshare.

Askthemhowtheyfeelwhentheyhavetowaittousethethingthattheywant.

Askthemtolistthingstheycandowhiletheywaittheirturnandsharethematerials

(workonanotherpartofthebox,usecrayonswhiletheywaitformarkers,make

streamersforthetrain).

iii.PasstheHat

Thisactivityprovideschildrenwiththechancetopracticedifferentfeelingsinasafe

environment.

Materials:

•Picturesrepresentingvariousfeelingfaces

•Hat,basket,orlargeenvelope

iv.Whattodo?

1.Cutoutpictureswhichrepresentvariousfeelingfacesandplacetheminahat,

basketorlargeenvelope.

2.Passthehatamongtheplaymatesandplaymusic.

3.Stopthemusic.Thechildholdingthehatpicksapictureofanemotion.

4.Askthechildtoidentifyit,showfacialexpressions.Thechildcanalsodescribea timewhenhefeltthatway.

5.Continuepassingthehatuntilallchildrengetachancetoparticipate.

v.Variation:

•Havethechildrenlookthroughmagazinesandnewspaperstofindvariousfeeling faces.Theycancutthemoutandmakeafeeling-facecollection.Adultscanhelpthe childrenlabelthedifferentfeelingfaces.

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Q.2.DiscussKohlberg’stheoryofmoraldevelopment.

LawrenceKohlberg’sTheory(1927-1987)

LawrenceKohlbergstartedasadevelopmentalpsychologistandthenmovedontothefieldof moraleducation.Throughhisstudies,Kohlbergdisplayedthatpeopledevelopedintheirmoral reasoningthroughaseriesofstages.Hebelievedthatthereweresixidentifiablestagesof moralreasoning.Thesestagescanbeclusteredintothreelevelsofcomplexity.Theyare:

LevelI-Pre-ConventionalReasoning

Atthislevel,thechildcannotunderstandtheconceptofmoralvalues.Moralreasoningis controlledbyexternalrewardsandpunishments.

Stage1:PunishmentandObedience

Moralthinkingisbasedonpunishment.Childrenobeybecauseadultstellthemto obey.Whateverisrewardedisgood;whateverispunishedisbad.

Stage2:IndividualismandPurpose

Moralthinkingisbasedonrewardsandself-interest.Childrenobeywhentheywanttoobeyand whenitisintheirbestintereststoobey.Whatisrightiswhatfeelsgoodandwhatisrewarding.

I’lldosomethinggoodforyouifyoudosomethinggoodforme.

Level2-ConventionalReasoning

Atthislevel,internalizationistransitional.Thechildabidesbycertainstandards(internal). However,thesearethestandardsofothers(external)suchasparentsorthelawsofsociety.

Stage3:InterpersonalNorms

Childrengiveimportancetotrust,caringandfaithfulnesstoothersasthebasisofmoral judgment.Atthisstage,childrenoftenadopttheirparents’moralstandards.Theymakeefforts tobeconsideredbyparentsasa”goodboy”ora“goodgirl.Thisimpressionisrewardingfor children.

Stage4:SocialSystemMorality

Moraljudgmentsarebasedonunderstandingthesocialorder,law,justiceandduty.For example,achildmightsaythatitisalwayswrongtostealbecauselawsthathavebeen developedareforthebenefitofsociety.

Goodisdefinedbylawsofsociety,bydoingone’sduty.Alawshouldbeobeyedevenifitisnot fair.

Level-Post-ConventionalReasoning

Atthislevelmoralityiscompletelyinternalized(adopted)bytheindividualandisnotbasedon others’standards.Theadolescentidentifiesalternativemoralways,searchesforthechoices andthendecidesonpersonalmoralcodes.

Stage5:CommunityRightsversusIndividualRights

Theadolescentunderstandsthatvaluesandlawsarenotabsolutebutrelative.Healsoknows thatstandardsmaydifferfromonepersontoanother.Thepersonrecognizesthatlawsare importantforsocietybutknowsthatlawscanbechanged.Hebelievesthatsomevalues,such asliberty,aremoreimportantthanthelaw.Valuesandlawsarerelativeandstandardsmayvary fromonepersontoanother.

Goodisunderstoodintermsofabstract(mental)principlesthatthesocietyhassettleddown. Anunfairlawoughttobechanged.

Stage6:UniversalEthicalPrinciples

Atthisstageindividualhasdevelopedamoralstandardbasedonuniversalhumanrights.When facedwithaconflictbetweenlawandconscience,thepersonwillfollowconscience,even thoughthedecisionmightinvolvepersonalrisks.Goodisunderstoodintermsofabstract principles.Theemphasisisonhumanrightswithoutcaringfortheapprovalofsociety.

Kohlberg’stheoryshowsusthatmoralreasoningisacomplexprocessandthechildneeds guidancethroughouthisdevelopmentalstages.

Inthepre-schoolage,youwillbedealingwithchildrenofthefirsttwostagesandinthelongrun thethirdstage,butitisimportantforyoutounderstandthewholeprocessofmoral developmentaccordingtotheperspectiveofLawrenceKohlberg.

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Q.3.Explaincomponentsoflanguage.

COMPONENTSOFLANGUAGE

1Phoneme

Aphonemeisabasicunitofphonology.Itisthesmallestunitofsoundthatmaycausea changeofmeaningwithinalanguage.Itdoesn’thavemeaningbyitself.Phonemesmatchupto thesoundsofthealphabet,althoughthereisnotalwaysaone-to-oneconnectionbetweena letterandaphoneme.

Forexample,theword“hat”hasthreephonemes:

1- /h/

2- /a/

3- /t/

However,theword”shape,”hasfivelettersbutonlythreephonemes:

1- /sh/

2- /long-a/

3- /p/

Englishlanguagehasaround45differentphonemes,whichareassociatedtolettersor combinationsofletters.Aphonemecanhaveaspecificpronunciationinonewordanda differentpronunciationinanotherword.

2Phonology

Phonologyisthebranchoflanguage,whichisconcerned,withtheorderlyorganizationof soundsinlanguage.Generallyithasfocusonthestudyofsystemofphonemesinlanguage.It coverslinguisticanalysiseitheratthelevelofwordoratthelevelsoflanguagewheresoundis assumedtobestructureforconveyinglinguisticmeaning.Phonologyincludesthestudyof equivalentorganizationalsystemsofsignsinlanguage.Thestudyofverbalcommunication structurewithinthelanguageisknownasthephonology.Thesmallestunitofsoundto formulatethelanguageiscalledthephoneme.

Forexample,

Word“CAT”containsthreephonemes.

Word“HAT”containsthreephonemes.

Word“BAT”containsthreephonemes.

Thewordphonologyalsoreferstothephonologicalsystem(systemofsounds)ofthelanguage. Thisisthefundamentalsystemswhichalanguageiscomprisedof.Phonologyisveryoften distinguishedfromphonetics.Phoneticsconcernswiththephysicalproduction,audio communicationandunderstandingofthesounds.Phonologydescribesthewaysounds functionwithinalanguagetoencodethemeaning.Phoneticsbelongstodescriptivelinguistics andphonologytotheoreticallinguistics.

3Morphology

ThetermmorphologyisGreekandisamakeupof

MorphMeansshape,form.

-ologyMeansthestudyofsomething.

Thetermisalsousedin

1.Biologyasthescientificstudyofstructureofanimalsandplants

2.Geologyasthestudyofformationandevolutionofrocksandlandforms.

Morphemesincludebasewords,like.

“Cat”,“Cow,“Dog”,“Goat”

Andaffixeslike

Un-Un-planned,Un-seen,Un-pleasant

Re-Re-play,Re-tell,Re-call

Knowledgeofthemorphologyisrelatedtovocabularydevelopmentandreflectsthesmallest buildingblocksforcomprehension.Morphemes,thebasicunitofmorphology,arethesmallest meaningfulunitoflanguage.So,amorphemeisaseriesofphonemesthathasaspecial meaning.Somemorphemesareindividualwords(suchas”eat”or”water”).Theseareknownas freemorphemesbecausetheycanexistontheirown.Othermorphemesareprefixes,suffixes, orotherlinguisticpiecesthataren’tfullwordsontheirownbutdoaffectmeaningsuchasthe”- s”attheendof“cats”orthe”re-“atthebeginningof“re-play”.

4Syntax

Syntaxisrelatedtothestructureofsentencesanditdetermineswhichwordstogowhere. Studyingofsyntaxallowsustounderstandtherulesabouthowlanguageworks.Itisbelieved thattherearecertainrulesthatapplytoalllanguages.Syntaxisasetofrulesforconstructing

fullsentencesoutofwordsandphrases.Everylanguagehasadifferentsetofsyntacticrules.In English,thesmallestformofasentenceisanounandaverbphrase.Adjectivesandadverbs canbeaddedtothesentencetoprovidefurthermeaning.Wordordermattersinlanguage.For example,theEnglishsentencestheAhmadatetheappleandtheappleatetheAhmaddonot meanthesamemeaning,eventhoughtheycontaintheexactsamewords.

5Semantics

Semanticsisthestudyofmeaning.Whatismeaning?Howismeaningcreatedinlanguage? Howdopeopleunderstandlanguageandwhydoweunderstanditlikewedo?Oneofthemain reasonsweuselanguageistopassmeaningfromonepersontoanother,andsemanticsdeals withit.Grammaticalstructureofthelanguagehelpsusunderstandthelanguage.Semantics referstothewaysinwhichalanguageconveysmeaning.Semanticsmovesbeyondtheliteral meaningofwordsinlanguageandisculturedependent.

6.Pragmatics

Itisthestudyofhumanactions,thoughtsandlinguisticsigns,(wordsandsentences)inreal situations.Pragmaticsreferstothewaysthemembersofacommunityusethelanguage.The waytheyspeaktotheirparentsisnotthesamewaywespeakwithourfellowchildren.The languageusedinaformalconversationmayhavelessresemblancetowhatwecouldhearata lunchwithourfellowchildren.Theconversationalstylethatweuseinourdaytoday conversationismuchmoredifferentfromthatofthelanguageweusewhenwearereadinga storybookforakid.Pragmaticsdealswithknowingthedifferencebetweenthetwostylesand whentousewhichstyle.

Dearstudent:Asdiscussedabove,wecansummarizecomponentsoflanguageas

Phonemeisthebasicunitoflanguageandisconcernedwiththesoundsofalphabets.

Phonologydealswiththesoundsinalanguage.Morphologyisrelatedtothevocabulary building.

Syntaxdealswiththestructureofsentenceandthesequenceofwordsinit.

Semanticsstudiesmeaningsinalanguage.

Pragmaticsstudieshumanactionsandtheirexplanationbysignsinlanguage.

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Q.4.Describelawsoflearning.Alsodiscusstheeducationalimplicationsoftheselaws.

LawsofLearning

Learningisafundamentalingredientintheeducationofachild.Therefore,ateachermust understandfully,howlearningtakesplaceinthebestpossiblemanner,inthisconnection,itis

imperativethattheteachershouldknowwhatarecalled‘LawsofLearning’asgivenby Thorndikeandothers.Theymustbeacceptedandfundamentallawsoflearningare:

(i)LawofReadiness

(ii)LawofExercise

(iii)LawofEffect

Inadditiontothese,certainotherlawsoflearningwillalsobementionedbriefly.

(i)LawofReadiness:Thislawemphasizestheimportanceofreadinesstolearn.“Whena personfeelsreadytolearnortoact,helearnsoracts,moreeffectivelyandwithgreater satisfactionthanwhennotready”.Thisimpliesthatthelearnermustbementallypreparedto learn.Thisemphasizestheimportanceofmotivationinlearning.Thelearnermustbebroughtin theproperframeofmind,andhiscuriositymustbeincreasedforbringingabouteffective learning.

EducationalImplications

1.Arousechild’sreadinesstolearn,Herbart,thegiverofHerbartianSteps,emphasizedthatthe appreciativemassesmustbebroughttotheforefrontbeforeanylearningtakesplace.

2.Thelawcallsupontheteachertomotivatethechildbeforeheundertakesanyteachingwork.

3.Thecurricularactivitiesshouldbeaccordingtothechild’smentallevelofmaturity.Thiswill ensurereadinessaswellasarousecuriosityfornewthingstobelearnt.

(ii)LawofExercise:Broadlyspeaking,thislawimpliesthatlearningtakesplacebyexercising,i.e. bydoingorbyactivelyparticipatingintheperformance.Welearnwhatwedo,andwedonot learnwhatwedonotdo.Thatiswhythislawisalsocalled‘LawofUse’and‘LawofDisuse.

(i)LawofUse,‘Whenamodifiableconnectionismadebetweenasituationandaresponse,that connectionsstrengthisdecreased,thisemphasizestheneedandimportanceofpractice.In otherwords‘Practicemakesperfect’.

(ii)LawofDisuse.‘Whenamodifiableconnectionisnotmadebetweenasituationanda responseoveralengthoftime,thatconnection’sstrengthisdecreased,thislawimpliesthe negativevalueoflackofpractice.

Theeducationalimplicationsofthelawsofexercisearegreat.Thisemphasizesthevalueof repetition,drillandpracticeformemorizingandmasteringofsomething.Thisalsoemphasizes thatmuchtimeshouldnotelapsebetweenonepracticeandthesubsequentone,becauselong disusemaycauseforgetfulness.

EducationalImplications

1.Iflearnableactsarerepeated,theybecomehabit.

2.Badhabitscanbeeradicated.Itisbelievedthatifthechildrenaremadetopractice consciouslytheirbadhabits,theyautomaticallytendtoleavethem.3.Forgettingcanbedelayed ordiluted.4.Skillsliketyping,shorthand,athleticsandsooncanbedevelopedtothemaximum.

5.Theteachermustensurethattheactofrepetitioniscarriedoutwithapleasanteffect.Anact ofrepetition,whichisaccompaniedbyasatisfyingstate,strengthensaconnection.

(iii)LawofEffect:Thislawimpliesthatifoureffortsareaccompaniedbyafeelingof achievementorsatisfaction,wearefurtherinspiredtolearn,andtherefore,effectivelearning takesplace,ifoureffortsarenotaccompaniedbyafeelingofsatisfaction,notmuchofreal learningwilltakeplace.Inotherwordswemaysaythataresponse,whichgivesachievementof thegoalandthusprovidessatisfaction,willbestampedin,whilethose,whichareaccompanied bydissatisfaction,willbestampedout.

Thorndikedefinesitasfollows:

“Whenamodifiedconnectionbetweenasituationandresponseismade,andisaccompaniedor followedbyasatisfyingstateofaffairs,thatconnection’sstrengthisincreased,butwhenmade andaccompaniedbyanannoying‘stateofaffairs,itsstrengthisdecreased”.

Thus,thelearners,feelingoremotionalstateaffectslearning.Inotherwordssuccessand failureconditionthelearningtoagreatextent.

EducationImplications

1.Childrengettoformgoodhabitandattitudebyassociatingwithreward,satisfactionand praise.

2.Undesirableattitudesoractsofbehaviourcanberemovedbyassociatingthemwith unsatisfyingdesirablecondition.

3.Theactsofrewardingandpunishingtakethislawintoconsideration.

4.Behaviourproblemscanbeimprovedbyassociatingthemwithannoyingstateofaffairs.

5.Interestisdirectlyrelatedtothislaw.Childrengetinterestedinthingswhichbringpleasant results.

LawofRecency

Recencyoccurrencesaremostvividinourmind.Theprocessofforgetfulnesssetsinasmore andmoretimeiselapsed.Werememberthesethingsbetter,whicharecomparativelyrecent.

Thisemphasizestheimportanceofrevision.Thestudentsshouldreviseoccasionallysothat thethingsareagainrefreshedintheirmind.Revisionshouldbedoneaftershortintervalsand

alsojustbeforetheexamination.Withoutrevisionastudentisapttoforgeteventhebest assimilatedmatter.

LawofIntensityofStimulus

Thestrongerthestimulus,thegreaterthelearning.Thus,ifstimulusisstrong,theresponsewill bestrong.Astudent,whoismoreseriousandenthusiasticabouthisstudies,willmakegreater progressandachievement.Themoreseriousandenthusiasticastudent,thegreaterthis achievement.

Thus,thefunctionoftheeducatoristoprovidegreaterstimulustothestudents.Settinghigh andloftyobjectivesbeforethestudentsprovestobegreatstimulant.Genuinepraiseand appreciationalsoactasgreatstimulants.Periodictestsandexaminationsalsoservethesame purpose.Thus,wemaysay‘thatthesuccessortheachievementofanindividualisdirectly, proportionaltostimulusortheinterestthathetakesinhiswork.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610

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Q.5.Howindividualdifferencesaremeasured?Discuss.

MEASUREMENTOFINDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES

Measurementistheassignmentofanumbertoanobjectoreventaccordingtorule.Thismay representsomethingphysical,aswhenyousteponthescalesandnote,withdismayor pleasurethenumberthatindicatesyourweight.Oritmaybemoresubtle,aswhenyoutakea vocationalaptitudetestandreceiveyourscoreinmedicalorengineeringaptitudetest.Inorder todrawmeaningfulcomparison,measurement,mustbemeaningful.Inordertohavemeaning, allmeasurementsmustsatisfytwobasiccriteria:theymustbereliableandtheymustbevalid.

(a)Reliabilityistheindicationoftheconsistencyofmeasurement,e.g:Ifyourweightreads 140Ibs,onedays,240poundthenextday,and40poundthedaysafter,yourfaithinthe precisionofthescalewouldbesecretlyshaken.Thesameistrueofpsychologicaltest.Our measurementsmustbeconsistentoverrepeatedtestsofmeasurement.Agoodtestshould yieldsroughlythesamescoresoverrepeatedmeasurements,aslongasthatwhichisbeing measureddoesnotchangedramatically.

(b)ValidityMeasurementsmustalsobevalid,validityisanindicationoftheextenttowhicha testmeasurewhatitissupposedtomeasure.

(c)CorrelationInordertogiveprecisestatementsaboutreliabilityandvalidity,astatistical techniquecalledcorrelationmaybeutilized.Itallowsscientiststomakepredictions;correlation isastatementaboutthestrengthoftheassociationbetweentwo(orpossiblymore)variables. Ifthecorrelationbetweentwovariablesishigh,thevariableswilltendtobeverytogether,thatis,

whereveroneofthetraitsisfound,chancesaregoodthattheothertraitwillalsobefound.Ifwe observethatpeoplewithblandhairusuallyhaveblueeyethenwewouldsaythatthereis correlationbetweenthevariableshaircolourandeyecolour.Thisisnottosaythathavingbland haircausesonetohaveblueeyes,butitdoesallowustopredict,wheneverweknowthat certainindividualshaveblandhair,thattheyarealsolikelytohaveblueeyes.Asdiscussed earlier,individualsdifferinsensitive,affectiveandpsychomotorabilities.Theydifferalmostin everyrespectpersonality,attitude,interest,intelligenceandachievement.Individualdifferences canbeidentifiedandmeasuredthroughfinermeasurementinstrumentsknowaspsychological test.Apsychologicalisapatternofstimuli,selectedandorganizedtoelicitresponseswhich revealcertainpsychologicalcharacteristicsinthepersonwhomakesthem.Thefollowing psychologicaltestscanbeusedbytheteacherorpsychologiststomeasuredifferenceamong individuals.

1TestofGeneralIntelligence

Sometimesthesetestsarealsoreferredtoastestsofmentalability,testsofgeneralabilityor testofscholasticaptitude,thesetestsmeasurethepsychologicaltraitstermedto“intelligence” whichprovidethebestpossiblesinglecluetotheunderstandingofchildren’sacademic performances.Therearevarioustestsofintelligencelikestandardbinetintelligencetest (revised),Wechslerintelligencescaleforchildrenandvariousculturefreeandculturefairtests.

2TestsofAptitude

Thesetestsmeasurethepossibilitiesofsuccessinfutureperformance.Oneofthemost famousbatteries,whichmeasurechildren’sdifferentaptitudes,is“differentialaptitudetest battery”whichmeasuresthefollowingabilities.

(i)VerbalReasoning

(ii)NumericalAbility

(iii)AbstractReasoning

(iv)SpaceRelations

(v)MechanicalReasoning

(vi)ClericalSpeedandAccuracy

(vii)LanguageUsage

3InterestInventories

StrongVocationalInterestBlank,andKuder’sPreferenceRecord(Vocational)aresomeofthe interestinventoriesthatcanbeusedtomeasuredifferencesamongindividualsintheirinterest.

4TestofPersonality

TheMMPI,BellsAdjustmentInventory,Projectivetestslike“RorschachInkBlottest.”Thematic Apperceptiontest,andotherquestionnairescanbeusedtomeasurepersonalitystructureand adjustment,anddifficultiesofindividuals.

5Competence-BasedTests

Testsofachievement,mostlyteacher-madetype,canbeusedtomeasureindividualdifferences inacademicachievement.Practically,thesetestsasarepreparedbyteachersdonotmeasure thecompetenceinlearningvarioussubjects.Thecompetencebasedtestsareanimprovement overthetraditionaltests,andarenotdifficulttopreparesuchtests.Oncetheteacherknowsthe learningcompetenciesinvariousschoolsubjectsitbecomeseasyfortheteachertoprepare suchtests.

Itmustbenotedthatscoresobtainedbyastudentinanyoneofthetestsmaynotbeasure measureofhisstandinginthegroup.Scoresontestsareinfluencedbyanumberoffactors, internalandexternaloperatingatthetimeoftakingthetest.Forthispurposescoresobtained byonetestcanbesupplementedbyscoresobtainedfromothersimilartests.

6Multiple-ChoiceTestsorEssays

Whataboutmultiple-choicetestsor,asmanypoorlypreparedstudentsliketocallthem, “multiple-guesstests?”Oneofthecriticismsofthemultiple-choicetestsisthatitrewardsrote memorizationratherthantrueunderstanding.Thiscancertainlyhappenifthetestispoorly designed,butwhenthoroughlyresearchedandcarefullyprepared,themultiplechoicetestcan assessaperson’sabilitytoapplyconceptstoproblemsolvingsituations.Ratherthanbreakup theunitsofknowledgeandisolatingthepieces,asthecriticstypicallycharge,awell-designed multiplechoicetest,suchasSAT,demandsthatthestudentsbeabletounderstandconcepts andbringfactstogether.ResearchevidenceclearlyshowsthattheSATverbalscoreshares muchincommonwithIQ,thecorrelationbetweenthembeinganextremelyhigh+0.80.

Whataboutessayquestions?Thereisthefearthatstandardizedtestsbasedonlyonessay questionsandwritingsamplesmayhaveanadverseeffectonlearning.Verballyadeptbut uninformedstudentsmayblufftheirwaythroughanessayexam.Similarly,thetacticsusedby somestudentsormemorizingorrottingthetopicsofsubjectsalsoaffectslearningprocess. Essaytypeexamshowever,illuminatethestudent’sthoughtprocessinmoredetail,as comparedtomultiple-choicetests.Butforateacher,withalargeclassofwidelyvarying abilities,interestsandneedsmayhavetorelyonthemultiplechoicetests.Itnotonlyensures reliabilityoftestingbutalsomoreimportantlyitpermitsfreetimetoworkwithindividual students.

7ComputerAssistedTesting(CAT)

ThecomputeragehasledtoahightechformoftestingcalledCAT.(ComputerAssisted Testing)Here,theindividualsitsatacomputerkeyboard,andthequestionsarepresentedon

thescreen.Thetestingbecomespersonalizedsincethetestingisinteractivewiththecomputer, ineffectcustomdesigningthetesttoeachstudent’sskilllevel.Forexample,thequestionmay getprogressivelymoredifficultuntilalevelisreached.Whenastudentbeginstogetthe questionswrong,aneasiersetofquestionssuddenlyappears.Thisbranchingofeasierand harderquestionscalledgoing“uptheladder”or“downthechute”continuesuntilthestudents truelevelofcompetencetoreach.TheeducationaltestingservicesofUSAarecurrentlyputting boththeSATandGRE(GraduateRecordExam)onacomputerformat.Manypeoplebelievethat CATisviable,cost-effectiveandabigimprovementoverpaperandpenciltesting.

8ThePortfolioApproach

Anothertestingtechnique,currentlygaininginpopularityiscalledtheportfolioapproach.Just asanaspiringartistormodelcarriesaportfolioofpastworktoaprospectiveemployer,sotoo doesthestudentwhoselectsexamplesofhisorherbestworkoveratermorevenanentire yearofstudy.Itissaidthattheportfolioapproachplacesmoreemphasisonastudent’soverall accomplishmentthanontheabilitymerelytoscorewellonasinglebatteryoftests.Typical portfoliosincludeoriginalpoetry,plan,shortstories,essayandartprojects.Eveninmath,a studentmightproduceaseriesoffractions,showingtheirrelationshipstodecimals,oran arrangementofdicetoillustrateprobabilities,orevenpresentanessayonthelifeofthe Prophet“Muhammad”(P.B.U.H).Attheendoftheyear,thestudenthandsovertheportfoliosto theteacherforevaluation.TeachersofthenewMillenniumshouldbemadeawareofthis approachandshouldbegivenworkshoppreparationinlearningthistechnique.

Theportfoliomethodcanalsobeusedtoevaluateteachers,studentsandthecurriculumitself. Aportfoliothatincludes,forexample,“samplesofstudent’steacherdevelopedplansand materials,videotapedteachingepisodes,andotherteacher’sreflectionsonhisorherown teachingcanprovidedirectevidenceofwhatateacherknowsandcando.

Whether,theportfolioapproachprovestobeasvaluableasitpromisesisstillinquestion,but thereisnodoubtthatnewtestingmethodswillbeemployedaseducationalpsychology operatesinthe21stcentury.Newtestingproceduresareonthehorizon,proceduresintendedto bridgethegapbetweencognitivepsychologyandpsychometricmethods.

9GradeEquivalentScores

Gradeequivalentscoresarebasedonrelatingagivenstudent’sscoreonatesttotheaverage scoresfoundforotherstudentsinaparticulargrade,atthesametimeofyears,andofroughly thesameage.Forexample,assumethatinSeptember,alarge,representativesampleoftheir graders(IIIclass,students)ofthemorninggroup,produceranaveragescoreof30onacertain arithmetictest.Ifagivenstudentisthentested,andreceivesascoreof30,thatchildwouldbe assignedagrade-equivalentscoreof3.0ofthechilddidsomewhatbetterthanthatandhada scoreofsay3.4,itwouldindicateaperformanceequaltoathirdgradestudentinthefourth month(December)oftheschoolyear.Gradeequivalentscoresaretypicallyreportedintenths ofayear,sothatascoreof5.9referstotheninthmonth(June)ofthefifthgrade,andascore

of0.0tothefirstdayofKindergarten.Thus,thescoresrangefrom0.0(orsometimesko) through12.9,representingthethirteenyearsofschoolfromKindergartenthroughgrade12.the firstofSeptemberisgivenonthescoreas0,whereastheendofSeptemberas0.1,theendof Octoberas0.2andonuntiltheendofJuneas0.9.anoteofcautioninthissystemis.

(a)Childrendonotallgrowanddevelopatthesameyearlyrate,nevermindthesamemonthly rate,sodon’tbeoverlyconcernedwhenaseeminglybrightchildsuddenlyunderperformsthe normsofafewmonths,thatsamechildmayquicklycatchupandevenoutperformthenorms severalmonthslater.

(b)Don’tbetooquicktouseaprecociouschild’shighscoreinsameareaasareasontohave thatchildskipagradeortwo.Athirdclass(grader)mightevengetagradeequivalentof7.0on agiventest.Thisdoesn’tmeanthatthechildisnowreadyforafastpromotiontoclass-7th. Whatitdoesmeanisthatthethirdgraderhascertainlyenquiredthird-gradematerialandinfect hasdoneaswellasaseventhgraderwhenmeasuredonathird-gradetest.However,thereare manythingsthe7thgraderhaslearnedandisexpectedtoknowwhicharesimplynotevenpart ofathird-grader’sconsciousnessandwhichdon’tappearonathirdgradetest.

10CurriculumTesting

Virtuallyanycurriculumthatismorethanfiveyearsoldrequiresathoroughevaluation,thisis mostobviousinfieldsuchasscience,butshouldbedoneinallareas.Thistypeoftesting shownanswersthefollowing:

(a)Towhatdegreehavethecurriculum’sgoalsbeenreached?

(b)Isthecurriculumcontentappropriateinviewofthemission’sobjectives.

(c)Hastheinstructionbeentrulybasedonthecurriculum.

(d)Hastheassessmentmeasuredthetaughtcurriculumorplanned

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8610

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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