AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn 2018

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8609 Philosophy of Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Assignment No. 1

AUTUMN 2018

Philosophy of Education (8609)

Q.1Definephilosophyofeducationanddiscussitsscope.

PhilosophyofEducation

DefinitionofPhilosophyofEducation

Dr.K.M.Chettyinhispaper“PhilosophyofEducationintheChangingWorldOrder”wrote,“in thephilosophyofeducation,bothphilosophersandeducatorswhocometogethershouldhave acommonconcernandcommitmentaboutthenatureofeducationthatisrequiredtouphold thedignityofhumanbeings.Theyshouldkeepintheirmindthedifferentvaluesthatgointo safeguardingthewholehumanity.Itiswiththisbroaderperspectivethatbothphilosophersand educatorsjointogethertobuildaphilosophyofeducation.”Thereforethechiefactivityofthe philosophyofeducationistobringoutitsnatureofeducationandthevalueswhichsafeguard thewholehumanity.

Philosophyofeducationisageneralphilosophicalstudyandexplanationofeveryaspectof education.Thephrase’PhilosophyofEducation’isnotonlyapartofphilosophy,butalsoapart ofeducation.Itisabranchofaxiologyasitstudiesabouteducationalvalue.Againitis acceptedasabranchofeducationasitisthestudyofthepurpose,process,natureandideals ofeducation.WilliamKFrankena,theanalyticphilosopherofeducationconsidersitapartof axiologybecausethephilosophyofeducationquestionstheaims,methodsandalltheelements ofeducationrelatedtothemoralandsocialconditions.Itisapartofeducationalsowhenit consistsofnormativeandanalyticalaspectsofeducation.Theproblemsofphilosophyof educationarenotlimited,itdoesnottakeapartialviewofeducation.Instead,itcomprehends everyaspectofeducationalprocess.Itinterpretsvariousareassuchascurriculum,context, method,learning,teaching,motivationandothers.Whenthephilosophyofeducationis consideredasapartofeducation,itdiscussesonlyanaspectofeducation,suchaseducational psychology,environmentaleducation,educationalstatistics,etc.,whicharerelatedtodifferent areasandshareaverylimitedgroundofeducation.Asabranchofeducation,philosophyof educationismoreexperimentalandpractical.Butasapartofphilosophy,itisamajorsubject matterofphilosophy.Ithelpsintheunderstandingofnotonlyanaspectofeducationbutof

educationasawhole.Itisconcernedwiththeaimsofeducationandthebasicphilosophical problemsarisinginthefieldsofeducation.Itisasynthesisofeducationalfactswith educationalvalues.

Thephrase‘PhilosophyofEducation’hasbeenusedtoreplacethephrase‘Educational Philosophy’.‘EducationalPhilosophy’standsforcomprehensivetheoriesofeducation.Italso referstothegeneraltheorieswhichtrytodealwitheducation,likemetaphysiciansdealwith reality.Butthesehistoricalgeneraltheorieswithgreatmeritsalsohadconsiderable shortcomings.Theywereoftengroundedonassumptionsnotgenerallyacceptableandoften adoptedwithoutargument.Theywereseldombasedonsystematicresearch.

‘PhilosophyofEducation’ontheotherhanddoesnotelaborategeneraltheories.Itisbasedon analysisandcriticism.Itdealswitheveryeducationalproblemengagedineverydayeducational affairs.Initspresentanalyticalmodephilosophyofeducationowesitsorigintotheanalytical workoftheBritishphilosophers.Thephilosophicalmethodisinessenceanalytical,clearand critical.Itisconcernedwithsuchtasksaselucidationofconcepts,logicalappraisalofdifferent kindsofstatementsandarguments,validationoftheoriesandjustificationofgroundsofbelief andknowledge.Philosophyofeducationissuchanactivityperformedoneducation,its concepts,theories,beliefsandarguments.

ScopeofPhilosophyofEducation

Thephilosophyofeducationasanindependentstudyhasitsownscopeandfunction.The scopeofthephilosophyofeducationincludesthecriticalevaluationofaims,ideasand education,analysisofhumannature,educationalvalues,thetheoryofknowledgeandthe relationshipofeducationandsocialprogress.Itseemstoperformthreefunctions:

1)speculative,

2)normative,and

3)critical.

Thespeculativefunctionofphilosophyofeducationconsistsinpursuingandenquiry,forming theoryabouteducation,itscausesandnature.Whiledoingsoittriestomakeasurveyofthe wholefield.

Normativefunctionsarerelatedtotheformationofgoals,normsandstandards.

TheCriticalfunctionconsistsinscrutinizingrigorouslythetermsandpropositionsinvolvedin educationalthoughtandpractice.

Nowthequestionarises,whataretheproblems‘philosophyofeducation’dealswithR.S. Pandeymentionedsomeproblems,whichareanalyzedbythe’philosophyofeducation’.These are-

1.Whatisthenatureofeducation?

2.Whyshouldeducationbeimparted?

3.Whatistheneedofeducation?

4.Forwhatobjectivesshouldeducationbeimparted?

5.WhatistherelationshipbetweenEducationandPhilosophy?

6.Whatistheimpactofphilosophicalthoughtsoneducation?

7.Howtotheorizeorphilosophizetheeducationalpractices?

8.Howcantheexcellenceofeducationbebroughtabout?

9.Whatareeducationalvalues?

10.Towhatextentcanthevaluesbetaught?11

Thoughthesequestionsareregardedastheprimaryquestionsforthephilosophicalanalysisof education,however,foreveryphilosopherofeducationtheaimisnotthesame.Theyare contradictoryintheirviewsregardingacquisitionofknowledge,characterdevelopment, individualdevelopmentandsocialdevelopment.Thephilosopherswhosupportknowledgeas theaimofeducationrecognizeknowledgeaspower,virtueandhappiness.Forotherseitherthe materialisticdevelopmentorthesocialadjustmentistheonlyaimofthephilosophyof education.Fewofthememphasizeonthemetaphysicalupliftmentastheaimofeducation.But ifweshowinterestonlyinonesideofthedevelopmentastheaimofphilosophyofeducation,it willbethesameastheoldstoryofthesixblindmenandtheelephant.

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Q.2DiscussBranchesofPhilosophy.

BRANCHESOFPHILOSOPHY

Whilestudyingthephilosophicalthoughtsofaphilosopher,westudyhisthinkingindifferent branchesofphilosophy.Thesebranchesofphilosophyareasfollows:

(1)Epistemology.Philosophyisthesearchforknowledge.Thissearchiscritical.Hence,the firstproblemwhicharisesbeforeaphilosopherisaboutthenatureofknowledgeandits limitations.Therefore,epistemologyisthemostfundamentalbranchofphilosophy.Itdiscusses philosophicallytruth,falsehood,validityofknowledge,limitsofknowledgeandnatureof knowledge,knowerandknownetc.

TypicalEpistemologicalquestions:

-Whatisknowledgeandhowdoesitdifferfrombelieforopinion?

-Whatistruth,andhowcanweknowifastatementistrue?

-Whatarethesourcesofknowledge?

-Doabsolutesexist,andifso,canweknowthem?

-Whatistherelationshipbetweenfaithandreason?lo

(2)Metaphysics.Thisisthestudyofexistence,realityoressence.Itsmainbranches

areasfollows:

(i)Cosmogony.Thisisastudyofcreation.

-Istheworldcreated,orisiteternal?

-Howwasworldcreated?

-Whywasitcreated?

-Whocreatedtheworld?

-Whatisthepurposeincreation?

Allthesearetheproblemsofcosmogony.

(ii)Cosmology.Themainproblemsofcosmologyare:

-Istheworldoneoritmany,orisitbothoneandmany?

(iii)Ontology.Ontologyisthestudyofultimatereality.

-Istherealityoneorisitmanyorisitbothoneandmany?

-Ifrealityismany,whatistherelationbetweenthesemanyelements?

Alltheseareontologicalquestions.

(iv)Philosophyofself.Thisismainlyconcernedwiththephilosophicalanalysisofself.

-Whatisself?

-Whatisitsrelationwiththebody?

-Isitfreeordoesitdependonthebody?

-Isitoneormany?

Alltheseareproblemsofphilosophyofself.

(v)Eschatology.Thediscussionoftheconditionofsoulafterdeath,thenatureoftheother world,etc.,formthesubjectmatterofthisbranchofphilosophy.

(3)Axiology.Thisbranchofphilosophyphilosophicallystudiesvalue.Ithasbeendividedinto thefollowingthreebranches:

(i)Ethics.Ethicsdiscussesthecriteriaofrightandgood.

TypicalEthicalquestions:

-Whatisgood/bad?

-Whatisright/wrong?

-Whatisthefoundationofmoralprinciples?

-Aremoralprinciplesuniversal?

(ii)Aesthetics.Aestheticsdiscussesthenatureandcriteriaofbeauty.

TypicalAestheticquestions:

-Whatisaworkofart?

-Whatisartisticcreativityandhowdoesitdifferfromscientificcreativity?

-Whyareworksofartconsideredtobevaluable?

-Whatdoworksofartcommunicate(ifanything)?

-Whatisbeauty?

-Doesarthaveanymoralobligationsorconstraints?

(iii)Logicstudiestruth.Thesubjectmatteroflogicincludesthemethodsofjudgment,typesof proposition,hypothesis,definition,comparison,division,classificationandfundamentallawsof thoughts,etc.

(4)PhilosophyofSciences.Thisbranchofphilosophyisconcernedwiththephilosophical examinationofthepostulatesandconclusionsofdifferentsciences.

(5)PhilosophiesofSocialScience.Thephilosophicalproblemsindifferentsocialsciencesgive birthtodifferentbranchesofphilosophyofwhichthemainareasfollows:

(i)PhilosophiesofEducation.Thisisconcernedwiththeaimofeducationandthebasic philosophicalproblemsarisinginthefieldofeducation.

(ii)SocialPhilosophy.Thisbranchofphilosophydiscussesthephilosophicalbasisofsocial processesandsocialinstitutions.

(iii)PoliticalPhilosophy.Thisbranchofphilosophyisconcernedwiththeformsofgovernment, formsofstateandotherbasicproblemsarisinginthepoliticalfield.

TypicalPoliticalPhilosophyquestions:

-Whatformofgovernmentisbest?

-Whateconomicsystemisbest?

-Whatisjustice?

-AreweobligatedtoobeyalllawsoftheState?

-Whatisthepurposeofgovernment?

(iv)PhilosophyofHistory.Thesubjectmatterofthisbranchofphilosophyisthenatureof historicalprocess,itspurposeanditsrelationswiththecosmicprocess.

(v)PhilosophyofEconomics.Thisbranchofphilosophystudiestheaimofman’seconomic activitiesandthefundamentalproblemsarisingintheeconomicfield.

Besidestheabovementionedbranchesofphilosophybasedonsciences,theremaybecertain comparativelylesserbranchesofphilosophysuchasphilosophyofphysics,philosophyof commerce,philosophyofphysicaleducation,philosophyofmarriage,philosophyoffamilyetc. These,however,arenotsufficienttoformindependentbranchesofphilosophy.

(6)Semantics.Themostimportantbranchofphilosophy,accordingtothecontemporaryschool ofLogicalPositivism,issemanticswhichisconcernedwiththedeterminationofthemeanings ofdifferentwordsusedindifferentlanguages.

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Q.3Evaluatetheroleoffollowingbranchesofphilosphyimsystemofeducation.

i.Epistemologyii.Axiology

i.Epistemology

Itdealswiththedefinitionofknowledgeanditsscopeandlimitations.IttranslatesfromGreek tomean’theoryofknowledge’.Itquestionsthemeaningofknowledge,howweobtain knowledge,howmuchdoweknow,andhowdowehavethisknowledge?Epistemologyis furtherdividedinto

Alethiology-Thestudyofnatureoftruth

FormalEpistemology-Theuseoflogicandprobabilitytoilluminateproblemsrelatedto epistemology

Meta-epistemology-Meta-philosophicalstudyofthemethodsandaimofepistemology

SocialEpistemology-Thestudyofsocialdimensionsofknowledge

Epistemologyhasvarioustheoriesofjustification.Skepticism,internalism,externalism, foundationalism,probabilitytheory,andempiricism,areafewofthem.Famousepistemologists likeDescartes,KantandHume,havemadeanotablecontributiontothisbranchofphilosophy.

Theverydefinitionofeducationistheacquisitionofknowledge.Butwhatisknowledge?How doyouknowyouarelearningorgainingknowledge.Howdotheteachersknowtheyknowwhat theyclaimtoknow?Whyareyoudoingit?Theanswerstothesequestionsaren’tasobviousas mostpeoplewouldbelievethemtobe.Therefore,Ibelievethatepistemologyhasavery importantroleineducationforthreereasons.

Itdeepensstudents’understandingsandtiesvariousdisciplinestogether.

Epistemologycantietogethermanydifferentdisciplinesandhelpstudentsunderstandthe fieldsalotbetter.WhenIwasinhighschool,IstruggledalotwithvarioussubjectsasItriedto applythesameapproachtolearningtoeachofthem.Forexample,Itriedtomakebiologydown tothecoreandunderstanditfundamentally.Thisworkedextremelywellforsubjectslike physicsandmathwhereconceptswouldclickafteryouvisualizedandunderstoodthem intuitively.However,Icouldneverreallyfundamentallyunderstandmostoftheconceptswe learntinbiology.Sometimesmybiologyteacherwouldgettiredandevensay“Stopaskingwhy, thisisbiology.Somethingswejustassume.”Whenwedidourscienceunitinourepistemology classandunderstoodthefundamentaldifferencesbetweenhowknowledgeisgainedin differentdisciplines,Ifinallyconcededsometimesbiologycannotbeintuitive.Epistemology helpedmealothowIstudiedfordifferenttopics,participiallyinthesciences.Itespecially helpedmewhenwelearntthehistorybehindthisscienceandIcouldreallyengagewithhowthe scientiststhoughtandhowdifferentideasdeveloped.Thismadetheconceptsthemselvesalot easiertounderstandinmyopinion.

Itencouragesstudentstoquestiontheirownbeliefandknowledgesystems

Teachingepistemologyraisesawarenessforourownpersonalbiasesandidealswhichcan sometimesdisruptourlearning.Teachingstudentsepistemologyallowsstudentstobeaware ofthemselves:whattheythink,howtheythinkandwhytheythinkthatway.Thisalsomakes themmoreawareoftheworldaroundthemandthewaydifferentpeoplefromdifferentcultures andbackgroundsthinkaswellandmightmakethemmoreacceptingorunderstandingof differences.Theneedformoreempatheticandindividualisticpeopleisstrongerthaneverinour currentglobally-interconnectedworld.Withtheprevalenceoftheinternetandespeciallysocial media,itiseasierthanevertoshareopinions.However,itisalsoeasierthaneverforindividuals tostopthinkingforthemselvesandjustthinkhowtheyaretold.Mobmentalityrunsrampanton socialmediaandideasareincreasinglybeingcensored.Itisveryimportanttoraisea generationthatisawareofallthecomplexitiesthatcomealongwithknowledge.

It’sfun!!!

Studyingepistemologyisfun!!!Ifyougotalktoyourfriends,familyorrandompeopleonthe streetandaskthemiftheyknowwhatepistemologyis.Unlessyou’reinthephilosophybuilding ofanuniversityorjusthappentocomeacrossawellreadindividual,chancesaretheywon’t knowwhatepistemologyis.Valueethicstendtodominantthegeneralpublic’sperceptionofthe studyofphilosophybutthatisjustoneofthebranchesonthegreattree.Therereallyisnoother subjectquitelikeepistemologyandmoststudentswillfinditenjoyabletodeviatefrom “traditionalacademicsubjects”andlearnaboutsuchanuniqueandinterestingtopicasthe studyofknowledgeitself.

ii.Axiology

Axiologyisthatbranchofphilosophywhichdealswiththestudyofvalue.Thetwovalues studiedinaxiologyareasfollows:

Aesthetics

Aestheticsdealswithsense,perception,andappreciationofbeauty.Itbroadlyincludes everythingtodowithappreciationofart,culture,andnature.Italsoexamineshowthe perceptionofbeautyisdeterminedbytasteandaestheticjudgment.Thepracticeofdefining andcriticizingappreciatingartandartformsisbasedonaesthetics.Aestheticsquestionsthe definitionandvalueofart.Symbolism,romanticism,classicism,modernism,etc.,arethe varioustheoriesassociatedwithaesthetics.DenisDuttonidentifiedthesixuniversalsignatures inhumanaestheticsasexpertise,style,criticism,imitation,specialfocus,andnon-utilitarian pleasure.Socrateswastheonewhofirstcontributedtothisfield,followedbyhisownstudents PlatoandXenophon.

Ethics

Ethicsisconcernedwithquestionsonmoralityandvalues,andhowtheyapplytovarious situations.Ethicsseekstounderstandthebasisofmorals,howtheydevelop,andhowtheyare andshouldbefollowed.Ethicscanbefurtherdividedinto:

Meta-ethics-Studiesthefoundationofmoralvalues

NormativeEthics-Examineswhatactionsarerightandwrong

AppliedEthics-Dealswithmorallycorrectactionsinvarioushumanfields,forexample- professional,businessandenvironmentalethics.

WorksofPlato,Aristotle,KantandNietzscheinthefieldofethicsisquiteillustrious.

Axiology-derivedfromtheFrenchaxiologieandGreekaxia-referstovalues.

So,thequestionreframedis:Whatistherelevanceofvaluestoeducation?

A:Everything.

Axiologyaffectswhyyouarelearning(motivations,desiredoutcomes),whatyouarelearning (dominantculturalpractices),andevenhowyoulearn(factualrecallvs.‘learnbydoing’).

Togiveafewexamples:

Ifyouareaskedinyoureducationtolearnabout‘theU.S.Presidents,’andyouoperatefroman axiologyofindividualism,youmaychoosetoseeindividualPresidentsasexceptionalleaders. Youmayseektodiscoverthehabitsthatmadethemsuccessful,andtoemulatethese strategiestoattainsuccessforyourself.

Ifyouoperatefromanaxiologyofpragmatism,youmaysimplymakealistoffactsabouteach Presidenttotemporarilymemorizeandapplytoamultiple-choicetest.

Ifhumanrightsandsocialchangeareyouraxiologies,youmayreadaboutU.S.Presidentsand ask:“Whyaretheyall(but1)Whitemen?”“Whosevoicesareexcludedifweonlyreadabout theseselectfewindividuals?”

YoumaystudyU.S.Presidentstofigureout‘thegame’ofpoliticsandpower,andhackitto empoweryourownneighborhood,togatherandorganizeneighbors,toadvocateforbetter safety,accesstoaffordablehousing,transportation,dignifiedemployment,andahigher-quality educationforyourchildren.

Thisisespeciallytrueifyouvaluecommunity.Andwho‘chooses’thesetopicsforustolearn aboutanyways?Teachers?RespondingtodirectivesfromPrincipals,Superintendents,School Boards,andStateEducationofficials,whoholdcomplianceandaccountabilitytostatelawas essentialaxiologies.

Andwhowritesthoselaws?Statelegislatorswhovaluepatriotism,andsaytheyvalue

citizenshipbutmightbethinkingobedience,lawandorder,andtranquility,whichiseasyto achievewhenyoudonotchallenge‘thewaythingsare.’

So,howwillyoulearn?

Sittingdocileinadesk,eyesalertandlipszipped?Surroundedbyawarmaxiologyof‘being good’and‘followingrules’(and‘avoidingbacklash’)?

Orwillyoubeoutinthestreetschantingprotestsamidsthot,densecrowds,ortalkingfeverishly afterwardsincrampedapartmentsaboutthefuture,orinanartstudiothrowingclay,ora softwareengineeringdepartmentcloakedinahoodieandtryingtocreatesomethingfresh?

Thebeautifulthingis,IcannotsayandIcannotdecidebecauseyouhavethepowertoidentify theaxiologiesthatdriveandshapeyoureducation.

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Q.4Discussthedevelopmentofpragmaticcurriculum.

PRAGMATISM

Oneofthemostimportantschoolsofphilosophyofeducationispragmatism.Theterm pragmatismhasbeenderivedfromtheGreektermpragmawhichmeansuse.Thuspragmatism isanismaccordingtowhichuseisthecriteriaofreality.Pragmatismasaphilosophical traditionbeganintheUnitedStatesaround1870.CharlesSandersPeirce,generallyconsidered tobeitsfounder.Pragmatismrejectstheideathatthefunctionofthoughtistodescribe, represent,ormirrorreality.Instead,pragmatistsconsiderthoughtaninstrumentortoolfor prediction,problemsolvingandaction.Pragmatistscontendthatmostphilosophical topics—suchasthenatureofknowledge,language,concepts,meaning,belief,andscience—are allbestviewedintermsoftheirpracticalusesandsuccesses.Thephilosophyofpragmatism emphasizesthepracticalapplicationofideasbyactingonthemtoactuallytesttheminhuman experiences.

Curriculum

Ashasalreadybeenpointedout,pragmatistsfavouraneducationalcurriculumwhichpermits theeducandtodevelopallhisqualitiesandobtainallknowledgethathecanusefruitfullyin futurelife.Theyhavesuggestedtheperusalofthefollowingguidelinesindetermininga curriculum:

1.Principleofutility.Pragmatistsareutilitarianswhobelievethatutilityliesinfacilitatinghuman adjustmentandadaptation.Thegreaterthesatisfactionofhumanneeds,thegreateristhe

utilityoftheobjectachievingsuchsatisfaction.Themoreithelpsthechildtoadaptinhislater life,thegreateristheutilityofhiseducation.Hencethecurriculummustmakeiteasyforthe childtolaterontakeupsomeprofession.Forthisreason,technicalandscientificeducation formsanimportantpartofthepragmaticcurriculum.Pragmatistssuggestthatgirlsshouldbe taughthomescienceandboystrainedinagricultureandthesciences.Apartfromthis,great stressislaidonphysicaltrainingbecauseitisessentialforphysicaldevelopment.Puttingit briefly,pragmatistsfavourtheinclusionofallthosesubjectswhichwillhelptheeducandin adaptingtohiscircumstancesinlaterlife.Thatiswhyitissuggestedthatthecurriculumshould includehistory,geography,mathematics,hygiene,etc.Nouselesssubjectwhichcannotassist inthechild’sadaptation,shouldbeincludedinthecurriculum.Theaimofeducationishuman progresswhichcanbeachievedthroughvariouskindsofknowledge.Onlythosesubjectsthe knowledgeofwhichcanassistinthisprogressshouldbetaught.

2.Principleofchild’sinterest.Thechild’sowninterestplaysasignificantpartintheprocessof learning.Generally,childrenevincefourkindsofinterests-talking,searchingordiscovering, creativeactivityandartisticmanifestation.Inordertoshapethecurriculumaccordingtothese interests,itmustbemadetoincludereading,counting,handicraft,painting,etc.Asthechild develops,hisinterestsalsoundergochangeandmodification,andthereforeitisdesirablethat thecurriculumatdifferentstagesofeducationshouldaccordwiththeinterestsmanifestedby theeducandatthatstage.

3.Principleofchild’sexperience.Beingempiricists,thepragmaticthinkersinsistonteaching throughprovidingthechildwithactualexperienceratherthanroteleaning.Thus,teaching throughbooksshouldbesupplementedbyprogrammeswhichprovidepracticalexperienceof variouskinds.Inthisconnection,Deweyhaspointedout,”Abandonthenotionofsubjectmatter assomethingfixedandreadymadeinitself,outsidethechild’sexperience;createthinkingof thechild’sexperiencesassomethinghardandfast;seeitissomethingfluent,embryonic,vital; andwerealisethatthechildandthecurriculumaresimplytwolimitswhichdefineasingle process….Thestudiesrepresentthepossibilitiesofdevelopmentinthechild’simmediatecrude experience.”Thus,thepragmaticconceptionofacurriculumisdynamic.Itisdesirabletocreate suchacommunityandenvironmentintheschoolwhichwillenablethechildtolearnthe techniqueofself-disciplineandevolvequalitiesofcitizenshipinit.

4.Principleofintegration.Pragmatistsbelievethatknowledgeandintelligencearesameallover theworld,andthatiswhyintegrationisofspecialimportanceineducation.Intheschool,the differentsubjectsshouldnotbecompletelysegregatedfromeachother,becausethesubjects themselvesarenotimportant.Whatismoreimportantisthehumanactivitytheyencourage. Theeducandshouldbeencouragedtoacquireknowledgeofmanysubjectsandthereforethe teachingofvarioussubjectsshouldnotbeseparated,butintegratedintoasingleunit.

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Q.5DiscussSourcesofKnowledge.

REVEALED

Thissortofknowledgeisbaseduponrevelationfromsomesupernaturalcelestialbeings.This typeofknowledgeiscommonlyfoundinreligiousjargon.Revealedknowledgeisthebasisfor qualia/phenomenalproperties,aswellasthebeliefinGod.RevealedKnowledge,orRevelation, isthatbodyofknowledgethatexistsindependentofhumanconception.RevealedKnowledgeis thatspecialKnowledgewithwhichthisuniverse,andprecedinguniverses,anduniversesinthe making,anduniversesyettobemadeareformed,sustained,andultimatelydissolved.

RevealedKnowledgedescribedasaknowledgethatGodhasdisclosedtoman.Godinspired certainmantowritedownthetruththatHerevealedtothemsothatthesetruthmightbeknown thereafterbyallmankind.Revealedknowledgeisexternalknowledge.Forthosewhoprofess thisknowledge,theconditionisthattheremustbeatotalsurrenderingofoneselftothesource ofsuchrevelation,thatis,thesupernaturalbeing,iseternallysuperiorandcannotbesaidtolie ormakeamistake.

IntheIslamictradition,theQuranisheldtobeanauthoritativeandrevealedsourceof knowledge.IntheChristianfold,forinstance,dreams,visionsandeventheBiblehavecometo beacceptedasformsofrevealedknowledge.InAfricantraditionalreligions,thestatusofself- revelationisgiventodeities,ancestors,divinationoforaclesanddreams.

INTUITION

IntuitiveKnowledgeistheabilitytoutilizeandacquireknowledgewithouttheuseofreason;that scienceisnowfacilitatingandhelpingexplain.Itisthefacultyofknowingwithouttheuseof rationalprocesses.Itisthemostpersonalwayofknowing.Itisimmediatecognitionorsharp insight.Itoccursbeneaththethresholdofconsciousness.Intuitiveknowledgeisbasedon intuition,faith,beliefsetc.Humanfeelingsplaysgreaterroleinintuitiveknowledgecomparedto relianceonfacts.Intuitiveknowledgeinvolvesdirectandimmediaterecognitionofthe agreementordisagreementoftwoideas.Ityieldsperfectcertainty,butisonlyrarelyavailableto us.Intuitionasamodeofknowledgedevelopsonthebasisofimmediateapprehension.

BertrandRussel(1912)claimedthatallourknowledgeoftruthdependsuponourintuitive knowledge.AccordingtoEzewu,intuitivewayofknowingisthatwhichinvolvesanimmediate insightoreruptionintoconsciousnessofanideaproducedbyalongprocessofunconscious work.Thissimplymeansthatintuitionisawayofknowingsomethingthatonecannotreally explainbecauseittranscendsordinarysenseexperienceorreason.Intuitionmayoccurasa suddenarrivalofsolutiontoone’sproblemorpuzzle,havingworkedforsomehoursordays withoutarrivingatsuchsolution.Itmayalsocomeintheformofquickguessofsolutiontoa problempresentedbyanotherperson.Intuitiveknowledgecannotbeverifiedbythesensesor theintellect.Thetrueknowledgethatcomesfrombeyondtheintellectandthatistheintuitive knowledge.

Everybodyhasgotthisabilityandwehaveexperiencedinourlifethisgutfeeling,knowledge fromsomewhere,whichyoucannotreallymakeoutwhatitis.Howmanyofyouhaveever experienced?Seeeverybody.Somewhereyoufeelthisistherightthingtodoandsomething happensinyourtummy.Andthatknowledgecomesupatthattimebutthenwedon’thonorit. Manytimeswestickontotheintellectorsensoryperceptions.

AUTHORITY

Authoritarianknowledgereliesoninformationthathasbeenobtainedfrombooks,research papers,experts,supremepowersetc.Authoritativeknowledgecomesfromtheexperts.Itis onlyasvalidastheassumptionsonwhichitstands.Thiskindofknowledgeacquiredbymaking recoursetoordependingonauthoritywithoutverifyingclaims.Thiskindofknowledgeis derivedfromthewrittenworks,documentationandreportsofothers.IfJulietacceptsthatKano isthelargestcommercialcityinnorthernpartofNigeriabecausehewastoldbyhisteacher, suchknowledgeisauthoritative.Again,ifJulietacceptsthatAsabaistheCapitalofDeltaState havingreaditfromabook,hissourceofknowledgeisacceptedbaseontheauthorityofothers.

Authoritativeknowledgeisusedinallacademicactivitiesasreferencesare,mosttimes,made toauthorities,writers,andauthorsinsomespecificfields.Intheuseofauthoritativeknowledge, caremustbemadetoavoidunnecessaryorpsychologicalappealtoauthorityasthiswillmake nonsenseofthissourceofknowledge.

RATIONAL

Rationalistsholdthatatleastsomeofourknowledgeisderivedfromreasonalone,andthat reasonplaysanimportantroleintheacquisitionofallofourknowledge.Rationalistsbelieve thatknowledgecanbearrivedatthroughtheuseofreasonordeductivereasoning.Theview thatreasoningorlogicisthecentralfactorinknowledgeisknownasrationalism.Thereis clearlyalimittowhatwecanlearnthroughabstractthought,buttherationalist’sclaimisthat reasonplayaroleinobservation,andsothatthemindismorefundamentalthanthesensesin theprocessofknowledge-acquisition.Someonewhoviewstheworldthroughthelensof revealedknowledgehasabelief,andthenattemptstoforcealloftheevidencetosupportthe conclusion.Ifitdoesnotsupporttheconclusion,isiteitherdiscountedordiscarded.Someone whoviewstheworldthroughthelensofrationalknowledgewouldlookattheevidenceand eitheradmitshedidn’tknow,ortheorizeonthemostprobablelikelihood,acceptingthe possibilitythathemightbeincorrect,meaninghemayneedtoadjustinthefutureasmore evidenceisdiscovered.Inshort:

RationalKnowledge=Evidenceinsearchofaconclusion

EMPIRICAL

Epistemologyhasmanybranchesandincludesessentialism,historicalperspective, perennialsm,progressivism,empiricism,idealism,rationalism,constructivismandothers.

Empiricismandrationalismcanbespecifiedasthetwomajorconstructingdebateswithinthe fieldofepistemologicalstudy.Empiricismacceptspersonalexperiencesassociatedwith observation,feelingsandsensesasavalidsourceofknowledge,whereasrationalismrelieson empiricalfindingsgainedthroughvalidandreliablemeasuresasasourceofknowledge. Empiricalknowledgereliesonobjectivefactsthathavebeenestablishedandcanbe demonstrated.

Theempiricalknowledgeisanattempttodiscoverabasisforourknowledgeinsense experience.Inotherwords,empiricalknowledgeisthetypethatfindsrecourseorconfirmedby theevidenceofsensoryexperience.Itisthusderivedfromtheuseoffivesensessince knowledgecanonlybeacquiredfromtheexperienceofseeing,hearing,smelling,feeling,and tasting.Itistheevidenceofthesensesthatgivesmeaningtoempiricalknowledgesincethe senses,accordingtotheempiricists,arethesourceandoriginatorofourknowledge.Thethrust oftheempiricistsasregardknowledgeisthatthereisnoknowledgepriortosenseexperience andtherecanbenoknowledgeoutsidesenseexperience.Sinceempiricalknowledgeis fundamentallyrootedonsenseexperience,itstandstoreasonthatobservationand experimentationwillalsobebasictoempiricalknowledge.

Empiricalknowledgeisknowledgeofsuchfactsasonemaymeetinexperience.Theseare alwaysparticularandmaybeofmanykinds,includingsuchasneedalotoftrainingorsome apparatustoexperiencethem.

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