Aiou Solved Assignments code 8609 Autumn 2019 assignments 1 and 2 Philosophy of Education (8609) spring 2019. aiou past papers.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn 2019
Course: Philosophy of Education (8609)
Semester: Autumn 2019
Level: B. Ed
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609
Q 1: Discuss the branches of Philosophy?
The Branches of Philosophy
Western philosophy can be divided into six branches that have assumed various importance over time. Traditionally metaphysics sets the questions for philosophy. Epistemology asks how do we know. Ethics and politics have to do with action and quality of life. Aesthetics or value theory has to do with beauty, balance, and harmony. Logic has to do with the relations of things. Epistemology sometimes replaces metaphysics these days, because it has fewer religious overtones. Among Eastern European and continental philosophers, philosophy tends to be the study of politics. Logic is critical for analytic philosophers, who are deeply suspicious of ethics, politics, and metaphysics.
Understanding philosophy in the 6th century b.c. involves taking into account different priorities than those of the 19th century a.d. However, these division remain helpful for identifying what’s at stake. Metaphysics, which studies the nature of existence is closely related to Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know what we do about the world around us. Ethics, the study of how (wo)men should act depends on Epistemology, because we need knowledge to make good choices. Politics studies human interaction. Aesthetics studies the value of things. Logic is about the symbolic representation of language and thought processes. Once the domain of Aristotle, the foundation of the exact sciences must now take into account relativity, uncertainty and incompleteness. 5/17
The theory of knowledge, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech), is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, scope and possibility of knowledge. Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy. But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. A philosopher of religion must be objective. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. It is not attacking other religions and defending his own.
Metaphysics however (derived from the Greek words “ta meta ta physika biblia”) – meaning ‘the book that follows the physics book’. It was the way students referred to a specific book in the works of Aristotle, and it was a book on First Philosophy. (The assumption that the word means “beyond physics” is misleading) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the study of “first principles” and “being” (ontology). In other words, Metaphysics is the study of the most general aspects of reality, pertaining to subjects such as substance, identity, the nature of the mind, and free will. In other words it is a study of nature and the nature of the world in which humans live.
Logic (from Classical Greek ????? (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. However, the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish
Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the “science (study) of morality”. In philosophy, ethical behaviour is that which is “good” or “right”. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy.
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the creation and appreciation of beauty through critical analysis and reflection.
Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Classic works include Plato’s Republic, Locke’s Thoughts Concerning Education, and Rousseau’s Emile.
Philosophy of History: Fairly minor branch (not as minor as education), although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx. It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i.e. the universe and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end? Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx. Classic works include Vico’s New Science, and Hegel and Marx’s works.
Philosophy of Language: Ancient branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century under Wittgenstein. Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Classic works include Plato’s Cratylus, Locke’s Essay, and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
Philosophy of Law: Also called Jurisprudence. Study of law attempting to discern what the best laws might be, how laws came into being in the first place, attempting to delimit human laws from natural laws, whether we should always obey the law, and so on. Law isn’t often directly dealt with by philosophers, but much of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it.
Philosophy of Mathematics: Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols (numbers, triangle, operands) of mathematics that we use to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on. Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field.
Philosophy of Mind: Study of the mind, attempting to ascertain exactly what the mind is, how it interacts with our body, do other minds exist, how does it work, and so on. Probably the most popular branch of philosophy right now, it has expanded to include issues of AI. Classic works include Plato’s Republic and Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations, although every major philosopher has had some opinion at least on what the mind is and how it works.
Philosophy of Politics: Closely related to ethics, this is a study of government and nations, particularly how they came about, what makes good governments, what obligations citizens have towards their government, and so on. Classic works include Plato’s Republic, Hobbes’ Leviathan, Locke’s Two Treatises, and J.S. Mill’s On Liberty.
Philosophy of Religion: Theology is concerned with the study of God, recommending the best religious practises, how our religion should shape our life, and so on. Philosophy of religion is concerned with much the same issues, but where Theology uses religious works, like the Bible, as its authority, philosophy likes to use reason as the ultimate authority.
Philosophy of Science: It is the Study of science concerned with whether scientific knowledge can be said to be certain, how we obtain it, can science really explain everything, does causation really exist, can every event in the universe be described in terms of physics and so on. Also popular in recent times, classic works include Hume’s Treatise on Human Nature, Kripke’s Naming and Necessity, Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609 Autumn 2019
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609
Q 2: Analyze the Relationship of Education and Philosophy?
Principles and values of life learnt through education and experience gives birth to philosophy in one’s life. Philosophy lays the foundation of leading one’s life based on our principles. Education is the source of learning and philosophy it’s applications in our daily life.
Education and philosophy, the two disciplines, are very closely related and in some areas they overlap each other. It is quite often said that, ‘Philosophy and Education are two sides of the same coin’. ‘Education is the dynamic side of philosophy’. Education is practical in nature and philosophy is theory. It is not vague to say that theory and practical are identical. The educator, who has to deal with the real facts of life, is different from the arm chair theorist who is busy in speculation. Philosophy is a way of life. In a wider sense philosophy is a way of looking at life, nature and truth. It sets up the ideals for an individual to achieve them in his life time.
Education on the other hand is the dynamic side of philosophy. It is the active aspect and the practical means of realising the ideals of life. Education is a sacred necessity of life, both from the biological and sociological point of view. Education and philosophy, the two disciplines, are very closely related and in some areas they overlap each other. It is quite often said that, ‘Philosophy and Education are two sides of the same coin’. ‘Education is the dynamic side of philosophy’. To elaborate further, ‘Philosophy and Education are the two flowers of one stem, the two sides of one coin. One can never be thought of without the other. The presence of one is incomplete without the other. The art of education cannot be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. There is a close interaction between the two; one without the other is unserviceable.’ Education is practical in nature and philosophy is theory. It is not vague to say that theory and practical are identical. The educator, who has to deal with the real facts of life, is different from the arm chair theorist who is busy in speculation.
But a close observation of the various interpretations of philosophy will prove that these two are nothing but the one and same thing seen from different angles. Philosophy is the study of the realities, the pursuit of wisdom. It is not mere theorizing but something which comes naturally to every individual. A person who goes deep into the reason and nature of things and tries to arrive at certain general principles with a view to apply them in his daily life, is a philosopher. Philosophy is a way of life. In a wider sense philosophy is a way of looking at life, nature and truth. It sets up the ideals for an individual to achieve them in his life time. Education on the other hand is the dynamic side of philosophy. It is the active aspect and the practical means of realising the ideals of life. Education is a sacred necessity of life, both from the biological and sociological point of view. It is true that education works like a catalyst for a better life, a social desirable life. As a pot is made out of clay and a finished product comes out of raw material, so also from the immature child comes out the civilized man through education. Education renews and re-builds the social structure in the pattern of philosophical ideals. Human being, who is born and grows up with inherited propensities, determines the basic trails of man, but education paves a long way for his success in life. Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means to earn living, nor is it only a nursery of thought or a school for a citizenship. Rather, it is the initiation into the life of spirit, a training of human souls in pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.
The basic relationship between philosophy and education can be analysed as follows. It is philosophy, that provides the purpose or the aim and it is education which makes it practical. Philosophy shows the way and education moves on in that direction. When we define education as the modification or behaviour, the direction in which, modification to be carried out is determined by philosophy. Thus philosophy deals with the end and education with the means. In fact, we can observe that the great philosophers of all times have been also great educators. For example, Socretes and Plato, the great philosophers, were also famous educators. A teacher is not a teacher, in true sense of the term, if he/she is not able to discover the relationship between philosophy and education. According to Thomson, every teacher should realize the importance of philosophy in education. Good philosophy thus would not only conceive the type of society which is needed in the society. It is philosophy which would give to the teachers a sense of adventure. A true teacher should have knowledge of the subject he/she teaches the pupils and the society. He/she should also have the moralistic sense which comes from philosophy.
The choice of students must cater to the principles and purposes of philosophy. Choice of curriculum needs philosophers or leaders of thought. With the change of time and circumstances, the curricula also changes and this change can be brought out by philosophers alone. The necessary conditions should be fulfilled so that the child is allowed to go in a free atmosphere with the ultimate aim of becoming a happy and a rightly adjusted person of the society. The learning process is an active way of doing things; hence the curriculum for the child should concern itself with the realities of life. As far as the methods of teaching are concerned, it can be said that the child is influenced; to give a particular shape to his life by the way he is taught. The philosophy of the teacher is reflected in the child by his method of teaching. So the course of life of the child is definitely influenced by philosophy. Here comes the utility of philosophy. The Education- philosophy relationship may be further pointed out as given below:
According to Alfred Weber “Philosophy is a search for comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of the nature of things a person who searches into the reason and nature of things, who tries to arrive at a general principle, and who attempts to apply those principles to daily conduct of life, acts like a true philosopher. According to John Dewey, philosophy is “critical reviewing of just those familiar things.”
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8609 Autumn 2019
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609
Q 3: Evaluate the role of following branches of philosophy in system of education:
Epistemology: the study of knowledge. In particular, epistemology is the study of the nature, scope, and limits of human knowledge.
- Epistemology investigates the origin, structure, methods, and integrity of knowledge.
the degree of truth of the statement, “The earth is round.” Does its
truth depend upon the context in which the statement is uttered? For example,
this statement can be successively more accurately translated as …
- “The earth is spherical”
- “The earth is an oblate spheroid” (i.e., flattened at the poles).
- But what about the Himalayas and the Marianas Trench? Even if we surveyed exactly the shape of the earth, our process of surveying would alter the surface by the footprints left and the impressions of the survey stakes and instruments. Hence, the exact shape of the earth cannot be known. Every rain shower changes the shape.
- (Note here as well the implications for skepticism and relativism: simply because we cannot exactly describe the exact shape of the earth, the conclusion does not logically follow that the earth does not have a shape.)
consider two well-known problems in epistemology:
- Russell’s Five-Minute-World Hypothesis: Suppose the earth were created five minutes ago, complete with memory images, history books, records, etc., how could we ever know of it? As Russell wrote in The Analysis of Mind, “There is no logical impossibility in the hypothesis that the world sprang into being five minutes ago, exactly as it then was, with a population that “remembered” a wholly unreal past. There is no logically necessary connection between events at different times; therefore nothing that is happening now or will happen in the future can disprove the hypothesis that the world began five minutes ago.” For example, an omnipotent God could create the world with all the memories, historical records, and so forth five minutes ago. Any evidence to the contrary would be evidence created by God five minutes ago. (Q.v., the Omphalos hypothesis.)
- Suppose everything in the universe (including all spatial relations) were to expand uniformly a thousand times larger. How could we ever know it? A moment’s thought reveals that the mass of objects increases by the cube whereas the distance among them increases linearly. Hence, if such an expansion were possible, changes in the measurement of gravity and the speed of light would be evident, if, indeed, life would be possible.
- Russell’s Five-Minute-World Hypothesis is a philosophical problem; the impossibility of the objects in the universe expanding is a scientific problem since the latter problem can, in fact, be answered by principles of elementary physics.
The Main Branches of Philosophy are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for one area overlaps into the others.
- Axiology: the study of value; the
investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. More often than
not, the term “value theory” is used instead of “axiology”
in contemporary discussions even though the term “theory of value” is used with
respect to the value or price of goods and services in economics.
significant questions in axiology include the following:
- Nature of value: is value a fulfillment of desire, a pleasure, a preference, a behavioral disposition, or simply a human interest of some kind?
- Criteria of value: de gustibus non (est) disputandum(i.e., (“there’s no accounting for tastes”) or do objective standards apply?
- Status of value: how are values related to (scientific) facts? What ultimate worth, if any, do human values have?
is usually divided into two main parts.
- Ethics: the study of values in human
behavior or the study of moral problems: e.g., (1) the rightness
and wrongness of actions, (2) the kinds of things which are good or desirable,
and (3) whether actions are blameworthy or praiseworthy.
this example analyzed by J. O. Urmson in his well-known
essay, “Saints and Heroes”:
“We may imagine a squad of soldiers to be practicing the throwing of live hand grenades; a grenade slips from the hand of one of them and rolls on the ground near the squad; one of them sacrifices his life by throwing himself on the grenade and protecting his comrades with his own body. It is quite unreasonable to suppose that such a man must be impelled by the sort of emotion that he might be impelled by if his best friend were in the squad.”
- Did the soldier who threw himself on the grenade do the right thing? If he did not cover the grenade, several soldiers might be injured or be killed. His action probably saved lives; certainly an action which saves lives is a morally correct action. One might even be inclined to conclude that saving lives is a duty. But if this were so, wouldn’t each of the soldiers have the moral obligation or duty to save his comrades? Would we thereby expect each of the soldiers to vie for the opportunity to cover the grenade?
- Consider this example analyzed by J. O. Urmson in his well-known essay, “Saints and Heroes”:
- Ethics: the study of values in human behavior or the study of moral problems: e.g., (1) the rightness and wrongness of actions, (2) the kinds of things which are good or desirable, and (3) whether actions are blameworthy or praiseworthy.
- Some significant questions in axiology include the following:
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8609 Autumn 2019
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609
Q 4: Discuss the main tenets of idealism and Realism
Plato is an astute and important philosopher, who writes beautifully and with great power and elegance on Truth and Reality. His work is still profoundly important in today’s Post modern world, and can be easily understood due to its simplicity of language and engaging style of dialogue. – He appreciated that all Truth comes from Reality and this Truth was profoundly important to the future of Humanity.
When the mind’s eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and its beliefs shifting, and it seems to lack intelligence. (Plato, 380BC
The idealists believes that material or physical universe is not complete expression of reality, the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. While the physical and material world is destructible and changeable, the spirit behind it is indestructible and unchangeable
Idealism in general is the metaphysical doctrine,(metaphysics is an area of philosophy that is concerned with questions about reality.It deals with questions like: what is reality? What is existence? Is the universe rationally designed or ultimetly meaningless? The basic assumption of epistemological Idealism is that we only know our own ideas (representations or mental images) metaphysics also involves questions concerning ,Is human nature physicle or spritual (mind-body problem)?Does a person make free choices or do events and conditions force one into determined decisions? So “idealism” in general is, metaphysical that a world of material objects containing no thought either could not exist as it is experienced, or would not be fully “real.
Fundamental principles of Idealism:
· Idea is real
· Man is supreme creation
· God is the source of all knowledge
· Values are Absolute
1-Idea is real: It is a system of philosophy which believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea.
2-Man is supreme creation:According to Idealism man is being spritual is a supreme creation of God.They believe that man has spirit or mind and through this spirit or mind he controls the environment.
3- God is the source of all knowledge: Although the man is supreme creation of God and he can create values, yet he cannot find knowledge of ulimate reality from anyone, elsewhere except God, not possible through the methods of observation, experimentation,reasoning,etc.,Idealists advocate the use of intution for knowing the ultimate.
4- Values are Absolute: Idealists believes in three spritual values, they are the Truth, the Beauty and the Goodness. The Truth is an intellectual value, the beauty is an aesthetic value and the good is a moral values. For Plato these three values are identical to each other.
Things that are abstract super natural or out of human mind are not the facts. Idealist’s point of view about knowledge is that the good knowledge is useful for the society. Idealists believe that ideas are the only true reality. It is not that all idealists reject matter (the material world), but rather they hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability and uncertainty. While some ideas are enduring. Thus idealism might be more correct descriptive term for this philosophy. Idealism believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea. Material or physical world is not complete expression of reality. To him the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. (Shahid, 2006) Idealism believes in refined wisdom. It is based on the view that reality is a world within a person’s mind. It believes that truth is in the consistency of ideas and that goodness is an ideal state to strive to attain. As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught the wisdom of past heroes. Aristotle’s theory of Realism:
Realism believes in the world as it is. It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is what we sense and observe and that goodness is found in the order of the laws of nature. Realistic believe that the fact is something that is made an image in the human mind (Shahid, 2006.)
As a result, schools exist to reveal the order of the world and universe. Students are taught factual information. Realism is the classical philosophy of education. Like other aspects of life the Realism also searches in education for the fact and reality in education. Realism discuses the three basic questions of philosophy that is: 1) what is good? 2) What is fact? 3) What is reality? In the first question realism discuses with the nature of knowledge known as “Entomology”. The second question is about the nature of value, known as “Epistemology”. At the third question the educational philosophy discusses about the nature of beauty, known as “Axiology”(Shahid, 2006).
Realistic educators say that knowledge is that what is good. Virtue. The fact is in the supernatural. The physical world is just an image of the reality. Reality is that what is never changing (permanent). So if it is like that then there should be uniform education in everywhere. Realistic philosophy says that they have a treasury of literature in their literature that is a good source of knowledge. One has to get knowledge from this treasury of literature. Aristotle is known as the father of the realistic approach.
Comparison of idealism and realism in Education
Comparatively idealism and realism both are classic but two different doctrines of education. One is symbolist (Idealis) and the other is materialistic (realism) The source of knowledge in idealism is taken from the past literature that is usually abstract type of knowledge stressing the concept of supernatural (Metaphysical) phenomenon where the idealists focus upon the picture of an object in one’s ideas. The teacher in the idealistic approach is autocratic who has more knowledge and pedagogical strength then the pupil. He/she has to select the content and learning experiences for the what ever he/she thinks is suitable and in effective for the students.
. On the other hand the idealism has fully stressed upon the objects and their ideas on the human mind. Both the philosophies have to well furnish the students’ cognitive strength that is useful to prepare him for the life and its challenges. The teacher in idealism has to face the pupil and to engage him in the discussion in his/her selected topic. The student learns by the discussion. This method is known as ‘Debate’ or Socratic method.
While Realists place enormous emphasis upon critical reason aided by observation and experimentation. Realists support the lecture method and other formal ways of teaching. The teacher lectures and the learner has a role of passive and obedient listener. The learning experiences or content in the idealism is chosen situational regarding the need of the learner where in the idealism these learning experiences are chosen from the literature that have been written by the great philosophers in the past. The learner in the realistic approach is a passive factor that has to follow the teacher what ever the teacher says. He/she is a gentle and obedient in front of the teacher. The learner has to inculcate as much as he/she can and also can express his inculcated knowledge. He is a hardworking pupil. The same in idealism but here the learner is comparatively more active then that of the realism. The pupil can take participation in the discussion and debates.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2019 Code 8609
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609
Q 5: Describe the different sources of knowledge.
Inspiration, revelation, insight, intuition, ecstasy, divine sight and the supreme, blissful state are the seven planes of knowledge. There are four sources of knowledge: instinct, reason, intuition, and direct knowledge of Brahman (God) or Brahma-Jnana (knowledge of God).
When an ant crawls on your right arm, the left hand automatically moves towards the right arm to drive the ant away. The mind does not reason here. When you see a scorpion near your leg, you withdraw the leg automatically. This is called instinctive or automatic movement. As you cross a street, how instinctively you move your body to save yourself from the cars! There is no thought during such kind of mechanical movement. Instinct is found in animals and birds also. In birds, the ego does not interfere with the free, divine flow and play. Hence the work done by them through their instinct is more perfect than that done by human beings. Have you ever noticed the intricate and exquisite work done by birds in the building of their beautiful nests ?
Reason is higher than instinct and is found only in human beings. It collects facts, generalizes, reasons out from cause to effect, from effect to cause, from premises to conclusions, from propositions to proofs. It concludes, decides and comes to final judgment. It takes you safely to the door of intuition and leaves you there. Belief, reason, knowledge and faith are the four important psychic processes. First you have belief in a doctor. You go to him for diagnosis and treatment. The doctor makes a thorough examination of you and prescribes certain medicines. You take them. You reason out: “Such and such is the disease. The doctor has given me some iron and iodide. Iron will improve my blood. The iodide will stimulate the lymphatics and absorb the exudation and growth in the liver. So I should take it.” Then, by a regular and systematic course of these drugs, the disease is cured in a month. You then get knowledge and have perfect faith in the efficacy of the medicine and the proficiency of the doctor. You recommend this doctor and his drugs to your friends so that they too might benefit from his treatment.
Intuition is personal spiritual experience. The knowledge obtained through the functioning of the causal body (Karana Sarira) is intuition. Sri Aurobindo calls it the Supermind or Supramental Consciousness. There is direct perception of truth, or immediate knowledge through Samadhi or the Superconscious State. You know things in a flash. Professor Bergson preached about intuition in France to make the people understand that there was a higher source of knowledge than the intellect. In intuition there is no reasoning process at all. It is direct perception. Intuition transcends reason but does not contradict it. Intellect takes a man to the door of intuition and returns. Intuition is Divya Drishti (divine vision); it is the eye of wisdom. Spiritual flashes and glimpses of truth, inspiration, revelation and spiritual insight come through intuition. The mind has to be pure for one to know that it is the intuition that is functioning at a particular moment. Brahma-Jnana (knowledge of God) is above intuition. It transcends the causal body and is the highest form of knowledge. It is the only Reality.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609