AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Autumn 2019

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Autumn 2019. Solved Assignments code 8606 Citizenship Education and Community Engagement 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606) Level: B.Ed (1 1?2 & 21?2 Years) Semester: Autumn 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 a) Define the concept of culture.

Answer:

The society and culture of Pakistan comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtunsin the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north. The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asians, Turkic peoples as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia.

The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia, West Asia the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the position of Afghanistan.[1] There are differences among the ethnic groups in cultural aspects such as dress, food, and religion, especially where pre-Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield, including China, India and Afghanistan. Pakistan was the first region of South Asia to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east Culture may be defined as an integral whole which affects human ideals, actions and modes of living. According to E.B. Taylor, “Culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs and all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society.” Every great nation enjoys its own culture. Similarly, Pakistani culture is very distinct due to its Islamic nature and rich historical background. Pakistani culture has the following characteristics: i- Islamic values and traditions. ii- National and regional languages. iii- Mixed culture. iv- Rich literature v- Male dominated society. vi- Variety of Dresses vii- Fairs and Festivals. viii- Sports ix- Handicrafts.

I- Islamic Values: Pakistani culture is actually a part of the contemporary Islamic civilization which draws its value and traditions from Islam and rich Islamic history. Majority of population comprises of Muslims and follows teachings of Islam, i-e., belief in one Allah, Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad P.B.U.H, brotherhood, equality and social justice etc. Islam is religion of peace and patience. Pakistani society is very cooperative. National calendar is marked by religious days which are observed with great devotion. ii- National and Regional Languages: Pakistan is a large country which comprises of four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA). All of these

component parts have their own regional languages. As such Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi, Balochi, Barohi and Kashmiri are regional languages. However, Urdu is the national language which is spokin and understood in all parts of the country.

iii- Mixed Culture: Practically speaking Pakistani culture is a beautiful blend of the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluchi, Barohi, Seraiki and Kashmiri cultures. In addition, the presence of Hindu community in Sindh gives touches of dance and music in the Sindhi region. The Hindus sing Bhejas but Pakistani culture has adopted Qawwali which is a praise of the Holy Propher P.B.U.H.

iv- Rich Literature: Pakistani culture is rich in the literatures of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baruhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri languages. Urdu literature boasts of the masterpieces of Maulana Azad, Iqbal, Shibli, Hali, Ghalib, Agha Hashar, Manto and Faiz whereas the Punjabi literature stands out with great names like Waris Shah, Sultan Bahu, Ghulam Farid, Bulhay Shah and Shah Hussain etc. Similarly, Sindhi literature glitters with the masterpieces of Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Shah Qadir Bakhsh, and Faqir Nabi Bakhsh. The Pushto literature also boasts of names like Sheikh Saleh, Raghoon Khan, Akhund dardeeza, Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba. The Baluchi literature comprises of masterpieces of Jam Durk, Muhammad Ali, Zahoor Shah Hashmi, Ghani Parvez, Hasrat Baluch, Abbas Ali Zemi and Aziz Bugti etc.

v- Male Dominated Society: Pakistani society is dominated by male members. Each family is headed by the senior most male member who is responsible for arranging the bread and butter of the family.

vii- Variety of Dresses: Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses: The people of Punjab, the Pathans of NWFP, the Baluchi people and the Sindhis wear their own distinct dresses. These dresses are very colourful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals.

viii- Fairs and Festivals: The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of Fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country. Moreover, annual urs of great saints are held to commemorate their anniversaries. On these occasions, fairs are also held in which people take part in great numbers. Out of these the Horse and Cattle shows of Lahore, Mianwali and Sibi are famous wheseas the Polo festival fo Gilgit is prominent at national and international level. Moreover annual urs of Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh, Madhu Lal Hussain, Baba Bulhay Shah, Baba Farid Gunj Shakar, Baba Gulu Shah, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Abdul Latif Bhitaii, Hazrat Noshah Ganj Bakhsh, Bari Imam, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, and Bahauddin Zakriya are celebrated with great fervour.

ix- Sports: Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games. Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the coutnry. In addition wrestling, boxing, and athletics are also very popular among masses. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past. These include Bholu in Wrestling, Hanif, Miandad, Imran, Wasim Akram, and Inzamam in cricket, Shehnaz sheikh, Islahuddin, KHalid mahmood, Akhtar Rasool, and Munir Dar in hockey and Jahangir, Jansher in squash.

x- Handicrafts: Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous. a) Explain the major elements of Pakistan culture.

Ans.

Pakistan came into existence on August, 14, 1947 from British Rule. Its population in 2009 was about 174.58 million with an area of 340, 499 sq mi (Britannica.com, 2010). Islam is the major religion of the people of Pakistan. It is a Muslim dominated country with 95 percent Muslim and only 5 percent others. However, being a pathway to many military conquests in the history, it has given birth to several ethnic groups. The interaction between invaders and the locals had given birth to a common language called Urdu; however the locals kept their particular ethnic and cultural values alive. The society and culture of Pakistan comprises numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashtun in the west; and the ancient Dardic, Wakhi and Burusho communities in the north. These Pakistani cultures have been greatly influenced by many of the surrounding countries’ cultures, such as the Turkic peoples, Persian, Arab, some parts of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East (UNESCO World Heritage State Parties Pakistan Retrieved 09 July 2010). In ancient times, Pakistan was a major cultural hub. Many cultural practices and great monuments have been inherited from the time of the ancient rulers of the region. One of the greatest cultural influences was that of the Persian Empire, of which Pakistan was a part. In fact, the Pakistani satraps were at one time the richest and most productive of the massive Persian Empire. Other key influences include the Afghan Empire, Mughal Empire and later, the short lived but influential, the British Empire. Pakistani society is largely multilingual, multi-ethnic and multicultural. Though cultures within the country differ to some extent, more similarities than differences can be found, as most Pakistanis are mainly of Aryan heritage or have coexisted side by side along the Indus River for several thousand years, or both. However, over 60 years of integration, a distinctive “Pakistani” culture has sprung up, especially in the urban areas where many of the diverse ethnic groups have coexisted and the country now having a literacy rate of 55%, up from 3% at the time of independence. Traditional family values are highly respected and considered sacred, although urban families increasingly form nuclear families, owing to socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional culture of the extended family. Pakistani Culture is very unique in terms of its social and ethical values. These values are something which are given due importance. This culture revolves around the religion of Islam which teaches equality among every human being that exists on this planet. Pakistan’s culture is very diverse. Pakistani culture has the following elements:

1. Islamic Values Pakistani culture is actually a part of the contemporary Islamic civilization which draws its value and traditions from Islam and rich Islamic history. Majority of population comprises of Muslims and follows teachings of Islam, i-e., belief in one Allah, Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad P.B.U.H, brotherhood, equality and social justice etc. Islam is religion of peace and patience. Pakistani society is very cooperative. National calendar is marked by religious days which are observed with great devotion. 2. Religious Festivals Festivals play an important part of our culture. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals .They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country. 3. National and Regional Languages Pakistan is a large country which comprises of four provinces, the Federally Administered

Tribal Areas (FATA) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA). All of these component parts have their own regional languages. As such Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi, Balochi, Barohi and Kashmiri are regional languages. However, Urdu is the national language which is spokin and understood in all parts of the country. 4. Mixed Culture Practically speaking Pakistani culture is a beautiful blend of the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluchi, Barohi, Seraiki and Kashmiri cultures. In addition, the presence of Hindu community in Sindh gives touches of dance and music in the Sindhi region. The Hindus sing Bhejan but Pakistani culture has adopted Qawwali which is a praise of the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H. 5. Rich Literature Pakistani culture is rich in the literatures of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baruhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri languages. Urdu literature boasts of the masterpieces of Maulana Azad, Iqbal, Shibli, Hali, Ghalib, Agha Hashar, Manto and Faiz whereas the Punjabi literature stands out with great names like Waris Shah, Sultan Bahu, Ghulam Farid, Bulhay Shah and Shah Hussain etc. Similarly, Sindhi literature glitters with the masterpieces of Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Shah Qadir Bakhsh, and Faqir Nabi Bakhsh. The Pushto literature also boasts of names like Sheikh Saleh, Raghoon Khan, Akhund dardeeza, Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba. The Baluchi literature comprises of masterpieces of Jam Durk, Muhammad Ali, Zahoor Shah Hashmi, Ghani Parvez, Hasrat Baluch, Abbas Ali Zemi and Aziz Bugti etc. 6. Male Dominated Society Pakistani society is dominated by male members. Each family is headed by the senior most male member who is responsible for arranging the bread and butter of the family. 7. Variety of Dresses Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses: The people of Punjab, the Pathans of KPK, the Baluchi people and the Sindhis wear their own distinct dresses. These dresses are very colorful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals. 8. Fairs and Festivals The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country. Moreover, annual urs of great saints are held to commemorate their anniversaries. On these occasions, fairs are also held in which people take part in great numbers. Out of these the Horse and Cattle shows of Lahore, Mianwali and Sibi are famous wheseas the Polo festival fo Gilgit is prominent at national and international level. Moreover annual urs of Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh, Madhu Lal Hussain, Baba Bulhay Shah, Baba Farid Gunj Shakar, Baba Gulu Shah, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Abdul Latif Bhitaii, Hazrat Noshah Ganj Bakhsh, Bari Imam, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, and Bahauddin Zakriya are celebrated with great fervour. 9. Sports Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games. Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the country. In addition wrestling, boxing, and athletics are also very popular among masses. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past. These include Bholu in Wrestling, Hanif, Miandad, Imran, Wasim Akram, and Inzamam in cricket, Shehnaz sheikh, Islahuddin, Khalid Mahmood, Akhtar Rasool, and Munir Dar in hockey and Jahangir, Jansher in squash. 10. Handicrafts Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous. 11. Arts and Architecture The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elegant designs, based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. The Shah Jahan Masjid,Shalimar Garden,Badshahi Masjid,Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the exellent Mughal architecture. 12. Recreational Activities-Sports

The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. The games like wrestling, hockey, cricket, football, squash, Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. These games reflect our cultural identity. 13. Education Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of culture, unity and solidarity of a nation. it is ,therefore, important that the entire syllabi right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan. 14. Ulema,Mushaikh and Sufi Poets xxxvii

Ulema,Mashaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life.

Sufis like Lal Shahbaz,Data Ganj Baksh,Shah Abdul Lateef,Sachal Sarmast,Hazrat Sultan

Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub

Continent.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Autumn 2018

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Q.2 a) Discuss the principles of group dynamics.

Ans.

Principles of the Group Dynamics: 1. The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group. The barrier between the leaders and to be led must be broken down. 2. The more attraction a group is to its members, the greater influence it would exercise on its members. 3. The greater the prestige of the group member in the eyes of the member the greater influence he would exercise on the theme. 4. The successful efforts to change individuals sub parts of the group would result in making them confirm to the norms of the group. 5. The pressures for change when strong can be established in the group by creating a shared perception by the members for the need for the change. 6. Information relating to the need for change, plans for change and the consequence of the changes must be shared by the members of the group. 7. The changes in one part of the groups may produce stress in the other parts, which can be reduced only by eliminating the change or by bringing about readjustments in the related parts. 8. The groups arise and function owing to common motives. 9. The groups survive by pacing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goal. 10. The intergroup relations, group organization, member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group.

These principles may not apply for some environment but an individual can adapt these as per requirement and the situation. Features of Group Dynamics: Group dynamics is concerned with group .Wherever a group exists the individuals interact and members are continuously changing and adjusting relationship with respect to each other. The members of the group may interact , may be in state of tension , may be attracted or repelled to each other, may seek the resolution of these tensions and return to equilibrium after the resolution. Changes go on occurring like introduction of the new members, changes in leadership,

presence of old and new members and the rate of change – fast or slow. The groups may dissolve if the members are not enthusiastic about the goals; they have no faith in the ideology and don’t identify themselves with the group. This means that the cohesiveness in the group has decreased. There may be rigidity or flexibility (cohesiveness or conflict) that influence a group dynamics. If the members get along well there is smooth sailing for the group and if there is conflict it leads to problems. A rigid group may not change and lacks adaptability to change. But the members if are able to solves the problems, the equilibrium can be maintained. The conflict and tension if increases within the group, this can cause an open flare up and strong measures are urgently. The group organization is essential. It leads to greater group effectiveness, participation, cooperation and a constructive morale. The leader will be effective only if the group is organized and stable. Some degree of organization is essential for effective functioning of the group and depends on the proportion of the well-defined roles for the members in the group. The organized group; is one with every member having specific roles and acting towards other members in the prescribed manner. Dynamic group always is in continuous process of restructuring, adjusting and readjusting

members to one another for the purpose of reducing the tensions, eliminating the conflicts and

solving the problems which its members have in common. The changes may take within a

group and it is interesting to study the way the change do occur. The frequent changes indicate

the capacity of the group to change and adapt.

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B) Evaluate the effect of school on formation of students’ behavior.

Ans.

A student who intentionally creates a disturbance in class that directly interferes with the teacher’s ability to instruct the class and with other students’ ability to learn is considered disruptive. Disruptive behavior can have negative effects on not only the classroom environment, but also on the school experience as a whole. Types of Disruptive Behaviors

There are a variety of ways a student might behave in a disruptive manner. Some are minor and often easily ignored, but a few types of disruptive behaviors go beyond rudeness. A student who monopolizes discussions or speaks on particular subjects with no relevance to the current lesson is exhibiting a disruptive behavior called grandstanding, or showing off. Excessive talking with other students during class or passing notes is another type of disruptive behavior which can affect the entire class by making the teacher difficult to hear or forcing the teacher to interrupt the lesson in order to stop the chatter. Another type of disruptive behavior occurs when a student challenges the teacher’s authority or knowledge on a subject because of anger over a grade or a general dislike of that particular teacher. This type of behavior can evolve into verbal or physical threats to the teacher or other students. Less obvious disruptive behaviors include lateness, sleeping in class, and bringing in and using phones or other electronic devices.

Negative Effects on Teaching

Disruptive students interfere with the teacher’s ability to teach effectively. The behaviors require large amounts of the teacher’s time and attention. The teacher must stop the lesson or discussion to address the behavior, and this takes away from the valuable time needed to

instruct the rest of the class. If the disruptive behavior is threatening, it may challenge the teacher’s authority and can create tension in the classroom, which pushes learning to the background. Disruptive behavior by one student also encourages other students to do the same, which compromises the teacher’s authority and ability to control the group. Issues for Students

The learning process for other students is affected when one or more students behave in a disruptive manner. Constant interruptions can interfere with focus. Students are forced to wait while the behavior is addressed, or they are sidetracked by the disruptive student’s attempts to be noticed. This can result in lower grades and behavioral issues with other students as well as with the student who is causing the interruption. Peers tend to have a significant influence over each other, and if one student is disruptive, it may encourage similar behavior in other classmates who might not have had trouble otherwise. Negative Impact on the School

Often schools must focus time and resources that could be used elsewhere on trying to stop disruptive behaviour in students. This takes away from the educational mandate of most schools, which is usually to provide a safe, effective learning environment for all students. Teachers are often not equipped to deal with some types of extreme disruptive behaviors, and as a result, the student is either sent out of class or the school must enlist the aid of outside professionals to try to intervene. This takes resources and funding, which could be better used to improve the educational environment for all students instead of just one.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8606 Autumn 2018

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Q.3 a) Highlight the role of education in preserving and promoting the culture of a

society.

Answer:

Role of Education in Promoting and Preserving Culture Education is essential for every society and individual. It is life itself but not a preparation for life. Man has various qualities. These qualities of the individual should be developed for the improvement of the country. So education plays a complementary role for overall individual, social and national development. It enables an individual to realize his highest self and goal. The key functions and roles of education towards individual, society and country are listed below. Education is taken as an attempt to bring the change in the behaviour of individual through which they will be able to understand the society. From the view point of the welfare of a society, education means the transmission of culture. It is a platitude to say that man is born a biological heritage into, a social heritage Culture is another name for this social heritage. In a subtle way, the essence of all human achievements is culture. In the words of E.B. Tylor: “Culture is that ‘complex whole’ which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom and any other ‘capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. This culture is transmitted by every society to its next generation in the interests of the stability and continuity of the society. Education is the process of cultural transmission. J.S. Mill has defined education referring to this meaning: Education is the, culture which each generation purposely gives to those who are to be its successors, in order to qualify there for at least keeping up, and if possible for raising, the level of improvement which has been maintained.” Two points have to be noted in the above definition. a) Preservation of culture is possible only through education. The goal of all activities of every generation is the preservation of culture. For example, the life of our culture is in the hands of our youth. If they ignore or overlook the glory of their culture and begin to imitate another culture, it will be detrimental to the present progress of country.

b) There is no culture which can be said to be perfect. There is a need to refine it. For instance, though Pakistani culture has a hoary past is one of the great illustrations of ancient cultures, is claimed to be timeless, still a number of customs which have grown with it over time such as the caste system, un-touch ability and child marriage need refinement. Similarly there is a need to refine the techniques of production and technology of agriculture. Such refinements have to be brought about through education only. Just as an individual insures his life so that his dependents may not suffer after his exit from this world, similarly the elders-of a society insure the stability, security and welfare of their younger generations through education. They would see to it that the younger generation will not suffer after they pass away. Hence, education is transmission of culture. For understanding the role of education regarding the progress of culture, it seems better to understand the the functions of education towards individual, society and country as these components are interrelated. (a) Functions of Education Towards Individual: (1) Development of inborn potentialities- Education helps the child to develop the inborn potentialities of child providing scope to develop. (2) Modifying behaviour- Education helps to modify the past behaviour through learning and through different agencies of education. (3) All-round development- Education aims at the all round development of child-physical, mental, social, emotional, and spiritual. (4) Preparing for the future- After completion of education the child can earn its livelihood getting proper education, which has productivity. The education should be imparted according to the own interest of the child. (5) Developing personality- The whole personality of the child is developed physically, intellectually, morally, socially, aesthetically and spiritually. He is recognized in the society. (6) Helping for adjustability- Man differs from beast. Man has reasoning and thinking power. Man tries his best to adjust with his own environment through education. (b) Functions of Education Towards Society (1) Social Change and Control The society is never station. It is progressive and dynamic. The child lives in society. It is the social environment where the personality of the child can be developed. The old traditions, customs are preserved and transmitted with the situations, which are ever changing. We should not think or believe in the blind beliefs, which are hindrances towards our development. Education helps to walk with the development of science and technology. (2) Reconstruction of Experiences Education is life-long process. Life is education and education is life. Life is full of experiences. One cannot live with his past experiences which are unable to adjust in the society. So education helps the individual to reconstruct the experience and adjust with the environment. (3) Development of Social and Moral Value Society is always in tension with narrowism. There is no social or moral value. Now the man is behaving like an animal. Animality can be changed with moral education. Education teaches the moral value and social value like co-operation, tolerance, sympathy, fellow feelings, love affection, respect towards elder, helping the poor and needy persons. (4) Providing Opportunity or Equality Islam believes in ‘equality’ and leads the education system towards equality. Unfortunately we are not getting equal opportunities in all aspects. So education teaches us to give equal opportunities in all aspects irrespective of caste, creed, colour, sex and religion.

b) Suggest way in which our education system may help in the promotion of our

culture.

Answer

Relationship between Education and Society We have seen education in particular as a means of cultural transmission from one generation to another. The parents are the first teachers of the child and they still maintain an educative function throughout the early and formative years of the child. In most of the developing nations of the world, including Pakistan, parents are responsible for sending their children to school. Since these nations are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political changes, they witness special problems in evolving the appropriate education system, which will be able to produce the adequate manpower needs in all the segments of the society. Schools are established in many societies of the world so as to instill in the pupils those skill’s which will afford them the opportunity of taking their rightful positions in the society; but this function cannot be adequately accomplished without the assistance of the home because both the home and the school perform complimentary functions in the moral and intellectual development of the child. This means that the child cannot be educated in a vacuum or in isolation. Therefore, for a child to be educated there must be interaction between him and his physical and social environment. By this we mean that education is the development of personality. It is something which goes on both inside and outside the home and in the school. In other words, education is an activity of the whole community. This means that education is used in the transmission of the cultural values. One important implication of looking at education as the transmitter of cultural values is the fact that education can be influenced by the culture of the society in which it takes place. For this reason, one may infer that for a child to be educated, he must be influenced by his environment and, in turn, be capable of influencing it. And it is only by the concept of the continuous interaction of the individual and his society that the development of personality can be properly understood. Education is a mean through which the cultural values of a particular society are transmitted from one generation to another. Through this process, the society is able to achieve basic social conformity and ensure that its traditional values, beliefs, attitudes and aspirations are maintained and preserved. Clarks (1948) observed that a general knowledge and acceptance of the ideals and aims of our society is essential for all its citizens, and it must be achieved through education but in a form, which makes it compatible with freedom. A society needs a stable and dynamic set of values and a, unified purpose. It is when this is determined that meaningful economic, political and social programmes can be embarked upon for the overall benefits of the citizens. To be a fully developed person in such a society implies full and creative membership of it with powers to change it. Education depends on the total way of life of a people in a society. This suggests that the type of education provided will differ from society to society. Besides, each society has its own norms, values and its own ideal persons who stand out clearly for the younger generations to follow. Since all these societies are not the same, then it means that a man regarded as a hero in one society because of his contributions to educational development of the society may not be regarded as such in another society where education is not given priority in the scheme of their daily activities. It, therefore, implies that children have different people to emulate in different societies. It is logical to expect that the type education given in each society will change from time to time as the society changes. Many writers have argued that education is one of the causes of social change in the society, but another school of thought is of the opinion, that educational change tends to follow other social changes, rather than initiate them. Exceptional individuals invent new techniques and propound new values for their society.

These ideas arise from the impact of human beings on their culture, but do not change the culture until they are shared and transmitted by a social group. Another area of the relationship between education and society is through the arrangement of the entire society into a hierarchical order that is, through the social structure in which education plays a prominent and significant role in fixing educated individuals into social classes. Ottaway (1980) observed that education is the process of preparing people to fit into this complex social structure and to play particular social roles as members of more than one institutional group. Individuals have to learn to be fathers or mothers, school teachers or civil servants, shopkeepers or priests. They have to learn to keep the law, to understand how they are governed and to be prepared to try and change the social moves when they see that they can be improved. Education as a social phenomenon is also concerned with the preparation of the child for his future occupation in life. This is one of the main economic functions of education and this is in the interest of both the nation and the individual. Through education an individual knows the structure of the society and the different types of relationships that exist among those structures in the society. The child is taught how to perform different roles within the social structure in the society. These roles are inter-related. For example, the role of a father is a relational role; a father could be a son to, another person. So education allows the child to perform his role adequately within the social structure in the society. In addition, the child is able to understand the networks of inter-relationships among the different social institutions that make up the society. Like an individual, each institution has definite functions to perform in the society and the functions of each institution differ from one to another even though they are complimentary. Another aspect of the relationship between education and society is in the area of social interaction. Social interaction may be defined as any relation between people and groups, which changes the behaviour of the people in the group. There is a need for social interaction by the child before he could acquire the culture of his society. This interaction in the society is therefore part of the child’s education, provided that, that type of interaction brings about positive changes in the child’s behaviour in a right direction as required by the educational system. One important point here is that the child has been taking part in group interaction long before he starts to attend school and the most common among these group interactions are within the family and the peer group. These groups in which the child interacts give him the opportunity to learn from the wider circles in the society. From his social contacts, he learns his roles in different groups and this influences his personality development .

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606

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Q.4 a) Discuss the need of socialization in the life of an individual.

Answer

Socialization is not a new process and concept. It is an antique and

primitive process and concept. It is predominately an unconscious process by which a

newborn child learns the values, beliefs, rules and regulations of society or internalizes

the culture in which it is born. Socialization, in fact, includes learning of three important

processes: (1) cognitive; (2) affective, and (3) evaluative. In other words, socialization

includes the knowledge of how things are caused and the establishment of emotional

links with the rest of the members of the society. Socialization, therefore, equips an

individual in such a way that he can perform his duties in his society. The agents of

socialization vary from society to society. However, in most of the cases, it is the family

which is a major socializing agent, that is, the nearest kinsmen are the first and the most

important agents of socialization. The other groups which are socializing units in a

society vary according to the complexity. Thus, in modern complex society, the

important socializing agents are educational institutions, while in primitive societies,

clans and lineages play a more important role. Socialization is extremely important thing

for all individuals because no one can live in seclusion and social interaction is very

crucial and inevitable. All human beings are social animals and survival in loneliness

and separation is not pragmatic and practical. There is no fixed time regarding the

beginning and the end of this process. However, some sociologists formulated different

stages of socialization as childhood, adolescence, adulthood and age sixty five and

beyond. Moreover agencies of socialization are also mentioned as family, school, peers,

religion, government, media, work, ethic background, clubs/social groups etc. All the

stages and agencies of socialization are discussed in detail in this unit. The role of

teacher is very crucial in this regard. The teacher can be a role model in this context of

socialization. Therefore, this unit mainly focus on the socializing agents and specifically

the teacher.

. b) Analyze the role of different medium which promote socialization.

Answer

Socialization is a process of growth, developing an individual in unique, process of development in personality. Inducting an individual into society is called socialization. It is a processes of training to adjust man in society. Man is to time in various social3groups and different social situations and has to learn techniques of life to adjust in new modes of life. Learning techniques of social life is called socialization. Learning of different social situations is to processes of socialization. Socialization of individual starts from the birth. When the child is born them according to a philosophy is a “Tabullarasa” meaning allows sheet and what is taught got imprinted on that sheet. That’s why it is said that “child is father of man”. Socialization is a process of growth, developing an individual in unique, process of development in personality. Inducting an individual into society is called socialization. It is a processes of training to adjust man in society. Man is to time in various social3groups and different social situations and has to learn techniques of life to adjust in new modes of life. Learning techniques of social life is called socialization. Learning of different social situations is to processes of socialization. Socialization of individual starts from the birth. When the child is born them according to a philosophy is a “Tabullarasa” meaning allows sheet and what is taught got imprinted on that sheet. That’s why it is said that “child is father of man”. Woosely “Process of transmission of culture, the process whereby man learn the rules and practices of social group”. Joln J. Maccionis “It is a long life social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture”.

Hoston and Hirt “Socialization is a processes whereby one internalizes the norms of the groups among whom one likes so that a unique “self emerges”. Aims/Objectives and Functions of Socialization:- 1. Socialization is a process of learning

Socialization is not only term but a full process of learning of individuals how to conduct their life, morals and values. 2. Converts Individual from bio-logical being to social being Socialization converts individual from a biological bearing to social being and social entity. 3. Personality Development Socialization play a vital role in personality and self-development as self is not inherited but acquired from the society by individual. 4. Teacher Discipline Socialization teachers discipline and conduct to the individuals and show the way to live in society. 5. Socialization Teachers Duties and Responsibilities Male and female acquire the sense of duties and responsibilities dis-motively through socialization. 6. Establishes Knowledge and Skill Socialization establishes knowledge and skills in individual. It is the only process which give shine and groom the natural talent with acquired skills. 7. Stability of Social Order Socialization brining social control and stability in social order. Social order is brought by social. 8. Transmission of culture from one generation to other Socialization ism a bridge for transmission of culture from our generation to another processing one. 9. Development of Social Qualities Child through socialization on uncovered to act according the accepted values and ideas of society. Process of Socialization The process of socialization starts from very birth of child. But that he lacks that essential elements of the social life. As he grows, he molds himself according to the needs of the society. At time of birth child only have “Natural Instincts”, but later on in most make on development according to needs of society. Socialization process could be studied on following points;

Rearing up: Brining Up They may parents rear their child, the way he shall grow and acquire qualities and traits that are result of that way of rearing up.

Identification The child develops feeling of identification from family which in term develops with him maintain of language, way of living values etc.

Social Teaching From family to school, peers the child marted with social teaching. According to Miller Dolard, this social teaching is based on following four elements.

• Derive

• Cue

• Response

• Record

• Perceiving the situation Individual at any age has to change his or her behavior pattern according to situation. This process of perceiving is helpful in acquiring of social ideas.

Mutual Behavior and Cooperation

When an individual comes in contact with other, got influence by mutual corporation, the social qualities also develop in the individual. This is another way of developing social qualities and organizing the social personality.

Suggestions The child also tries to adjust himself to social needs according to the suggestions from others. Generally these suggestions are received from family, peer group, school and other agencies of socialization.

Reward or Punishment If acted according to social values and ideals have get record and punishment if act against the interest of society.

The Role of Socialization

The role of socialization is to acquaint individuals with the norms of a given social group or society. It prepares individuals to participate in a group by illustrating the expectations of that group.

Socialization is very important for children, who begin the process at home with family, and continue it at school. They are taught what will be expected of them as they mature and become full members of society. Socialization is also important for adults who join new social groups. Broadly defined, it is the process of transferring norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors to future group members.

Three Goals of Socialization

This first goal is accomplished naturally: as people grow up within a particular society, they pick up on the expectations of those around them and internalize these expectations to moderate their impulses and develop a conscience. Second, socialization teaches individuals how to prepare for and perform certain social roles—occupational roles, gender roles, and the roles of institutions such as marriage and parenthood. Third, socialization cultivates shared sources of meaning and value. Through socialization, people learn to identify what is important and valued within a particular culture.

The term “socialization” refers to a general process, but socialization always takes place in specific contexts. Socialization is culturally specific: people in different cultures are socialized differently, to hold different beliefs and values, and to behave in different ways. Sociologists try to understand socialization, but they do not rank different schemes of socialization as good or bad; they study practices of socialization to determine why people behave the way that they do.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8606

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Q No.5 a) Discuss the change in family structure in modern age.

Answer

The family forms the foundation of society in Pakistan and encompasses a wide breadth of relationships. One’s extended relatives have great significance on a daily basis and a vast majority of Pakistanis live in multigenerational households whereby three, four or sometimes five generations reside together (including grandparents, uncles, siblings and cousins). Due to the low socioeconomic condition of most of Pakistan’s population, family ties are essential for people to survive economically.

The concept of ‘wasta’ – relationship forming – becomes central to this family dynamic. People generally rely on their relatives more than anyone else for financial, social and employment opportunities (see ‘Interdependence and Wasta’ in the Core Concepts). Furthermore, considering how big the average household is, most of the income is spent on the upkeep of the family home. Generally, only the privileged elite classes or families who have migrated to cities have adopted the nuclear familysetup. Even then, most people’s relatives live close to each other and rely on one another for financial support.

The family, being such an intricate and supportive network, is kept quite private to outsiders. Significant precautions are taken to keep all problems, financial matters and gossip away from public knowledge. This is done as a way to protect one’s family honour and avoid the reputation of the family being shamed (see ‘Honour (Izzat)’ in Core Concepts for further explanation on this).

Traditionally, Pakistani families are patriarchal and patrilineal. In this way, the senior male is the head of the household, followed by the senior female, and finally, the children. Individuals are associated with their father’s family primarily and, upon marriage, a woman will move in with her husband’s family and be considered one of them. Gender Roles Men are generally the main source of income in households throughout Pakistan. According to Islamic custom, in the case that both a husband and wife are employed, the woman’s income is considered to be rightfully her own and does not necessarily have to be spent on the upkeep of the home. In traditional homes, it is believed to be a man’s sole responsibility to provide for his wife, children and any extended family who reside with them or live elsewhere. This will depend on the economic status of the family, but generally across Pakistan, men are expected to earn for the family while women look after the home and general well-being of the family.

Some families still practise the seclusion of women (purdah) by which females can only leave the domestic realm when veiled and accompanied by a man. This custom varies significantly between ethnicities and social backgrounds. For example, Balochis in the highlands generally observe purdah while urban middle-class Pakistanis appear to have stopped doing so.

However, women generally still occupy a subordinate status in Pakistani society. This is somewhat due to the fact that they carry greater expectations of social compliance and are sometimes seen as particularly vulnerable targets that need to be protected. Culturally, women are seen as being more liable to bring dishonour on a family. A mistake or an instance of loss of control by a woman is considered particularly shameful and can be sometimes interpreted as a failure of the patriarch of the family to protect her from doing so.

In some cases, an act of dishonour by a woman has had tragic consequences by which a male relative or community member has murdered her for bringing shame upon the family/group. While acceptance of this practice of ‘honour killing’ is rapidly diminishing in society, it reflects the challenges women face against the strong traditionalists. It still remains a somewhat easy excuse to blame a mistake or problem on a woman.

Ultimately, a woman’s independence and freedom to make choices for herself (i.e. to work, get an education, marry, divorce, bear children or not) varies significantly depending on the attitude of her husband or closest male relative. For example, traditional rural homes in areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab are generally more conservative regarding women’s public participation and social roles. Nevertheless, gender equality is progressing and becoming more widespread across many regions of Pakistan. While stratification between the genders is visible, the increase in education is playing a large role in

changing this. Through the prevalence of education in urban areas, there is an increase in female employment, and it is more common to see both husband and wife heading the household. Many women are among the country’s leading politicians and journalists.

Marriage and Dating Casual dating is strongly disapproved of among the older generation of Pakistanis. There remains a lot of protectionism and paternalism surrounding women especially, and conservatism regarding their relationships. Some of the younger generation have more liberal understandings of relationships and begin dating during or after they finish their tertiary studies. However, the sight of two people from the opposite gender alone in public is likely to draw varying degrees of judgment. This may range from unspoken curiosity to ambivalence depending on where you are. As privacy is a rarity in the public areas of Pakistan, most people are likely to stare.

Many Pakistani marriages are arranged, brokered by the family elders. As nuclear family households are becoming more common in the urban areas of Pakistan, many young adults are now choosing whom they marry. However, even in these circumstances, it is often necessary to receive parents’ full approval and consent of their choice of partner. Marriages are considered to be the responsibility of the parents; they pay for the event itself to a large extent.

Generally, protection of the family and honour plays a key role in determining prospective partners. Potential wives/husbands are usually chosen from within the same socioeconomic bracket. Marriages are rarely approved between people of different socioeconomic tiers. Interethnic marriages are also not very common; however, they are sometimes approved if all other social standings of the families coincided.

Marriage is often considered to be a healthy way to expand the family ties among relatives.

Therefore, it is very

common to marry someone within the extended family, such as a cousin.

These endogamous marriages are considered

to be compatible and, because the larger extended family is implicated if they fail, the couple

is usually strongly

supported by relatives to ensure it doesn’t. Additionally, such marriages help keep family

property consolidated.

b) Explain the collaboration among different institutions of society and how they

contribute to wards national development?

Answer

Education is essential for every society and individual. It is life itself but not a preparation for life. Man has various qualities. These qualities of the individual should be developed for the improvement of the country. So education plays a complementary role for overall individual, social and national development. It enables an individual to realize his highest self and goal. The key functions and roles of education towards individual, society and country are listed below. Education is taken as an attempt to bring the change in the behaviour of individual through which they will be able to understand the society. From the view point of the welfare of a society, education means the transmission of culture. It is a platitude to say that man is born a biological heritage into, a social heritage Culture is another name for this social heritage. In a subtle way, the essence of all human achievements is culture. In the words of E.B. Tylor: “Culture is that ‘complex whole’ which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom and any other ‘capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. This culture is transmitted by every society to its next generation in the interests of the stability and continuity of the society. Education is the process of cultural transmission. J.S. Mill has defined education referring to this meaning: Education is the, culture which each generation purposely gives to those who are to be its successors, in order to qualify there for at least keeping up, and if possible for raising, the level of improvement which has been maintained.” Two points have to be noted in the above definition. a) Preservation of culture is possible only through education. The goal of all activities of every generation is the preservation of culture. For example, the life of our culture is in the hands of our youth. If they ignore or overlook the glory of their culture and begin to imitate another culture, it will be detrimental to the present progress of country. b) There is no culture which can be said to be perfect. There is a need to refine it. For instance, though Pakistani culture has a hoary past is one of the great illustrations of ancient cultures, is claimed to be timeless, still a number of customs which have grown with it over time such as the caste system, un-touch ability and child- marriage need refinement. Similarly there is a need to refine the techniques of production and technology of agriculture. Such refinements have to be brought about through education only.

Just as an individual insures his life so that his dependents may not suffer after his exit from this world, similarly the elders-of a society insure the stability, security and welfare of their younger generations through education. They would see to it that the younger generation will not suffer after they pass away. Hence, education is transmission of culture. For understanding the role of education regarding the progress of culture, it seems better to understand the the functions of education towards individual, society and country as these components are interrelated. (a) Functions of Education Towards Individual: (1) Development of inborn potentialities- Education helps the child to develop the inborn potentialities of child providing scope to develop. (2) Modifying behaviour- Education helps to modify the past behaviour through learning and through different agencies of education. (3) All-round development- Education aims at the all round development of child-physical, mental, social, emotional, and spiritual. (4) Preparing for the future- After completion of education the child can earn its livelihood getting proper education, which has productivity. The education should be imparted according to the own interest of the child. (5) Developing personality- The whole personality of the child is developed physically, intellectually, morally, socially, aesthetically and spiritually. He is recognized in the society. (6) Helping for adjustability- Man differs from beast. Man has reasoning and thinking power. Man tries his best to adjust with his own environment through education. (b) Functions of Education Towards Society (1) Social Change and Control The society is never station. It is progressive and dynamic. The child lives in society. It is the social environment where the personality of the child can be developed. The old traditions, customs are preserved and transmitted with the situations, which are ever changing. We should not think or believe in the blind beliefs, which are hindrances towards our development. Education helps to walk with the development of science and technology. (2) Reconstruction of Experiences

Education is life-long process. Life is education and education is life. Life is full of experiences.

One cannot live with his past experiences which are unable to adjust in the society. So

education helps the individual to reconstruct the experience and adjust with the environment.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8606

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Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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