ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ


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ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ





AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606 Spring 2019 assignments 1 and 2   Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606)
Semester: Spring 2019
Level: B. Ed
Assignment No.01

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

Q. 1     a) Evaluate the role of an individual in the development of any society.

Answer:

The human being and the group. The problem of man cannot be solved scientifically without a clear statement of the relationship between man and society, as seen in the primary collectivity—the family, the play or instruction group, the production team and other types of formal or informal collectivity. In the family the individual abandons some of his specific features to become a member of the whole. The life of the family is related to the division of labour according to sex and age, the carrying on of husbandry, mutual assistance in everyday life, the intimate life of man and wife, the perpetuation of the race, the upbringing of the children and also various moral, legal and psychological relationships. The family is a crucial instrument for the development of personality. It is here that the child first becomes involved in social life, absorbs its values and standards of behaviour, its ways of thought, language and certain value orientations. It is this primary group that bears the major responsibility to society. Its first duty is to the social group, to society and humanity. Through the group the child, as he grows older, enters society. Hence the decisive role of the group. The influence of one person on another is as a rule extremely limited; the collectivity as a whole is the main educational force. Here the psychological factors are very important. It is essential that a person should feel himself part of a group at his own wish, and that the group should voluntarily accept him, take in his personality.

Everybody performs certain functions in a group. Take, for example, the production team. Here people are joined together by other interests as well as those of production; they exchange certain political, moral, aesthetic, scientific and other values. A group generates public opinion, it sharpens and polishes the mind and shapes the character and will. Through the group a person rises to the level of a personality, a conscious subject of historical creativity. The group is the first shaper of the personality, and the group itself is shaped by society.

The unity of man and society. A person’s whole intellectual make-up bears the clear imprint of the life of society as a whole. All his practical activities are individual expressions of the historically formed social practice of humanity. The implements that he uses have in their form a function evolved by a society which predetermines the ways of using them. When tackling any job, we all have to take into account what has already been achieved before us.

The wealth and complexity of the individual’s social content are conditioned by the diversity of his links with the social whole, the degree to which the various spheres of the life of society have been assimilated and refracted in his consciousness and activity. This is why the level of individual development is an indicator of the level of development of society, and vice versa. But the individual does not dissolve into society. He retains his unique and independent individuality and makes his contribution to the social whole: just as society itself shapes human beings, so human beings shape society.

The individual is a link in the chain of the generations. His affairs are regulated not only by himself, but also by the social standards, by the collective reason or mind. The true token of individuality is the degree to which a certain individual in certain specific historical conditions has absorbed the essence of the society in which he lives.

Consider, for instance, the following historical fact. Who or what would Napoleon Bonaparte have been if there had been no French Revolution? It is difficult or perhaps even impossible to reply to this question. But one thing is quite clear—he would never have become a great general and certainly not an emperor. He himself was well aware of his debt and in his declining years said, “My son cannot replace me. I could not replace myself. I am the creature of circumstances.”[1] It has long been acknowledged that great epochs give birth to great men. What tribunes of the people were lifted by the tide of events of the French Revolution— Mirabeau, Marat, Robespierre, Danton. What young, some times even youthful talents that had remained dormant among the people were raised to the heights of revolutionary, military, and organisational activity by the Great October Socialist Revolution. It is sometimes said that society carries the individual as a river carries a boat. This is a pleasant simile, but not exact. An individual does not float with the river; he is the turbulently flowing river itself. The events of social life do not come about by themselves; they are made. The great and small paths of the laws of history are blazed by human effort and often at the expense of human blood. The laws of history are not charted in advance by superhuman forces; they are made by people, who then submit to their authority as something that is above the individual.

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

b)        Explain the major elements of social structure in Pakistani context?

Answer:

Culture may be defined as an integral whole which affects human ideals, actions and modes of living. According to E.B. Taylor, “Culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs and all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society.” Every great nation enjoys its own culture. Similarly, Pakistani culture is very distinct due to its Islamic nature and rich historical background. Pakistani culture has the following elements:

i- Islamic Values:

Pakistani culture is actually a part of the contemporary Islamic civilization which draws its value and traditions from Islam and rich Islamic history. Majority of population comprises of Muslims and follows teachings of Islam, i-e., belief in one Allah, Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad P.B.U.H, brotherhood, equality and social justice etc. Islam is religion of peace and patience. Pakistani society is very cooperative. National calendar is marked by religious days which are observed with great devotion.

ii- National and Regional Languages:

Pakistan is a large country which comprises of four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA). All of these component parts have their own regional languages. As such Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi, Balochi, Barohi and Kashmiri are regional languages. However, Urdu is the national language which is spokin and understood in all parts of the country.

iii- Mixed Culture:

Practically speaking Pakistani culture is a beautiful blend of the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluchi, Barohi, Seraiki and Kashmiri cultures. In addition, the presence of Hindu community in Sindh gives touches of dance and music in the Sindhi region. The Hindus sing Bhejas but Pakistani culture has adopted Qawwali which is a praise of the Holy Propher P.B.U.H.

iv- Rich Literature:

Pakistani culture is rich in the literatures of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baruhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri languages. Urdu literature boasts of the masterpieces of Maulana Azad, Iqbal, Shibli, Hali, Ghalib, Agha Hashar, Manto and Faiz whereas the Punjabi literature stands out with great names like Waris Shah, Sultan Bahu, Ghulam Farid, Bulhay Shah and Shah Hussain etc. Similarly, Sindhi literature glitters with the masterpieces of Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Shah Qadir Bakhsh, and Faqir Nabi Bakhsh. The Pushto literature also boasts of names like Sheikh Saleh, Raghoon Khan, Akhund dardeeza, Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba. The Baluchi literature comprises of masterpieces of Jam Durk, Muhammad Ali, Zahoor Shah Hashmi, Ghani Parvez, Hasrat Baluch, Abbas Ali Zemi and Aziz Bugti etc.

v- Male Dominated Society:

Pakistani society is dominated by male members. Each family is headed by the senior most male member who is responsible for arranging the bread and butter of the family.

vii- Variety of Dresses:

Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses: The people of Punjab, the Pathans of NWFP, the Baluchi people and the Sindhis wear their own distinct dresses. These dresses are very colourful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals.

viii- Fairs and Festivals:

The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of Fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country. Moreover, annual urs of great saints are held to commemorate their anniversaries. On these occasions, fairs are also held in which people take part in great numbers. Out of these the Horse and Cattle shows of Lahore, Mianwali and Sibi are famous wheseas the Polo festival fo Gilgit is prominent at national and international level. Moreover annual urs of Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh, Madhu Lal Hussain, Baba Bulhay Shah, Baba Farid Gunj Shakar, Baba Gulu Shah, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Abdul Latif Bhitaii, Hazrat Noshah Ganj Bakhsh, Bari Imam, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, and Bahauddin Zakriya are celebrated with great fervour.

ix- Sports:

Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games. Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the coutnry. In addition wrestling, boxing, and athletics are also very popular among masses. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past. These include Bholu in Wrestling, Hanif, Miandad, Imran, Wasim Akram, and Inzamam in cricket, Shehnaz sheikh, Islahuddin, KHalid mahmood, Akhtar Rasool, and Munir Dar in hockey and Jahangir, Jansher in squash.

x- Handicrafts:

Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

Q. 2     a)        How does individual and group behavior affect the school and classroom environment.

Answer:

Education has long been recognized as the central element in the development of human personality. But in the 20th Century, it has acquired a new range of functions. It is no longer merely one of the sectors of national life-like agriculture or industry, but a multi-dimensional one that energizes and provides to all the sectors. Education enables individuals to make the transition to new social orders by providing self-understanding and better knowledge of the choices available and a critical appreciation of the nature of change itself. Thus, education at all the stages becomes a kind of future shock absorber.

Elementary education constitutes a very important part of the entire structure of education. It is at this stage that the child starts going to a formal institution. The education which the pupil receives at a formal institution provides the foundation of the physical, mental, emotional, intellectual, and social development, and sound elementary education gives an integral element to effective and efficient secondary and higher education.

A primary education is understood as a basic stage of education which is either a self – contained phase or which forms a part of a longer cycle of formal education. In elementary education, the period of formal schooling extends from first standard to the completion at sixth, seventh, or eighth grades. Children during the elementary school period learn to develop respect for others. They learn how to work and play with others. They may acquire freedom from prejudice and develop tolerance. Students’ learning is the major focus of the educational system. The main factor which could affect students’ learning is teaching. Teachers can encourage students to participate in the learning activities.

According to Gage (1971), teaching or instruction means arranging the conditions of learning that are external to the learner. It refers to all the facilities provided by the teacher which could facilitate students’ learning and increase their involvement in different classroom activities. These facilities are, such as, providing clear instruction, obtaining students’ attention, arranging materials required, responding to students’ needs, explaining clearly, providing feedback, dealing effectively with students’ problems. Adalsteinsdotter (2004) stated that successful teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom is essential to the educational and social development of pupils and that teachers’ understanding of their own behavior is, therefore, of paramount importance. O’leary and O’leary (1977) stated that “the way teachers attend to their pupils determines in large measures, what the children will do. A teacher’s smile, words of encouragement, praise, evaluations, and silence are powerful allies in affecting how the students behave and change socially and academically..

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

b)        How can group dynamics be applied in your daily classroom teaching?

Answer:

Billson compares the classroom to a small group. She applies the principles of small group dynamics as they are studied and understood in sociology to what happens in the classroom. And she does so for this reason: “Deeper awareness of small group processes can enhance the teaching effectiveness of college faculty through improving their ability to raise student participation levels, increase individual and group motivation, stimulate enthusiasm, and facilitate communication in the classroom.” (p. 143) I’d say those outcomes are still of interest to most of us.

So what principles of small group dynamics might help us better understand what’s happening in our classrooms? Billson identifies and discusses 15—four are highlighted here.

Principle 1: Every participant in a group is responsible for the outcome of the group interaction. Billson acknowledges that the major responsibility does belong to the professor, but she maintains that students share a “significant responsibility” as well. (p. 144) She recommends discussing that responsibility with students and explores the possibility of letting students plan certain segments of the course or maybe offer input as to the weight of the course’s various assignments.

Principle 4: When people feel psychologically safe in a group, their participation levels will increase. This isn’t a particularly new or novel idea, but it’s something professors often take for granted. Most of us do feel safe in the classroom. We’ve been going to college classes for years. For students, classrooms don’t feel as comfortable. They can be made to feel safer when students are known by names, when their first attempts to contribute garner positive feedback, and when the professor avoids sarcasm and ridicule.

Principle 8: The leader of any group serves as a model for that group. “The way in which professors play their role, including how they present expectations of students, carry out responsibilities, and handle privileges implicit in the professorial role, has a profound effect on how students enact their role.” (p. 147)

Principle 13: A group will set its own norms of behavior and will expect conformity to them. These norms may extend to the professor. The same policies and procedures can be used and yet classes respond to them differently. In some classes, students argue at length about exam answers. In other classes, they want assignment deadlines extended. In many classes, a designated few become the only students who participate. Professors need to be aware of these norms and if they work against course goals, they should be discussed openly with students.

Although “small group” isn’t a label that feels like it fits classes with more than 100 students, even large classes exhibit many features typical of groups. Applying these principles can result in classroom climates where learning is a more likely outcome. I’d say Billson was way ahead of her time in identifying what helps to make classrooms learner-centered.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

Q. 3     a)        Discuss the concept of socialization and identify its role in the learning process.

Answer:

In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus “the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained”. Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology. Humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive. Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children.

Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes—sometimes labeled “moral”—as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views are influenced by the society’s consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or “normal”. Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment; scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes. Genetic studies have shown that a person’s environment interacts with his or her genotype to influence behavioral outcomes.

Role in the learning process:

The concepts of the “information age”, the “information society”, the “knowledge society”, the “media society”, the “information revolution”, “new media” etc. are widely used and disputed among social scientists. I tend to agree with the party of more sceptical authors who suggest that the concept of the information society should be granted the status of “problematic” (Lyon 1988). The concept has definitely some value as a heuristic device in exploring features of the contemporary world, but it is too inexact and too ideological to be acceptable as a definitive term (Webster 2002, 21).

Moreover, several writers, for instance Anthony Giddens (1987), Herbert Schiller (1996) and Frank Webster (2002), emphasise general continuity over change in contemporary societies. These and some other authors (e.g. May 2002) can be described as sharing a thesis about the informatisation (or informationalisation) of society, believing that informational developments must be accounted for in terms of historical antecedents and continuities. Giddens has noted that modern societies have been “information societies” since their beginnings (Giddens 1987, 27). The problem of the label of “information” becomes even more acute in the context of education and socialisation, which has been information-laden already in the pre-modern era. It is, however, reasonable to talk about the changing information environment as well as about the changing learning environment (not about, for instance, the “new learning environment”).

Despite the multifaceted critique on the concept of the information society, there is some consensus among writers using the concept or its many synonyms. Most of them agree that “information is now of pivotal importance in contemporary affairs that not only is there a very great deal more information about than ever before, but also that it plays a central and strategic role in pretty well everything we do” (Webster 2002, 263). The ever-changing practices and patterns of production, consumption and interpretation of mediated information have also implications on education and socialisation.

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b)        Suggest ways in which our education system may help in the promotion of our culture.

Answer:

It’s no secret that when searching for jobs, educators hope to find opportunities at schools that boast a friendly, open, and positive climate. Parents follow the same process as they check the area’s school system before deciding to rent or buy a house. Teachers and students spend more than eight hours a day at school and a school’s environment greatly impacts the education that takes place.

Staff and administrators in a positive school culture believe they have the ability to achieve their ambitions. Their counterparts operating in a negative school environment lack faith in the possibility of realizing their visions, according to Education World. Trust and connection are cultivated when students feel that their teachers believe they can be successful.

As an educator, there are ways you can improve your school’s culture that will benefit staff development, student achievement, and the collective spirit of the school.

Put Students First

Schools are first and foremost safe environments where students should grow, learn, and thrive. Putting the priorities of kids first helps teachers and administrators prove to students how important their engagement with learning is. A survey conducted by Youth Truth found only one in three students believe their school culture is positive.

  • Host student-led conferences. Ask the students to fill out a brief reflection sheet about their academic, social, and emotional progress. Encourage them to write down a few ways their families and teachers can help them be successful in the classroom. Some question ideas include: What do you like that is happening in your school/classroom? What changes would you make in your effort or in your teacher’s instructional practices? How do you feel about your peers? What are some of your favorite learning activities/subjects? What do you do when you feel stressed out? Do you feel supported? Encourage older students to lead the conference. Early learners can be prompted to answer questions.
  • Begin monthly classroom improvement meetings. Place an improvement box in your classroom. Encourage students to write down ideas about changes they feel could improve relationships, academic success, and the overall positive vibe in the classroom. Every month, pull out the box and sit in a circle. Discuss the ideas and put some of their plans into action.
  • Change your classroom environment. Instead of putting desks in rows, switch it up! How can you and your students design the classroom to emphasize peer-to-peer collaboration, movement, and flexibility? Some ideas include putting student desks in groups, investing in communal tables, and creating a wonder-wall in the classroom where students can post questions they have before, during, and after inquiry projects.

Foster Independence

Let your students lead the way. Teaching students to persevere through challenging situations is a quality that will help them succeed in the future. Carol Dweck, a Stanford psychology professor who coined the phrase growth mindset, says “when children are praised for the process they engage in — their hard work, their strategies, their focus, their persistence — then they remain motivated learners. They’re more likely to take on challenges and thrive in the face of difficulty.”

  • Set aside time for passion projects. Research shows that interest drives learning. Give students time for passion projects where they must dig deep to find answers to questions they’ve always wondered about. For example, if a student is interested in how plastic affects marine life, he can search through books, online resources, and interview a local marine biologist. Passion projects are also a perfect opportunity to use parents as support. Encourage them to come in and speak about their career!
  • Connect with local businesses. Provide students with ample opportunities to interact with the community. Community-based field trips help early learners make sense of the world around them. For older students, consider offering part-time, interest-based internships. Some ideas include helping at restaurants, pet shelters, schools, local farms, and environmental agencies.
  • Be a “guide on the side.” Becoming a facilitator takes practice. When your students partake in independent or group work, let them work through problems they face instead of jumping in and saving them. This not only promotes critical thinking skills, but also gives you time to document student learning and hand ownership over to your class. Instead of interrupting students as they collaborate, use a non-intrusive approach and jot down your feedback on a sticky note.

Model Collaboration

If you want your students to work as a team, you must teach them how! Effective teams challenge each other to take risks and try new approaches. Most importantly, successful collaboration includes healthy conflict. Here are a few ways to grow your collaborative learning community.

  • Get together. Dedicate time for planning at least once or twice a month with a few teachers that teach the same grade or speciality area. Discuss the standards you’re covering, challenges you’re facing, and successful ideas you’ve put into action. Be honest, vulnerable, and appreciative of feedback.
  • Participate in multi-age classroom projects. Design a few multi-age projects throughout the year, working with a younger or older class. Multi-age learning helps older students master foundational skills by teaching them and also allows teachers to see the fluidity across grade levels.
  • Use technology to share ideas. Create websites through Google Site or Blogger for each grade level as a go-to place for educational resources, including units and lesson plans.

Teach Tolerance

Celebrate diversity. Schools must provide an inclusive environment for all learners, no matter what gender, race, religion, or culture. How can you teach tolerance?

  • Find multicultural literature. Look at your classroom library. Does it include books that feature main characters of different races, religions, genders, and cultures? If not, check out library bag sales and local thrift shops for stories to add to your collection that feature a diverse range of characters, situations, and issues.
  • Expose students to multiple perspectives. Teaching about the wars going on in Syria? Include credible articles, websites, and interviews from multiple perspectives. Holding civil discourse and discussing challenging real-world events will help students recognize that there is never a simple answer. This recognition transfers to having empathy for diverse peers in the classroom.
  • Host a Cultural Day. Ask your students to create a project about their family’s culture. Some ideas include religious background, holidays, traditions, rituals, family history, sacred objects and more. Dedicate a day for students to present their projects and ask the students to bring in a food dish to pass.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

Q. 4     a)        Elucidate the role of religious groups and their influence on social behavior.

Answer:

This fabric covering my head is not a representation of compulsion from parents, but rather the influence of Islam upon me. This choice I made has been derived from my knowledge about Islam. People are usually influenced by taking an action or making a decision after gaining knowledge. This is how knowledge is power, because due to this knowledge one can make severe decisions in life.

When a person with power has dominance over you – parents, for example – they can govern your thoughts in certain ways. My parents believe religious values sustain the very core of civilization. They tell me I must learn my religion to become a better person as they believe religion teaches decency and morality. Religion tells me that God is all-knowing, thereby influencing me to watch my actions to make sure they’re “good,” and avoid wrong-doings. Religion is, of course, knowledge itself since to be able to follow my religion I must acquire its teachings and values. My actions are being watched by God, influencing my daily activities greatly.

However, my parents are not the only one credited for shaping my thoughts, but also my elder sister is capable of doing it. Sitting on the couch, eyes on TV, mind on thoughts, searching, observing, trying to occupy the eyes, the mind, and the boring environment as my sister walks towards me, each step getting closer, getting larger, broad shoulders blocking the view of everything in front, eclipsing my previous thoughts with her own. She explains passionately the importance of praying and builds fear of god through her knowledge, which makes me feel intimidated to do as she says.

Religion can limit freedom. Religion controls actions with a set of rules and guidelines, restricting the capability of faithful followers. An example is in Islam it is commanded to not eat pork or consume alcohol, preventing Muslims from eating it. This may be perceived positively or negatively, but either way, it certainly does have the power to make some people—if not all—to set course in a certain path.

Religion impacts human behaviour in every aspect of our lives by having to live by those codes, morals and rules. It is implanted in our brain that religion is how we think, how we act, how we choose. People usually tend to seek guidance from God if troubles exceed their capability. Complications influence. This would be during exam time, when suddenly a lot of my friends start praying to God, because only He can control the outcome of their marks. Meaning only He has control, they’ve just got prayers and efforts. This is how religious belief and practice emanates; religion influences humans by attempting to influence their lives to believe they hold no significant individual power.

The fundamental impact of religion on human behaviour is the very act of worship. Praying is powerful because when you are in a state of prayer you are in control of your own thought and in your own being. It is a way escape of the world of stress to a world of sanctum where the rules are made only by you. Praying happens in your own privacy, where no one has control over that and no matter how physically, mentally, emotionally strong another person is they are not able to stop you from praying. And it is only in prayers that you have full control over your body and soul. That is the only time you feel powerful over the whole world because you can escape from it.

People without religion have been influenced by the over-whelming power of religion. This is because the moral standards that exist today in society, which are definitely shared by atheists and non-religious people, are a direct result of religion. In history, many acts were done routinely which would now be considered wrong even by the most Godless of people. An example of this would be incest. Incest was not uncommon among people of the past, but was explicitly banned by religion and labeled as an evil practice Today, you’d be hard-pressed to find a person who does not consider incest to be wrong. Religious teachings, therefore, have influenced even people who do not believe in God by setting moral standards for the society.

Whether God created man or man invented God, religious beliefs has proven their potency of continually impacting human behaviour. It regulates the actions humans take to make better informed decisions. Religion is powerful because it does not only control one individual, but rather dominates clans, flocks, groups, and communities. Knowledge of religion and power are positively related, as knowledge increases, so does the power you have to control and influence.

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b)        Analyze the role of school and mass media as agents of socialization.

Answer:

Socialization is a process by which culture is transmitted to the younger generation and men learn the rules and practices of social groups to which they belong. Every society builds an institutional framework within which socialization of the child takes place. Mass Media has seemed to be an effective agency of socialization. This is true to some extent because now children are spending more time in front of the television than mingling with their parents and other family members

Mass Media:

Mass media—newspapers, magazines, comic books, radio, video games, movies, and especially television—present a very different form of socialization than any other, because they offer no opportunity for interaction.

The mass media are the means for delivering impersonal communications directed to a vast audience. The term media comes from Latin meaning, “middle,” suggesting that the media’s function is to connect people. Television shows, movies, popular music, magazines, Web sites, and other aspects of the mass media influence our political views; our tastes in popular culture; our views of women, people of color, and gays; and many other beliefs and practices.

The mass media include many forms of communication–such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies–that reach large numbers of people without personal contact between senders and receivers. In an ongoing controversy, the mass media are often blamed for youth violence and many other of our society’s ills. The average child sees thousands of acts of violence on television and in the movies before reaching young adulthood. Since mass media has enormous effects on our attitudes and behavior, notably in regards to aggression, it is an important contributor to the socialization process.

The mass media of communication, particularly television, play an important role in the process of socialization. The mass media of communication transmit information’s and messages which influence the personality of an individual to a great extent. In the last few decades, children have been dramatically socialized by one source in particular: television. Studies have found that children spend more time watching TV than they spend in school. Television is an influence on children from a very young age and affects their cognitive and social development.

Children also learn about current themes and issues, both from newscasts and dramas—issues such as kidnapping, the homeless, and the spread of AIDS. Most of these issues and themes are not happy ones, and many are very frightening, especially when children watch programs that are intended for adults.

Research also suggests that young children obtain considerable political and social information from television. Winn (1977) suggests that the experience of watching television itself is limiting. When people watch television, no matter what the program, they are simply watchers and are not having any other experience. In addition to this, communication media has an important effect in encouraging individuals to support the existing norms and values or oppose or change them. They are the instrument of social power. They influence us with their messages.

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

Q. 5     a)        Explain the evolution of family structure in the past three decades in Pakistan.

Answer:

In the by-gone days, multiple generations comprising parents, their children and grand children would live under a single roof. The oldest male member of the family was considered the head of the family with the right to lay down the rules and arbitrate disputes. Grandparents had the responsibility of teaching the children their mother tongue, manners and etiquettes. In this way a strong bond with our culture was developed.

Even today, as in the past, the joint family system help us to learn interpersonal relationship and living in a society. By living together the kids feel closer to their grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins; they understand them more and establish a trusting relationship, which is not possible when they meet occasionally.

The joint family system contributes to our security, health and prosperity, and could help us to live a less stressful life. The reason being, in joint family we have a lot of people around to help us and to share our sorrows and joys, and we can lean upon them in times of trouble.

But in this modern era the nuclear family system is the call of the day. Most joint families have broken into pieces and independent and single families have emerged. Now in place of joint family we have a “Micro Family”, where there is father, mother and their children. As the children grow up and get married they move out and set separate homes. The main cause of young adults breaking away from their families is a desire for freedom, which is in no way a bad idea at all. We all want to live independently; hence, in order to avoid interference and uninvited opinions the younger generation prefers moving out. When the parents and their adult children are unable to get along well and disagree on different issues, nuclear families are formed. To a certain extent we can say that this change has come about because in this age of competition everyone is in pursuit of material pleasure and success, and nobody is bothered about anybody. Though living separately may bring lots of inconvenience, people seem to prefer nuclear families. Taking just one example, in this modern era many women are working outside homes; in a joint family if some young mothers are career oriented other members of the family, like grandmother and aunts, look after the young children, giving them opportunity to pursue their career. But in nuclear family this is not possible and young women often have to sacrifice their career in order to take care of the child.

Another reason why the joint family system is losing its significance is the belief that children raised in a joint family are shyer and lack confidence due to the authoritative behaviour of their elders; they are more suppressed and are hardly able to make their own decisions due to more dependency, as opposed to children raised in nuclear families.

Every individual has certain flaws and qualities in his or her personality. Your parents can bear with any weaknesses you may have but your other relatives would not, no matter how close they are to you. Eventually your parents also begin to criticise you, sometimes just to calm the other people. In a joint family sometimes differences of opinion become so big that it is even beyond the control of the elders to settle the disputes, whereas in nuclear family where there is less interference of others, fewer problems arise. A nuclear life makes you independent and enables you to bring up your children the way you want without much interference. It is exciting to explore, experiment and establish a living set-up on one’s own.

Every person needs privacy, some time to be alone, but being a part of a joint family sometimes it is not possible to sit alone and ponder. Interference of other members in some personal matter is never desirable, but in a joint family, living together it is not always possible to keep one’s affairs private. As many families live together they often start highlighting and even exploiting others’ weaknesses, which also create political arena in the household. Most parents tend to always keep their children under their domination even when they have come of age and are in a position to take charge of their lives. I personally believe that there comes a time when parents have to really “let go” and let the grown up children face realities of life and make decisions for themselves..

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

b)        Explain the collaboration among the institutions which may lead towards national development?

Answer:

Education’s mandate includes representing Sweden in the work to implement the European agenda for adult learning. Within the framework of the European Agenda for Adult Learning 2014-2015, Sweden will contribute with examples of effective collaboration forms in adult learning, with a view to primarily improve and streamline recruitment to adult education, as well as the continued path into the workplace. Adult education refers to the three types of schools, municipal education for adults at a basic level (Komvux), special education for adults at a basic level.

This report is a mapping of how interactions between different actors in basic adult education take place. The report describes the extent to which adult education interacts with different social institutions, such as municipal administrations or businesses, educational institutions and government agencies. The focus is primarily on how adult education reaches out to its target audience (with limited previous education), how they are captured by the municipal recruitment process and what organisational solutions or practices apply.

The purpose of the mapping study is to help increase the knowledge base of how collaboration between different actors within adult education takes place, and describe how effective coordination of efforts between the municipality’s adult education and other operations functions, to ultimately in-crease the accessibility and the adaptation of adult education to the needs of the target group..

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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8606

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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