ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ


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ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ





AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8606 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8606 Citizenship Education and Community Engagement 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606) Level: B.Ed (1 1⁄2 & 21⁄2 Years) Semester: Autumn 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1 a) Describe different methods of social control.

Answer:

Social control is achieved through a variety of means, including through social norms, rules, laws, and social, economic, and institutional structures. In fact, there would be no society without social control, because society cannot function without an agreed upon and enforced social order that makes daily life and a complex division of labor possible. Without it, chaos and confusion would reign. The primary way through which social order is produced is through the ongoing, lifelong process of socialization that each person experiences. Through this process, we are taught from birth the norms, rules, and behavioral and interactional expectations that are common to our family, peer groups, community, and greater society. Socialization teaches us how to think and behave in accepted ways, and in doing so, effectively controls us our participation in society. The physical organization of society is also a part of social control. For example, paved streets and traffic signals control, at least in theory, the behavior of people when they drive vehicles. Sidewalks and crosswalks control foot traffic, for the most part, and aisles in grocery stores control how we move through the space. When we fail to conform to norms, rules, and social expectations, we suffer sanctions that remind us of their social importance, and that serve to control our behavior. These sanctions take many forms, from confused and disapproving looks to conversations with family, peers, and authority figures, to social ostracization, among others. The Two Types of Social Control Social control tends to take one of two different forms: informal or formal. Informal social control refers to our conformity to the norms and values of the society, and adoption of a particular belief system, which we learn through the process of socialization. This form of social control is enforced by family, primary caregivers, peers, other authority figures like coaches and teachers, and by colleagues. Informal social control is enforced by rewards and sanctions. Reward often takes the form of praise or compliments, but also takes other common forms, like high marks on school work, promotions at work, and social popularity. Sanctions used to enforce informal social control, like those discussed above, tend to be social in form and consist mainly in communication or lack thereof, but can also take the form of the ending of a relationship, teasing or ridicule, poor marks in school, or being fired from work, among others. Formal social control is that which is produced and enforced by the state (government) and representatives of the state that enforce its laws like police, military, and other city, state, and federal agencies. In many cases, a simple police presence is enough to create formal social control. In others, police might intervene in a situation that involves unlawful or dangerous behavior in order to stop it–to “arrest” literally means to stop–in order to ensure that social control is maintained. Other government agencies enforce formal social control as well, like those that regulate which substances or foods can be legally sold, and those that enforce building codes, among others. It is up to formal bodies like the judiciary and the penal system to dole out sanctions when someone fails to comply with the laws that define formal social control.

The Two Types of Social Control Social control tends to take one of two different forms: informal or formal. Informal social control refers to our conformity to the norms and values of the society, and adoption of a particular belief system, which we learn through the process of socialization. This form of social control is enforced by family, primary caregivers, peers, other authority figures like coaches and teachers, and by colleagues. Informal social control is enforced by rewards and sanctions. Reward often takes the form of praise or compliments, but also takes other common forms, like high marks on school work, promotions at work, and social popularity. Sanctions used to enforce informal social control, like those discussed above, tend to be social in form and consist mainly in communication or lack thereof, but can also take the form of the ending of a relationship, teasing or ridicule, poor marks in school, or being fired from work, among others. Formal social control is that which is produced and enforced by the state (government) and representatives of the state that enforce its laws like police, military, and other city, state, and federal agencies. In many cases, a simple police presence is enough to create formal social control. In others, police might intervene in a situation that involves unlawful or dangerous behavior in order to stop it–to “arrest” literally means to stop–in order to ensure that social control is maintained. Other government agencies enforce formal social control as well, like those that regulate which substances or foods can be legally sold, and those that enforce building codes, among others. It is up to formal bodies like the judiciary and the penal system to dole out sanctions when someone fails to comply with the laws that define formal social control.

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b) In your opinion which social control agents are influential in our society and why?

Answer:

Definition Social Control refers to societal and political mechanisms or processes that regulate individual and group behaviour, leading to conformity and compliance to the rules of a given society, state, or a social group. It is the mean by which members of a society attempt to induce each other to comply with the societal norms. Social controls influence behaviour constantly because they are internalized and come into play every time a person has a deviant impulse. Social control is general method of regulating the behaviour of individuals in a society through accepted social norms. It is a way to channelize the behaviour of individuals in a society so that they conform to the accepted code of conduct. Social control is defined as “the way in which the entire social order coheres and maintains itself, operates as a whole, as changing equilibrium”. This Social control refers to the way society controls our behviour, either through norms and practices or through the state and its compelling force. The regulation of behaviour in society, whether of individuals or of groups is undertaken in two ways: a) By adhering to establish norms and values of society; and b) By the use of force.

The term “social control” is generally used by sociologists to refer to this first kind of regulation. Individuals differ in their interests and capacities. If each individual is allowed unrestricted freedom to act and behave, it may lead to anarchy and disorder in the society. The resultant conflicts, frequent and persistent, would be a constant drain on society’s energy and efficiency. As an analogy, we could consider traffic movement on roads in the absence of any traffic rules and traffic signals, etc. it is easy to imagine the chaos that would rule the roads and the unending traffic jams that would follow. If we add to it the frustration of the drivers and their heated tempers, it is easy to understand that the end result is totally undesirable. The fact that

traffic rules help to maintain order and efficient movement of vehicle is only due to the presence of control . Purpose of Social Control Sociologists attribute many purposes of social control. The aim of social control is to bring about conformity in a particular group or society. At times, out of sheer ignorance, individuals could act in a manner that may or may not benefit them. But certainly society’s interests lie at the collective level. There are other situations when the individual is perfectly aware of the ill effects of his actions on the society but he continues with his behaviour because it increases his welfare. For instance, in an industry where the owner is fully aware of the harmful effects of pollution but does not install pollution control device because he wants to maximize his profits at the cost of safeguarding the collective interests. Society seeks to regulate the individual behaviour. The purpose of social control is to regulate the interests of the both the individual and the group in a way that is beneficial to both. The situation in society would be no different if there was no accepted mode of behaviour. Individuals, therefore, have to be made to co-exist in a manner that benefits them as well as the groups they comprise of social control becomes a necessity for the following reasons: a) To maintain the old order: For continuity and uniformity of a social group, it is important that the old social order is maintained. This function is fulfilled by the family. The old members of the family initiate and socialize the young ones into their traditions, value patterns and accepted forms of behaviour. b) To regulate individual behaviour: Individuals vary in their ideas, interests, attitudes, habits, etc. Even children of the same parents think and behave differently. Thus their behaviour needs to be regulated in accordance with the established norms which would lead to uniformity and solidarity of the group. c) To check cultural maladjustment: Society is changing at a rapid pace. The changes threaten to uproot the existing social system and replace it with a new system. There is a need for greater social control in order to distinguish between good and bad and to retain one’s sense of balance and judgment.

Forms of Social Control In primary groups, the relationships are close, direct and intimate. Social Control is often maintained by informal mechanism, i.e. customs, traditions, folkways, mores and religions. These are adopted means by informal groups. Sociologists identify two basic forms of social controls: 1. Internalization of norms and values, and 2. External sanctions, which can be either positive (rewards) or negative (punishment) Social control theory began to be studied as a separate field in the early 20thcentury. The means to enforce social control can be either formal or informal. Sociologist Edward A. Ross argued that belief systems exert a greater control on human behaviour than laws imposed by government, no matter what form the beliefs take. 1. Informal Social Control The social values that are present in individuals are products of informal social control. It is exercised by a society without explicitly stating these rules and is expressed through customs, norms, and mores. Individuals are socialized whether consciously or subconsciously. During informal sanctions, ridicule or ostracism can cause a straying towards norms. The person internalizes these mores and norms. Traditional society uses mostly informal social control embedded in its customary culture relying on the socialization of its members. Informal social control, or the reactions of individuals and groups that bring about conformity to norms and laws, includes peer and community pressure, bystander intervention in a crime, and

collective responses such as citizen patrol groups. Informal sanctions may include shame, ridicule, sarcasm, criticism and disapproval. In extreme cases sanctions may include social discrimination and exclusion. This implied social control usually has more effect on individuals because they become internalized and thus an aspect of personality. Informal sanctions check ‘deviant’ behaviour. An example of a negative sanction comes from a scene in the Pink Floyd film ‘The Wall,’ whereby the young protagonist is ridiculed and verbally abused by a high school teacher for writing poetry in a mathematics class. (Another example: About a boy, who hesitates to jump from a high springboard, is possible to say, that he is effeminate. By the fact, that he eventually jumps, he escapes from this denotation. His behaviour is conditionally controlled by a shame, which is unpleasant. As with formal controls, informal controls reward or punish acceptable or unacceptable behaviour (i.e., deviance). Informal controls are varied and differ from individual to individual, group to group and society to society. For example, at a women’s institute meeting, a disapproving look might convey the message that it is inappropriate to flirt with the minister. In a criminal gang, on the other hand, a stronger sanction applies in the case of someone threatening to inform to the police. Informal mechanisms of social control include established and accepted institutions relating to socialization, education, family, marriage and religion etc. It is executed through informal sanctions, which may be positive or negative. Positive sanctions include smile, a nod of approval, rewards and promotions, etc. for instance, good performance in an examination may be rewarded with a bicycle or a watch by parents. Negative sanctions include a frown, criticism, physical threats and punishments. The unruly behaviour in school may result in detention or severe punishment is an example of negative sanction. It must be mentioned here that with the variety in our ways of living, the means of social control also vary. Social control is specific to the group or the society in which it is exercised. Informal mechanisms of control vary accordingly. Besides family, informal social control is also exercised by other social institutions, like neighborhood, kin groups, clan and village, etc.

i. Folkways: Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. It is the informal acceptance of established practices in each group or society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting, etc. for instance, the food habits in different provinces of Pakistan are different and these habits persist even when the person has moved to a different location away from his earlier surroundings. ii. Mores: Mores refer to moral conduct as distinct from the customary practice of folkways. They influence the value system of a society and are in the form of social regulations which aim to maintain social order. Mores seek to regulate the relationship between individuals in defined situations,,, e.g. between husband and wife, parents and children and siblings etc. they may also refer to general social relationships in terms of honesty, truthfulness, hard work and discipline etc. Since mores are consciously designed and created with a view to preserve them. Violations of these often entail penalties. They are perhaps the strongest mechanisms of informal social control. iii. Customs: Customs are the long established practices of people, which occur spontaneously but gradually. Along with regulating social life, they also bind them together. In primitive societies, customs were powerful means of social control but in modern times, they have weakened due to rise in the forces of individualism and diversity. iv. Religion: Religion exercises a powerful influence on its adherents. Emile Durkheim defines religion as the unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. Those who have common beliefs and practices are united into one single moral community through religion. Religion occupies a significant place in the life of an individual and fulfills the spiritual, social,

psychological needs of an individual. Religion helps in the process of social control in the following ways: a) Every religion has the concept of sin and virtue. Since early childhood, individuals are exposed to these concepts and to the notions of good and bad. These become ingrained in the individual’s personality and guide his decision making during his life. b) Religious conventions and practices determine marriage, mutual relations among family members, property relations, rules of succession and inheritance etc. c) Religious leaders regulate the behaviour of individuals by exhorting them to follow a prescribed code of conduct. d) By organizing community activities, prayer meetings and by celebrating religious events and festivals, religious institutions also contribute to this process by bringing believers together and strengthening the common belief system thereby regulating individual behaviour.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Autumn 2018

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Q.2 a) Discuss different types of school and community relationships.

Answer:

SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS Importance of School-Community Relations

Today’s school administrators are expected to be multi-talented in their approach to their jobs. First, within the context of instructional improvement, collective bargaining, budget issues, and other complex tasks facing administrators is the need to possess well-honed community relations skills. Second, is the recognition that administrators do not function in a monolithic community. Even the district which appears homogeneous is made up of diverse constituencies. Third, the expectations are that administrators will anticipate and prevent crises, increase communications between the school and the home, and respond to special interest groups. The consideration of these issues presents administrators with the understanding that they are an important link to our communities and that the development of appropriate skills is important to being a successful administrator. Increased Emphasis on Community Relations Skills One of the dramatic shifts in the last two generations has been in the direction of increased emphasis on administrators developing good relationships with their communities. From the mid-19th century through the middle part of this century, concerted efforts had been focused on not politicizing the role of school administrators. The shift to a more community-involved role for school administrators was noted by Kimbrough and Burkett (1990) in their acknowledgment that: Studies since the early 1950s have shown that schools do not exist in a political vacuum; . . . this opinion dictates that the school leader should see that an effective home-school partnership in the education process is developed. Thus the principal, or the person so designated by the principal, must mount strategies to establish good school-community relations . . . . The community relations function of the administrator’s role is usually described in terms of providing programs which result in the school and district being viewed more favorably by the community. The executive director of the National School Public Relations Association states that the way to garner community support for schools is to do four things. 1. Do a good job. 2. Do a Good Job. 3. Do A GOOD JOB. 4. Make sure people know about it. (pp. 263-264) The administrator must do a good job and communicate that success to the diverse publics each school serves. Too often schools are doing a good job and make no attempt to

communicate their accomplishments to their constituent communities. Undoubtedly, there are also those schools whose public relations campaigns greatly exceed their factual accomplishments. However, the emphasis here is on the schools which are striving to provide both a sound education for students and the rationale behind strong, positive school community relations.

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b) Critically analyze the effect of school on community.

Ans.

Effects of School on Community

The school must play an active part to relate itself with the society. There are many educative forces in the society, e.g. places of historical interest, temple, church, mosque and remnants of human civilization. These forces may act as educator to the young people. In order to create a relationship between school and society, the school can organize educational excursion. Again, the relation between the two can be consolidated if school can assemble different agencies of education and organize cultural program where students, teachers, parents and the other members of the society will take part. Socialization and acculturation among all, particularly different sections of the society, will enrich learners’ society. 1. Keep Pace in Social Needs

Society is an ever changing entity that is need of today. It may have no relevance in the society of tomorrow. All the changes occur in social life are associated with the changes of human need. A school has to keep pace with the changing society and to do that the curriculum should be reviewed regularly keeping in mind the change in social demand and needs. 2. Selection of Rules for Society

School directs the society, reforms the society and ensure the progress of the society by analyzing the principles and rules and selecting only those which have some good effects on society. If the school fails to do it, the society will become a stagnant organization. 3. Moral and Intellectual Development of Students

Schools are established in many societies of the world so as to instill in the pupils those skill’s which will afford them the opportunity of taking their rightful positions in the society; but this function cannot be adequately accomplished without the assistance of the home because both the home and the school perform complimentary functions in the moral and intellectual development of the child. This means that the child cannot be educated in a vacuum or in isolation. 4. Development of Personality

For a child to be educated there must be interaction between him and his physical and social environment. By this we mean that education is the development of personality. It is something which goes on both inside and outside the home and in the school. In other words, education is an activity of the whole community. 5. Transmission of the Cultural Values

Education is used to transmit cultural values in next generation. One important implication of looking at education as the transmitter of cultural values is the fact that education can be influenced by the culture of the society in which it takes place. For this reason, one may infer that for a child to be educated, he must be influenced by his environment and, in turn, be capable of influencing it. And it is only by the concept of the continuous interaction of the individual and his society that the development of personality can be properly understood. We

have noted above that education is a means through which the cultural values of a particular society are transmitted from one generation to another. Through this process, the society is able to achieve basic social conformity and ensure that its traditional values, beliefs, attitudes and aspirations are maintained and preserved. Effects of Community on School

The heart of place and community based education claim to increased student achievement. Dewey observed that in the absence of a strong connection between school and the life, children leads outside the classroom, educators must set “painfully to work, on another tack and by a variety of means, to arouse in the child an interest in school studies”. Today community involvement has taken on renewed significance in configurations and discussions of school improvement. Federal, state and local educational legislation, political slogans, professional addresses and casual conversation as about schooling are likely to include references to the role or responsibility of the community. Proponents of community involvement in schools emphasize its importance for effective school functioning, economic competitiveness, student well-being and community health and development. When describing the effects of community involvement on effective school functioning, proponents most often focus on the mounting responsibilities placed on schools by a nation whose student’s population is increasingly placed at risk.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8606 Autumn 2018

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Q.3 a) Elaborate the role of communication in effective teaching.

Ans.

What is ‘communication’? According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary the word means ‘the act of imparting, especially news’, or ‘the science and practice of transmitting information’. These definitions clearly show the link between ‘teaching’ and ‘communication’: teachers are constantly imparting new knowledge, or transmitting information. Hubley has shown us that communication is a complex processAt any stage of this process things may go wrong, making the communication less effective. For instance, the sender may not express what s/he wants to say clearly; or the room may be noisy; or the receiver may not understand the words the sender is using. To be effective, teachers have to try to minimise these barriers tocommunication. We do this in a number of ways – for example, by making sure that the room is quiet and well lit; by speaking slowly and clearly; by only using words which the students should be able to understand. However, the most important way to overcome the barriers is two-way communication . This means getting regular feedback from the receivers (the students in this case): are they really understanding what we are trying to put across? Teachers must communicate clearly, so students, parents and co-workers understand classroom goals and can work together to accomplish academic tasks.Even though teachers still need strong verbal and nonverbal skills, they must also act as collaborators and coordinators. As an educator, you’ll not only present lectures, you’ll also find and organize educational materials that require technology. It’s your job to guide classroom activities, so students understand what’s expected and can successfully complete assignments. Patient, Straightforward Directors Students need teachers who patiently, yet firmly, explain guidelines, policies, expectations, requirements and objectives. Instructions must be clear and well-structured, so there’s no confusion as to classroom rules or assignments. You must consistently teach core concepts and reinforce desired outcomes, so students accomplish their targeted goals for the year. Kindness, friendliness, fairness and respect are key elements to a successful and productive classroom. Make sure students understand your expectations and encourage

them with positive remarks and helpful suggestions. Consistent Corresponders One of the best ways to help students with their overall classroom experience is to communicate with parents about assignments, special projects, grades and behavior issues. Parents can’t get involved unless you keep them informed. You might send home a weekly classroom letter and briefly jot down a few handwritten notes on individual student copies. Or, you might call or meet with two or three parents every week, so you get a chance to spend one-on-one time with each student’s parents during the quarter. Frequent, consistent communication is the best way to keep parents in the loop and build relationships with them. Trainers by Example Educators who teach by example are often powerful communicators. By using your manners, speaking to students politely and ensuring that all students are treated with respect, you create an orderly classroom. Graders and Assessors Teachers must monitor, report and discuss student progress. Effective communicators offer frequent, consistent tips as to how students might improve.Talk to students on an individual basis to discuss their strengths and weaknesses and suggest ideas for meeting competency requirements. Grading and assessing students is more than just typing letter grades in a spreadsheet. It’s about taking the time to talk to students about their academic goals, achievements, successes and struggles.

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b) How can communication skills help in resolving management issues?

Ans.

Communication had been developing even in the earlier days by the use of telephone and the use of radio and telegraph in the purpose of exchanging messages to distant places. Today, in Pakistan the population has telephones as a means of necessity. Cellular phones are also now very effective and efficient not just as an accessory but as a guide to everyday living of people. There are many applications that could be installed into this small gadget that could give many uses. Example of these applications is having a dictionary in the phone which is very helpful as guide, and also the conversion of many measurements.

1. Lifestyle

People are greatly affected to the progress of technology that even everyone’s lifestyle also changes. People live differently to how they are used to in the past years. When technology is very reachable and human beings are very much willing to adapt this kind of technology, change is not a very impossible path. Technology had greatly improved the way people are living. It develops the standard of living. Every action of men correspond a specific machine that could help men one way or another. Examples of these are computers to which people are doing almost the electronic works. For leisure times, as also discussed in our Future Technology subject, entertainment concerning the gaming console is of now in high definition that it is almost like life like that you can easily be addicted to it. The music industry is also in greater pace in development. More and more develop machines are now more capable of handling greater amount of data in terms of music files. Gadgets are also handling many features like having a screen for viewing the music video. Technology also affects people in many different ways. Example of this is how people work.

Before, many businesses are doing most of its transactions using only paper to list the day to day operations as well as the billings. Systems are now being developed and highly utilized by businesses to make their processes more effective than the traditional ways of doing it. Doing business is also possible even if not having a physical presentation. Anyone can transact processes online as long as he or she has a credit card or digital money. The web offers many things that one could possibly imagine, from business to advertising and also to communication and gaming. Businesses consist of buying things online and selling products. Advertising also are in line to the businesses. Anyone can also book flights through the use of the internet. Learning had been also in the verge of fully developing the use of technology by having its e- learning strategy. More and more students are now having forums and discussion using the internet. Classes are having their learning in the web. It is not necessary to be physically present in the classroom to be said you are doing great in school. This is also another way to which we can say that technology had greatly affect the way the society behaves nowadays. Because of the changes that are brought about by technology, people are conforming to it to be able to stay in way with how technology is moving. 2. Cause of Skill Shortage is Complex

Skill shortages could be traced back to the faulty educational system, myopic policy of labor export and persistent technical change. Educational flaws stemmed up from poor curriculum, inadequate teacher’s training, and low public and private investment in education. The task of dealing with skill shortage is less urgent compared to the depression of labor surplus. Of course with fast-changing technologies demand for new skills would render some existing skills obsolete. 3. Industrialization

Technology has contributed to the growth of industries or to the process of industrialization. Industrialization is a term covering in general terms the growth in a society hitherto mainly agrarian of modern industry with all its circumstances and problems, economic and social. It describes in general term the growth of a society in which a major role is played by manufacturing industry. The industry is characterized by heavy, fixed capital investment in plant and building by the application of science to industrial techniques and by mainly large scale standardized production. Industrialization is associated with the factory system of production. The family has lost its economic importance. The factories have brought down the prices of commodities, improved their quality and maximized their output. The whole process of production is mechanized. Consequently the traditional skills have declined and good number of artisans has lost their work. Huge factories could provide employment opportunities to thousands of people. Hence men have become workers in a very large number. The process of industrialization has affected the nature, character and the growth of economy. It has contributed to the growth of cities or to the process of urbanization. 4. Urbanization

In Pakistan, the growth of industries has contributed to the growth of cities. Urbanization denotes a diffusion of the influence of urban centers to the rural surrounding areas. Urbanization can be described as a process of becoming urban moving to cities changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities and corresponding change of behaviour patterns. Hence, only when a large proportion of inhabitants in an area come to cities urbanization is said to occur. Urbanization has become a world phenomenon today. An unprecedented growth has taken place not only in the number of great cities but also in their size. As a result of industrialization people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. Due to this the industrial areas developed into towns and cities.

5. Modernization

Modernization is a process which indicates the adoption of the modern ways of life and values. It refers to an attempt on the part of the people particularly those who are custom bound to adapt themselves to the present time, conditions, needs, styles and ways in general. It indicates a change in people’s food habits, dress habits, speaking styles, tastes, choices, preferences, ideas, values, recreational activities and so on. People in the process of getting themselves modernized give more importance to science and technology. The scientific and technological inventions have modernized societies in various countries. They have brought about remarkable changes in the whole system of social relationship and installed new ideologies in the place of traditional ones.

6. Development of the means of transport and communication

Development of transport and communication has led to the national and international trade on a large scale. The road transport, the train service, the ships and the aero planes have eased the movement of men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, telephone and wireless and the like have developed a great deal. The space research and the launching of the satellites for communication purposes have further added to these developments. They have helped the people belonging to different corners of the Pakistan or the world to have regular contacts. 7. Transformation in the economy and the evolution of the new social classes

The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two predominant classes; the capitalist class and the working class. These two classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interest. In the course of time an intermediary class called the middle class has evolved. 8. Unemployment

The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the rapid technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment opportunities for men but they also take away the jobs of men through labor saving devices. This results in technological unemployment. 9. Technology and war

The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern mode of warfare. The

Weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the mankind. They can easily destroy the entire

human race reveal how technology could be misused. Thus greater the technological

advancement the more risk for the mankind.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 Code 8606

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Q.4 a) Compare the motivational theories of different school of thoughts.

Answer:

Although a teacher’s personality is of great importance in motivating students, teachers can also elicit students’ desires to learn by a variety of teaching techniques. Most teachers think that motivational teaching has to be entertaining;

this perception is not necessarily accurate. As discussed in the previous section, much of motivation is dependent on the teacher’s personality; consequently, the learning experience will depend on the interaction between the lesson structure and the teacher’s personality. Teachers must be comfortable with themselves as well as with the tasks they are using in their lessons. Palardy and Palardy (1987) point out that “regardless of the cause, and regardless of the teachers’ years of experience, teachers who are uneasy are going to communicate that uneasiness to their pupils. When this happens, the door to restlessness among pupils is wide open”. As a teacher attains sincere concern for the students while allowing humor and expectations to increase, students’ restlessness will decrease and learning tasks will motivate students more easily. Also important to any learning experience is the interaction between the teacher and students. In his book High Impact Teaching, Brown (1988) emphasized the following statements repeatedly: “Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning if you can’t interact with them, you can’t teach them”. The reason many teachers cannot interact with students is that they have not developed respect for the students. Brown (1988) presented five postulates for establishing and maintaining an atmosphere of mutual respect between teachers and students: · Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning. · Differences must not only be tolerated, they must be affirmed. · Values are neither right nor wrong; they simply exist in all of us. · Freedom to choose is one of the most precious rights we have. · Those who dare to teach must never cease to learn. (pp. 7-8)

Even though these statements seem basic to any foundation of education, they are seldom fully used. For instance, the second postulate encourages the affirmation of differences; yet most teachers treat all students alike. All students can do the same work; they can all be treated the same way. Such attitudes interrupt the interaction that is being nurtured. Not all students want to go to college; not all students want to make a lot of money or live as middle class citizens. When a teacher can accept those differences, the teacher has opened a door to interaction. Instead of having a class full of students, the teacher will have, for example, a “specialist” in 4 x 4 trucks, another “specialist” in rock music, and still another “specialist” in street talk or rap. Drawing from the expertise of these specialists, the teacher has many additional areas from which to present illustrations and real situations that can create the desire for students to learn. Brown (1988) states that “regardless of the lifestyle pursued, its quality is improved by the knowledge and skills acquired through active participation in the learning process” (p. 36). Another of the postulates that deserves comment is “those who dare to teach must never cease to learn” (Brown, 1988, p. 8). Society is changing every day. Consequently, the subjects taught are also changing to meet the needs of this new society. In addition to the subject areas, teachers also need to be aware of student lifestyles. In an article on developing humor, Weaver and Cotrell (1987) point out, “One factor that creates distance between instructors and students is that the interests of the instructors vary dramatically from the interests of students” (p. 174). They went on to encourage reading the student newspaper, going to student-oriented movies, listening to “their” music, reading some of “their” books or magazines, attending student events. An instructor’s interest in these events reveals a caring attitude toward the students (Weaver & Cotrell, 1987). Teachers who feel they can come in and teach their subject matter without taking the initiative to learn more about their students’ interests are losing a great motivational technique. For many teachers, learning about their students’ lives will be a unique challenge; yet it is essential in order to be the type of teacher that will truly impact students’ lives.

The teaching techniques discussed thus far have dealt specifically with promoting interaction in the classroom. There are several other techniques that have been found to be very motivational. One of these techniques is cooperative learning. Escalante implements cooperative learning as a team approach: “I make them believe that we have a team which is going to prepare for the Olympics” (Meek, 1989, p. 47). The “Olympics” or goal to be achieved can be determined by the teacher or the class. For Escalante, it was the Advanced Placement calculus examination. For another teacher, it may be an organizational competition, college, a group or school project, or simply the next unit test. Again, an important aspect about any technique used is that it must allow the teacher to feel comfortable with its implementation. Much has been written recently on cooperative learning. Brown (1988) recommends the use of the THINK-PAIR-SHARE model where students take time to develop answers to important questions, share their answers with a partner, and then reveal their results to the class in order to encourage the participation of each student in the class. In my classroom, I have used this method to help shorten the amount of time spent reviewing homework. Each student has a class partner with whom to compare the solutions to difficult problems. If a pair requires help after discussing a problem, we review the difficult problem as a class. Since the desired outcome of any motivational strategy is participation by each student, this type of cooperative learning can be a very effective strategy for teachers to use. Many studies include the use of competition within the cooperative learning context. In fact, Slavin (1988) has conducted extensive research on what he calls “student team learning.” This approach to instruction entails the use of student teams, each working cooperatively, competing as groups with the other student teams in the class. Many school systems have utilized student team learning with much success (Allen & Van Sickle, 1984; Frechtling, Raber, & Ebert, 1984; Lockwood, 1988). Maller (1929) a predecessor of Slavin, indicated, “In any study of incentives the element of competition holds a prominent place. It usually causes an act to be performed better or faster than it is performed by others or than the individual himself performed it before”. Many teachers have incorporated strategies involving competition, such as student team learning, into the routine of their classrooms. The routine starts with the teacher’s assignment of students to learning teams. The teacher then presents a lesson, and the students work within their groups to master the concepts. At the end of a unit or a week, the teacher gives individual quizzes and compares team scores or team improvements; some teachers conduct a type of tournament during which some sort of quiz is given. Peterson and Fennema (1985) concluded that competition is more motivational for boys and may even have a negative effect on girls. They also reported that girls performed better in cooperative learning environments while these environments were statistically ineffective for boys. Although Peterson and Fennema did not study the combined effect of cooperation and competition, Manos (1988) showed that students in a delinquency prevention program benefited from and enjoyed student team learning which involves both cooperation and competition. Creative problem solving is another motivational tool that is gaining in popularity. Since the teacher is attempting to relate to the students’ environment, it is important to see the way in which students would solve problems. Brown (1988) explains it this way: An effective way to solicit contributions indicating what students already know is through a process of creative problem solving. You may begin by having your class engage in brainstorming exercises designed to produce possible solutions for problems that affect the human condition. (p. 39) This technique is motivational in that it requires eliciting responses from each student. It must be in a context of learning in which no one would feel exempt. Schwartz also recommends using newspaper articles, magazines, and government documents as excellent sources for problems. Using such sources for problem solving will generate motivation as well as a context for learning that will provide future benefits for the students.

Brown (1988) indicates, “One strategy for reducing the ability of students to predict what will take place in the classroom is the use of counter-intuitive interventions. By definition, things which fall into this category defy immediate comprehension by most students, but are not incomprehensible” (p. 48). Brown includes many different things as counter-intuitive: Selections from Ripley’s “Believe It or Not,” optical illusions created by mirrors or straight lines, perpetual motion displays, dancing mothballs in a solution of vinegar and water, and creative uses of the center of gravity for balance are examples of things that work well. Motivation Due to Environment Although the personality of the teacher and the learning tasks in the classroom can be developed to create more effective teaching through motivation, a quality atmosphere for learning in the classroom can also be a motivational factor that contributes to effective teaching. Most teachers have experienced that, as the year progresses and the pressures mount, there is a tendency to limit the creativity in lesson plans in order to survive until the next holiday. Although it would be desirable to come up with some dynamic way of presenting the next topic, the stack of papers on the desk leaves little time for the teacher to do anything beyond the minimum. Because times like this will occur, it is good to know that there are methods that can be used to maintain a motivating environment within a pressured routine.

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b) How can teachers’ personality be a source of motivation for students? Justify.

Answer

Definition

The word motivation refers to getting someone moving. When we motivate ourselves or someone else, we develop incentives or we set up conditions that start or stop behaviour. In education, motivation deals with the problem of setting up conditions so that learners will perform to the best of their abilities in academic settings. We often motivate learners by helping them develop an expectancy that a benefit will occur as a result of their participation in an instructional experience. In short: Motivation is concerned with the factors that stimulate or inhibit the desire to engage in behaviour. “The concept of motivation is linked closely to other constructs in education and psychology such as constructs of attention, needs, goals and interests which are all contribute to stimulating students’ interest in learning and their intention to engage in particular activities and achieve various goals.” (Krause, K.L, Bochner, S, & Duchesne, S., 2003) Types of Motivation

Figure: Types of motivation

There are 2 types of motivation. They are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation as illustrated in figure Figure: Types of motivation 1. Extrinsic Motivation Motivation is concerned with the factors that stimulate or inhibit the desire to engage in behaviour. Teachers use extrinsic motivation to stimulate learning or encourage students to

perform in a particular way. It is one of the most powerful motivations. It is operative when an individual is motivated by an outcome that is external or somehow related to the activity in which she or he is engaged. In other words, Morris and Maisto said that: “Extrinsic motivation refers to rewards that are obtained not from the activity, but as a consequence of the activity.” (Morris & Maisto, 2002) This motivation arises from the use of external rewards or bribes such as food, praise, free time, money or points toward an activity. These incentives are all external, in that they are separate from the individual and the task. Example, a child may do chores not because he enjoys them but because doing so earns an allowance and students who are extrinsically motivated may study hard for a test in order to obtain a good grade in the course. 2. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to rewards provided by an activity itself. Intrinsic motivation arises from internal factors. The motivation arises from internal factors such as a child’s natural feeling of curiosity, exigent, confidence and satisfaction when performing a task. People who are involved in a task because of intrinsic motivation appear to be engaged and even consumed, since they are motivated by the activity itself and not some goal that is achieved at the end or as a result of the activity. Intrinsic motivation is the ultimate goal in education at every level. Example: Children play game for no other reward than the fun they get from the game itself or students who are intrinsically motivated may study hard for a test because he or she enjoys the contents of the course.

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Q.5 a) Explain technological revolution and how it has affected the society?

Answer

Technological Change and Society Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection and utilization of such tools, machinery, and procedures. It can strengthen as well as alleviate the impacts of human activities. The role of technology has recently moved to the forefront of both science and policy in addressing climate change. The long time span involved in climate change from decades to centuries puts technological change “in the driver’s seat”, because over long time periods technological systems are highly malleable, whereas in the short run they are largely inflexible. Technology and society refers to cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, co-production of technology and society upon the other (technology upon culture, and vice-versa). This synergistic relationship occurred from the dawn of humankind, with the invention of simple tools and continues into modern technologies such as the printing press and computers. Technology had become a trend to almost all aspect of the future nowadays. All had been conforming to how technology behaves. From the creation of new machines to the uses of micro devices that are now gaining recognition. As far as technology is concerned, almost all new created and establish things are in line with how technology affects it. Traditional ways of doing things are now beginning and slowly diminishing as new improved ways are starting to emerge. Even from the start of studying technology there are some downsides to its benefits. Technology is always viewed as a two way thing, giving benefits to the people and on the other side creates undesirable effect to the society as well as to the environment. Society today can be differentiate automatically to the way it looks and feel way back many years ago. There are many aspects and fields to which technology had affect the way people lived, from everyday living to political, social, economical, educational, and ethical issues of human beings. People had change greatly as technology had also been improving to help and address the needs of people in their application, whether to make work easier or to take pleasure and bliss out of the

product from technology. If all would be enumerated to discuss all the effects of technology to how society now changes would have a long list of items. People are now discovering things that are to address their needs. Even communication is now very effective that distance is not an issue anymore. Even of greater distance, many people are able to be in touch with each other. Technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn, adapt. This change is usually in the material environment ,and the adjustment we make to the changes often modifies customs and social institutions. Educational Technology and Change Educational technology, the incorporation of information technology into the learning experience, is a term that continues to evolve alongside technological advancements in the field. Educational technology has played a major part in improving the learning outcomes of individuals by personalizing the learning experience. The immediate responsiveness of computer based programs, and the self-paced private learning environment that educational technology warrant seeks to promote higher levels of motivation among students worldwide. It has also provided greater access to education such as in the case of increased accommodation for students with severe physical disabilities and for students living in remote locations. E-learning refers to the specific kind of learning experienced within the domain of educational technology, which can be used in or out of the classroom. Distance learning, computer-based training, and social networking tools are just a few examples of e-learning. Tools like TIGed (http://www.tigweb.org/tiged) combine engaging social networking technologies with citizenship and global education. Implementing such tools in the classroom addresses the pressing need for today’s youth to be more aware of their global environment. In our schools technology is playing its role. Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) defines educational technology as “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” (Richey, Silber, & Ely, 2008). Technology of education is most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing student learning and may be measured in how and why individuals behave. Gone are the days when the teacher stood in the front of the classroom and lectured while students simply took notes. Today the classroom is an interactive world where the teacher as well as the student is engaged with technology. Because today’s young people are hooked up and plugged in all of the time, whether it is with text messaging, iPods, social networking websites and more, it is important that teachers find a way to engage them on a technology level. Technology in the classroom is doing just that keeping students stimulated by using the latest and greatest inventions in computers and digital media. Instructional Technique and Technologies

Problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning are active learning educational technologies used to facilitate learning as well as leaning in social context. Technology which includes physical and process applied science can be incorporated into project, problem, inquiry-based learning as they all have a similar educational philosophy. All three are student centered, ideally involving real-world scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. The process that students are encouraged to employ is considered to be a technology. Classic examples of technologies used by teachers and Educational Technologists include Bloom’s Taxonomy and Instructional Design.

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b) Analyze the response of Pakistani society to this technological change.

Answer

Technological Change and its Impact on Pakistani Society Schools are undergoing a major transformation as they transition to a digital learning environment. With greater opportunities to access information, collaborate with peers and teachers, and create new types of content, students are more engaged and have a stronger voice in their own education. Teachers are able to use actionable information to personalize learning based on individual student’s learning needs and styles. In Pakistan technology is greatly affecting our schools and community. 1. Communication

Communication had been developing even in the earlier days by the use of telephone and the use of radio and telegraph in the purpose of exchanging messages to distant places. Today, in Pakistan the population has telephones as a means of necessity. Cellular phones are also now very effective and efficient not just as an accessory but as a guide to everyday living of people. There are many applications that could be installed into this small gadget that could give many uses. Example of these applications is having a Bdictionary in the phone which is very helpful as guide, and also the conversion of many measurements. 2. Lifestyle

People are greatly affected to the progress of technology that even everyone’s lifestyle also changes. People live differently to how they are used to in the past years. When technology is very reachable and human beings are very much willing to adapt this kind of technology, change is not a very impossible path. Technology had greatly improved the way people are living. It develops the standard of living. Every action of men correspond a specific machine that could help men one way or another. Examples of these are computers to which people are doing almost the electronic works. For leisure times, as also discussed in our Future Technology subject, entertainment concerning the gaming console is of now in high definition that it is almost like life like that you can easily be addicted to it. The music industry is also in greater pace in development. More and more develop machines are now more capable of handling greater amount of data in terms of music files. Gadgets are also handling many features like having a screen for viewing the music video. Technology also affects people in many different ways. Example of this is how people work. Before, many businesses are doing most of its transactions using only paper to list the day to day operations as well as the billings. Systems are now being developed and highly utilized by businesses to make their processes more effective than the traditional ways of doing it. Doing business is also possible even if not having a physical presentation. Anyone can transact processes online as long as he or she has a credit card or digital money. The web offers many things that one could possibly imagine, from business to advertising and also to communication and gaming. Businesses consist of buying things online and selling products. Advertising also are in line to the businesses. Anyone can also book flights through the use of the internet. Learning had been also in the verge of fully developing the use of technology by having its e- learning strategy. More and more students are now having forums and discussion using the internet. Classes are having their learning in the web. It is not necessary to be physically present in the classroom to be said you are doing great in school. This is also another way to which we can say that technology had greatly affect the way the society behaves nowadays. Because of the changes that are brought about by technology, people are conforming to it to

be able to stay in way with how technology is moving. 3. Cause of Skill Shortage is Complex

Skill shortages could be traced back to the faulty educational system, myopic policy of labor export and persistent technical change. Educational flaws stemmed up from poor curriculum, inadequate teacher’s training, and low public and private investment in education. The task of dealing with skill shortage is less urgent compared to the depression of labor surplus. Of course with fast-changing technologies demand for new skills would render some existing skills obsolete. 4. Industrialization

Technology has contributed to the growth of industries or to the process of industrialization. Industrialization is a term covering in general terms the growth in a society hitherto mainly agrarian of modern industry with all its circumstances and problems, economic and social. It describes in general term the growth of a society in which a major role is played by manufacturing industry. The industry is characterized by heavy, fixed capital investment in plant and building by the application of science to industrial techniques and by mainly large scale standardized production. Industrialization is associated with the factory system of production. The family has lost its economic importance. The factories have brought down the prices of commodities, improved their quality and maximized their output. The whole process of production is mechanized. Consequently the traditional skills have declined and good number of artisans has lost their work. Huge factories could provide employment opportunities to thousands of people. Hence men have become workers in a very large number. The process of industrialization has affected the nature, character and the growth of economy. It has contributed to the growth of cities or to the process of urbanization. 5. Urbanization

In Pakistan, the growth of industries has contributed to the growth of cities. Urbanization denotes a diffusion of the influence of urban centers to the rural surrounding areas. Urbanization can be described as a process of becoming urban moving to cities changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities and corresponding change of behaviour patterns. Hence, only when a large proportion of inhabitants in an area come to cities urbanization is said to occur. Urbanization has become a world phenomenon today. An unprecedented growth has taken place not only in the number of great cities but also in their size. As a result of industrialization people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. Due to this the industrial areas developed into towns and cities. 6. Modernization

Modernization is a process which indicates the adoption of the modern ways of life and values. It refers to an attempt on the part of the people particularly those who are custom bound to adapt themselves to the present time, conditions, needs, styles and ways in general. It indicates a change in people’s food habits, dress habits, speaking styles, tastes, choices, preferences, ideas, values, recreational activities and so on. People in the process of getting themselves modernized give more importance to science and technology. The scientific and technological inventions have modernized societies in various countries. They have brought about remarkable changes in the whole system of social relationship and installed new ideologies in the place of traditional ones. 7. Development of the means of transport and communication

Development of transport and communication has led to the national and international trade on

a large scale. The road transport, the train service, the ships and the aero planes have eased the movement of men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, telephone and wireless and the like have developed a great deal. The space research and the launching of the satellites for communication purposes have further added to these developments. They have helped the people belonging to different corners of the Pakistan or the world to have regular contacts. 8. Transformation in the economy and the evolution of the new social classes

The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two predominant classes; the capitalist class and the working class. These two classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interest. In the course of time an intermediary class called the middle class has evolved. 9. Unemployment

The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the rapid technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment opportunities for men but they also take away the jobs of men through labor saving devices. This results in technological unemployment. 10. Technology and war

The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern mode of warfare. The weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the mankind. They can easily destroy the entire human race reveal how technology could be misused. Thus greater the technological advancement the more risk for the mankind. cciii

11. Changes in social institutions

Technology has profoundly altered our modes of life. Technology has not spared the social institutions of its effects. The institutions of family, religion, morality, marriage, state, property have been altered. Modern technology in taking away industry from the household has radically changed the family organization. Many functions of the family have been taken away by other agencies. People are becoming more secular, rational and scientific but less religious in their outlook. Inventions and discoveries in science have shaken the foundations of religion. The function of the state or the field of state activity has been widened. Modern technology has made the states to perform such functions as the weaker section and the minorities making provision for education, health care etc. Transportation and communication inventions are leading to a shift of functions from local government to the central government of the whole state. The modern inventions have also strengthened nationalism. The modern governments which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalized the human relations. 12. Environment Technology provides an understanding, and an appreciation for the world around us. Most

modern technological processes produce unwanted by-product in addition to the desired

products, which is known as industrial waste and pollution. While most material waste is

reused in the industrial process, many forms are released into the environment, with negative

environmental side effects, such as pollution and lack of sustainability. Different social and

political systems establish different balances between the value they place on additional goods

versus the disvalues of waste products and pollution. Some technologies are designed

specifically with the environment in mind, but most are designed first for economic or

ergonomic effects. Historically, the value of a clean environment and more efficient productive

processes has been the result of an increase in the wealth of society, because once people are

able to provide for their basic needs, they are able to focus on less tangible goods such as

clean air and water.

The effects of technology on the environment are both obvious and subtle.

The more obvious effects include the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources, and

the added pollution of air, water, and land. The more subtle effects include debates

over long-term effects e.g., global warming, deforestation, natural habitat destruction,

coastal wetland loss. Each wave of technology creates a set of waste previously

unknown by humans: toxic waste, radioactive waste, electronic waste.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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