Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8605 Autumn 2019
Q.1 Define Educational Administration. Explain the basic principles of educational
Educational Administration is regarded as the process of integrating the appropriate human
and material resources that are made available and made effective for achieving the
purposes of a programme of an educational institution.
The term “Administration” doesn’t refer to any single process or act. It is like a broad
umbrella encompassing a number of processes such as: planning, organizing, directing,
coordinating, controlling and evaluating the performance. The same situation occurs in the
field of educational administration. The concept of educational administration is applicable
in case of an educational organisation which has certain purposes or goals to fulfill.
In order to achieve these purposes or goals, the head of the educational organisation plans
carefully various programmes and activities. Here the educational organisation may be a
school, college or university. The head of the school/college/university organizes these
programmes and activities with co-operation from other teachers, parents and students.
He/She motivates them and co- ordinates the efforts of teachers as well as directs and
exercises control over them. He/She evaluates their performance and progress in achieving
the purposes of the programme.
He provides feedback to them and brings modification, if required in the plans and
programmes of the school or college or university. So the totality of these processes which
are directed towards realizing or achieving the purposes or goals of the
school/college/university is called educational administration.
Basic principles of educational administration
1. Structural Democracy:
Being the first principle of educational administration in the modern era it puts stress on
democracy in structural perspective. It implies “the exercise of control” in democracy. The
meaning of exercise of control in this light should be such that, it helps the students as
future citizens in fulfilling their needs and requirements tending to their self-realization,
safeguard the democratic government and welfare of people at local, state and national
This exercise of control refers to the meaning of democracy by treating each human being
as, “a living, growing and potentially flowering organism.” Hence in this principle of
educational administration the educational administration has to practise the principles of
democracy both in structural and functional form.
In this regard and educational administrator will be a fittest one who can manage autocracy
as and when necessary to achieve the goals of an educational programme. For actualizing it
he has to perform his duty as democratically as possible.
2. Operational Democracy:
This principle of educational administration gives priority on the practical aspect of
democracy as a way of life and form of governance. To this, the essence of democracy is to
give importance on the dignity of every individual and assisting him to understand his self
in this context this principle considers democracy as a matter of spirit, way of life and a
mode of behaviour. Keeping this in view it is the task and responsibility of an educational
administrator to focus on day to day happenings in relation to democratic society in
educational perspective that are relevant in wider extent.
Because this sort of democracy seeks to make democracy more practical rather than formal.
For example a school or an educational institution is regarded as the society in miniature or
a small society. It means the entire picture of the society has been reflected in the school.
The same situation lies in case of a democratic society like ours where people expect the
school or an educational institution will do a lot for actualizing democracy as a matter of
spirit, way of life and a mode of behaviour practically.
In this light, it should be the function of the educational administrator to achieve it for
which he may take the view of the students, consult with the staffs, specialists, expects and
community members before taking any decision. This result in the emergence of a good
and effective social order by the school or educational institution as an agency of education.
Overall speaking this type of democracy as a principle of educational administration gives
importance on practicability and relevance of day to day happenings of democracy in
relation to educational perspective so far its administrative aspect is concerned.
Generally speaking justice refers to provide every individual his due in the society by
honoring his individuality. This meaning of justice is the essence of democracy. As justice is
one of the basic hallmarks of democratic administration, it is regarded as an essential
principle of educational administrating which is democratic in form and practice. For
practicing justice in educational administration there is the need and essentiality of giving
due reward and share to every individual to his efforts and achievements.
Besides, every individual is to be given task or assignment in accordance with his needs,
requirements, abilities, aptitudes etc. Hence the educational administrators for practicing
justice as one of the principles of educational administration must be judicious while
dealing with employees, students and public. But in Practice it is not happening as the
educational administrators very often arbitrarily exercise discretionary powers and too
narrowly apply uniform rules in one point.
4. Equality of Opportunity:
One of the important social objective of education is to equalize opportunity or facility for
enabling the backward or under privileged classes and individuals to use education as a
means for improvement of their condition.
In order to keep equality of opportunity in concrete shape in the field of education,
educational administration plays a vital role. For this greater emphasis should be given on
equality of educational opportunity for the shake of accelerating the process for building up
of on egalitarian human society in which the age old social exploitation will be reduced to
Overall speaking prudence refers to thinking or planning or showing thought for future.
Being contextual in approach it can be said that the futuristic outlook, vision and forward
looking must be incorporated it the field of administration. Like general administration
educational administration has to practice the exercise of foresight skill and vision with
respect to matters concerning practical living and utility of the system of administration in
future by the educational administrator.
This principle “Prudence” is closely related to intelligent economy which implies quality
control. In order to ensure quality control in the field of education, educational
administration has to make expenditure on education by accepting it as an investment on
human resource. Because without necessary expenditure on education there will be no
question of quality in it and then what about the matter of quality control?
6. Adaptability, Flexibility and Stability:
An institution must be able to adjust with changing situations by fulfilling the developing
needs and by improving its day-to-day dealings with persons or agencies involved. This
characteristic of an institution is called adaptability. In the process of achieving its
educational objectives, it has to deal differently with different human beings like teachers,
parents and the public at large, who are affected in one way or other by the process or its
products. This tendency is called flexibility.
The educational institution however must be able to achieve adaptability without creating
any dislocation or disruption in its process and achievements. This property is named as
stability. An institution must have these three characteristics in order to be able to achieve
its objectives adequately and to give due regard to all persons concerned in some way or
These three characteristics are dynamic, adaptability and flexibility are especially so.
Stability, however, is called as prudential check on the change which retains good in the old
and gives up bad in the new. Hence, careful evaluation of the old as well as the new is an
essential feature of stability.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8605 Autumn 2019
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Q.2 As being a complete code of conduct, Islam has given some golden principles
of administration, explain.
`When there are three on a journey they should appoint one of them their commander1.’
This tradition of the Holy Prophet spotlights the importance that Islam attaches to
organized activity in human life. A religion that induces administrative order in a group of
three persons cannot fail to appreciate the need for regulating human behaviour on a wider
scale. In fact, Islam is by nature administration-oriented, as is borne out by its rituals like
daily congregational prayers and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. All kinds of practices in
Islam recieve their sanction from certain fundamental value-principles. Confining ourselves
to administration, we can identify four such principles:
A. Ideological Orientation.
B. Primacy of Humanistic Ends.
C. Moral Accountability.
D. Supremacy of Law.
We shall take them up in that order. After we have examined their theoretics in this section,
we shall be concerned in the next with their practical implications.
A. Ideological Orientation
Leiserson and Marx have defined ideologies as `systems of social interpretation’ competing
for men’s `attention as the most satisfactory method of explaining the facts of a complex
world2.’ Islam is an ideology in this sense. It interprets the facts of the world with reference
to its three cardinal beliefs: the Oneness of God, the (Final) Prophethood of Muhammad
(pbuh), and the Hereafter. The essence of Islam is bearing obedience to the One God’s
commandments as contained in the Holy Quran and illustrated by the Prophet’s life, with a
view to upgrading the quality of life on the earthly planet and achieving salvation in the
world to come. When this essence gets into the veins of people and they are motivated to
mould their individual and collective lives in accordance with Islam, we have an ideology in
An administration is part of the larger societal structure. Like its parent discipline, political
science, public administration in Islam is based on the triad of convictions stated above.
From them, therefore, it must take its spirit, sanction, and strength, and to them must its
form, goals, and character conform. This is what Islam demands generally of administration.
There are several specific demands of which only a few will be discussed in the next section.
B. Primacy of Humanistic Ends
The triumph of mechanistic science in the West was celebrated with a death-bell for the
human soul. Frederick Taylor complacently christened his theory “Scientific Management”.
Since then public administration has changed greatly in outlook and method. The human
relation school has left an indelible mark on it and today man is believed to be a distinct
and important variable in any organizational set-up.
Islam has approached the human aspect of administration in its characteristic way. It
regards man as a thinking and feeling entity, declares him to be the supreme creation and
sets him the highest possible task, that of achieving moral perfection. This primacy of
humanism, in the context of administration, rejects the exclusively materialistic value-scales
and objectives of Western societies. Of its practical consequences we shall be talking in
Section II. Suffice to say here that the Islamic concept of human relations has a clear adge
over its Western counterpart for two main reasons. One, Islam addressed itself to the
question long before the West ever did and supplied a solution whose practicability was
proved beyond doubt. Two, Western human relationing may not be so human after all, for it
is as much a grudging concession to the intractable human nature as a positive recognition
of man’s greater intrinstic worth. That is why it has become in the West a saleable art or
commodity and is being traded in on the same commercial principle of quid pro quo as any
other. In Islam, on the contrary, it is not an opportunistic device for stepping up the profit
margin but a necessary ingredient of the creed itself; it is an inviolable behavioural tenet, it
is a moral imperative.
C. Moral Accountability
Like other systems, Islam provides legal checks and social strictures in order to make
administrative accountability possible. What makes it unique, however, is its emphasis on
accountability in the Hereafter. This stress is ethical in nature and Islam inculcates the sense
of responsibility in its adherents by equipping them with what Reinhold Neibuhr describes
as `the passion of moral good will3′ and what Marshall Dimock calls `a sense of mission4′.
With its techings it strengthens man from within so that he feels impelled—and not
compelled—to do the right and proper thing.
The idea of moral accountability is rooted in the concept of the Hereafter. The omniscient
and omnipotent God will, at an appointed time, cause the Day of Reckoning to come5 when
He will justly reward men for their good and bad deeds and send them either to paradise or
to Hell. None will be exempted from the questioning of that awful Day, not even the
prophets6. Accountability is to be individual7, thoroughgoing8, and unshiftable9. Thus
dereliction of duty is not only a crime in law, it is also a sin in religion. Anybody who is put
in a position of trust will have a heavy job accounting for his doings. This is particularly true
of rulers and administrators10.
D. Supremacy of Law
Supremacy of law in Islam should not be mixed up with the English rule of Law. The latter is
usually contrasted with the French Droit Administratif (Administrative Law), but in one sense
these two are alike. That is, although Rule of Law and Administrative Law stand for two
different kinds of legal spirit, yet neither of them points up the presence of any definite
body of law. But the Islamic doctrine, besides upholding the cause of law, also implies the
existence of a definite and identifiable corpus juris—the Shariah. Hence supremacy of law is
perhaps better called supremacy of the law. The Shariah being something recognizable and
its supremacy having been conceded, it brings, on being applied, its own tinge to
administrative situations. A test example is the relationship that Islam establishes between
politics and administration. In the Quran we find three guiding principles, those of the
delegated authority of man11, permission of dissent12, and settlement of dispute according
to the dictates of Allah and His Prophets13. All three follow logically from the idea of Allah’s
sovereignty14. How they work out in administrative practice will be seen in the following
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8605 Autumn 2019
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Q.3 What are the different steps involved in educational administration? Discuss
them in detail.
The four functions of management comprise of the primary functions of managers, which
must be performed efficiently for the success of an organization. These functions are
common across all fields of management, be it at a factory, a super market, a restaurant or
even at home. For the smooth functioning of any organization, the functions are planning,
organizing, leading and controlling. These functions are referred to as the management
Planning is the first and base component of management. It involves recognizing the
organization’s goals and developing strategies to achieve these goals. This is called strategy
planning. These strategies may have to be altered or completely changed constantly based
on the macro and micro factors affecting an organization. Thus planning is a constant
process. Even though all planning involves the same kind of thought process, different types
of plans are made for different functions of an organization. Examples of planning are
strategic planning, marketing planning, business planning, succession planning, project
planning, sales planning, etc.
Organizing is an important responsibility of a manager. Unless a manager manages in an
organized manner, no work will get done. A manager’s organizational responsibilities
include organizing the resources of an organization, identifying different roles, choosing the
right people for these roles, delegating tasks to people, etc. He also has to ensure that the
employees have the required resources to perform their tasks better. Inefficient
organization can lead to chaos in the company.
Even though many use the term managing and leading synonymously, nothing could be
farther from the truth. Simply managing tasks means making people do their jobs. But
leading means influencing and inspiring people in such a way that they feel motivated to do
their jobs. People find it easier to follow a leader. Following the orders of a manager is
something that is done as a part of one’s job, but following a leader is something that is
done more willingly by people. Thus, every manager must aim at becoming a good leader.
A leader focuses on interpersonal relations with each employee and constantly motivates
them to perform better. By creating a positive working environment a leader can effectively
help improve the employees’ job performance and hence their morale.
Controlling as the name suggests means controlling the various functions in the
organization to ensure they are on track with the goals that were set at the beginning of the
planning process. Controlling also involves setting certain performance standards for the
employees and constantly evaluating their job performance. Sometimes the strategies and
plans that were developed and implemented may not work out as initially planned due to
certain external factors. Controlling and evaluating helps a manager recognize these failures
and quickly implement corrective measures to bring the task back on track.
It involves evaluating the expected and actual job performance. This helps a manager
recognize potential problems and take preventive measures against the consequences.
These four functions of management are very important for an organization and if done
well can be the reason behind the success of the business.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8605 Autumn 2019
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Q.4 Why supervision is required in an educational institution? How is it different
Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers
in education. Educational supervisors make sure the educational institution operates
efficiently and within the legal requirements and rules. The purpose of this field is to make
sure teachers and other faculty members are doing what they’re supposed to be doing and
that students are receiving the best education possible.
Educational supervision and guidance are among the most important duties, which are
required for administration of a desirable educational system. Its main goal is to modify and
to improve educational status. Available educational supervision and guidance plans and
quality of its perpetuation in materialization of educational goals play a determining role.
Nowadays, educational guides as educational leaders cooperate with teachers and help
them with educating in order to modify educational status, aiming at promotion of quality
of teachers’ performance and removal of their problems through professional cooperation.
Although educational supervision and guidance plans and titles of educational guides are
different in various educational systems, their duties are similar to some extent.
Definition of educational supervision and guidance
According to Ben Harris: Educational supervision of school personnel over individuals,
even objects for the purpose of control and administration of school until educational plans
are changed and directly influence achievement of fundamental educational objectives of
the school accordingly.
Echson Vegal defines educational supervision and guidance as follows: Supervision is
cooperation with individuals and is interactive instead of being direct; and instead of
authority, it is a sign of people-orientation and instead of supervisor-orientation it is
Snops considers supervision an operation and experience, aiming at improvement of
teaching and educational plans.
Kimble Wise delivers a comprehensive interpretation of the concept of educational
supervision and guidance and states that the main goal of educational supervision is to
modify educational plan, to modify teaching methodology, on-the-job training, to
encourage using educational aids during teaching, to conduct effective evaluation, to
promote participation of society in development of school plans and to modify learning
conditions for students. In fact, supervision is a service activity, which has been designed in
order to help improve teaching methodology of teachers.
Difference between educational supervision and administration:
Both, educational supervision and administration are part of the educational system and
they complement each other. Although it is commonly understood that administration
encompasses supervision, they have different purposes. In order to evaluate the differences
between them, it is necessary to clear up what they are. But first, it is important to
understand that schools at any level are organizations.
Organizations are functional structures established to achieve goals. To be able to achieve
them, they must rely on several people who are part of it. Administrators and supervisors
are some of them. Through their activities, duties and tasks they achieve the goals and
quality work determines quality results. It is also well known that organizations have an
undeniable impact in human life.
Administration and supervision have been used in politics,
Industry and business for a long time, but for educational purposes it began to be applied
in the middle of the 20th century. Although educational administration has borrow many of
its principles from traditional administration principles, its goals are independent and it has
its own framework. What is educational administration? A basic definition implies that it is
the management of institutes aimed to foster learning and teaching at any level.
This management includes physical and human resources. What make unique educational
administration are its objectives, which are aimed to learning and teaching activities.
Although everyone involved with schools is aware of needs and difficulties from their own
point of views, only administrators have a wider perspective. This perspective allows them to
organize and align people, resources and actions to achieve the goals. Despite of this wide
spectrum of functions, it is only a supportive role and many times they do not deal directly
with students or teachers. Its main skill is related to put together pieces and resources in the
most advantageous way.
The main differences between educational administration and supervision are related to
their scope and goals. Administrators organize and control the resources, represent and
guide the instructional communities. Supervisors visit, diagnose, evaluate and survey
instructional methods, teachers and learners, as well as overall climate.
Although educational supervision and administration differ in many ways and may vary for
different educational systems, there are some common features and goal they both share.
Both of them try to deliver and improve the education in general with the best conditions.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2019 Code 8605
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Q.5 Define educational planning. Write a note on different approaches to
Educational planning is the activity that allows the public authorities to orient educational
development and identify priority interventions. After going through a major crisis of
confidence in the 1980s, educational planning has undergone major transformation: it has
become more participatory, more flexible, less technocratic, and more diverse. It has gone
beyond what its main focus was for a long time – planning infrastructures, increasing access,
and increased efficiency – to become more strategic and addressing a variety of key issues
of the educational system, such as quality, inequality, and factors influencing demand for
Educational planning strives to research, develop, implement and advance policies,
programs and reforms within educational institutions. Educational planners might work at
the local, national or international level to advance or improve education. While educational
planning might center on pre-school and K-12 education, you could also work in
postsecondary education as well. As an educational planner, you could work within
educational institutions, government agencies, and private or not-for-profit organizations.
Educational planners typically hold graduate degrees. You might also consider becoming a
licensed teacher or earning additional degrees in education. Administrators within schools
or districts are commonly involved in educational planning.
Different approaches to educational planning:
There are four major approaches to educational planning.
1. Social Demand Approach:
This approach was used in the Robbins Committee Report on Higher Education in Britain. In
India too, this approach is a popular one while opening new schools and colleges in
In this method are involved the following steps:
(a)To estimate the proportion of students completing school education and are likely to
enter into higher education.
(b)To estimate how many of these successful school leaving students would actually apply
for admission to colleges.
(c)To determine how many of the applicants should be given admission to higher education.
(d)To determine the length and duration of the study.
Thus, the major issue involved in this approach is to forecast future demands for seats
keeping in mind social and educational trends as well as demographic changes. The
underlying assumption in this approach is that expansion of education is beneficial to the
economy and thus, additional expenditure on education would not create a burden too
heavy to bear. This approach is more prevalent in those societies which favour traditional
cultural values, where decisions are taken on the basis of public opinions (in a fragile polity
and sometimes in a democracy) and in societies where the social environment is generally
pessimistic in nature. The approach is based on currently expressed preferences and does
not take into account public expenditure on education vis-a-vis the benefits as the demand
for education may far exceed the resources available in a vast country like India. Also, it
sometimes leads to a mismatch between the output of higher education and the demands
of the economy.
2. Social Justice Approach:
This approach emphasizes justice to the disadvantaged sections of society and is based on
Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. This approach is aimed at making special provisions for
the socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged communities for a longer
duration. This includes opening Ashram schools for tribal areas, special concessions and
scholarships, incentives and relaxation.
3. Rate of Returns Approach:
According to this approach, investment in education should take place in such a way that
the returns from the investment are equal to the returns from other kinds of investment of
capital, e.g., investment in industry. This principle is known as ‘equi-marginal returns’ in
economic theory and could be extended to educational sector. This approach treats
education as an investment in human capital and uses rate of returns as a criterion in
allocation of financial resources. The approach implies that if the rate of return is low,
expenditure on education should be curtailed.
However, in reality, it is difficult to apply this approach to education due to problems
associated with measuring rate of returns in education. An educated person’s earnings or
rate of returns depend upon his/her innate intelligence, parental socio-economic status,
motivation and aspirations. Hence, it is not easy to attribute the rate of returns only to
education acquired. Hence, this approach is least frequently applied to education.
4. Manpower Planning Approach:
In this method, the general demand for and the capacity of supply of human resources in
different streams of and at different levels of the educational sector are estimated. The
approach asserts that the system of education produces the right quality of human
resources with desirable knowledge, attitudes and skills in the right numbers and thus,
education is directly linked with economic development.
The application of the manpower planning approach depends on these factors:
(a) An appraisal and analysis of the existing employment conditions and the system of
(b) Planning the system of education vis-a-vis the manpower needs of the economy, and
(c) Using the financial resources (which are limited) in an optimum way so as to fulfill the
demands of the employment sector without incurring wastage on account of
(d) Making an appraisal of the number of students enrolled, the number of existing teachers
and their qualifications, enrolment in teacher education institutions (availability of future
teachers), as well as the existing number of school buildings, equipments, infrastructure and
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