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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8605 Spring 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8605 Spring 2019 assignments 1 and 2   Educational Leadership and Management (8605) spring 2019. aiou past papers.

Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Spring, 2019
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8605 Spring 2019 

Q.1 Define Educational Administration. Explain the basic principles of educational 

administration? 

Answer: 

Educational Administration is regarded as the process of integrating the appropriate human 

and material resources that are made available and made effective for achieving the 

purposes of a programme of an educational institution. 

The term “Administration” doesn’t refer to any single process or act. It is like a broad 

umbrella encompassing a number of processes such as: planning, organizing, directing, 

coordinating, controlling and evaluating the performance. The same situation occurs in the 

field of educational administration. The concept of educational administration is applicable 

in case of an educational organisation which has certain purposes or goals to fulfill. 

In order to achieve these purposes or goals, the head of the educational organisation plans 

carefully various programmes and activities. Here the educational organisation may be a 

school, college or university. The head of the school/college/university organizes these 

programmes and activities with co-operation from other teachers, parents and students. 

He/She motivates them and co- ordinates the efforts of teachers as well as directs and 

exercises control over them. He/She evaluates their performance and progress in achieving 

the purposes of the programme. 

He provides feedback to them and brings modification, if required in the plans and 

programmes of the school or college or university. So the totality of these processes which 

are directed towards realizing or achieving the purposes or goals of the 

school/college/university is called educational administration. 

Basic principles of educational administration 

1. Structural Democracy: 

Being the first principle of educational administration in the modern era it puts stress on 

democracy in structural perspective. It implies “the exercise of control” in democracy. The 

meaning of exercise of control in this light should be such that, it helps the students as 

future citizens in fulfilling their needs and requirements tending to their self-realization, 

safeguard the democratic government and welfare of people at local, state and national 

levels. 

This exercise of control refers to the meaning of democracy by treating each human being 

as, “a living, growing and potentially flowering organism.” Hence in this principle of 

educational administration the educational administration has to practise the principles of 

democracy both in structural and functional form. 

In this regard and educational administrator will be a fittest one who can manage autocracy 

as and when necessary to achieve the goals of an educational programme. For actualizing it 

he has to perform his duty as democratically as possible. 

2. Operational Democracy: 

This principle of educational administration gives priority on the practical aspect of 

democracy as a way of life and form of governance. To this, the essence of democracy is to 

give importance on the dignity of every individual and assisting him to understand his self 

in this context this principle considers democracy as a matter of spirit, way of life and a 

mode of behaviour. Keeping this in view it is the task and responsibility of an educational 

administrator to focus on day to day happenings in relation to democratic society in 

educational perspective that are relevant in wider extent. 

Because this sort of democracy seeks to make democracy more practical rather than formal. 

For example a school or an educational institution is regarded as the society in miniature or 

a small society. It means the entire picture of the society has been reflected in the school. 

The same situation lies in case of a democratic society like ours where people expect the 

school or an educational institution will do a lot for actualizing democracy as a matter of 

spirit, way of life and a mode of behaviour practically. 

In this light, it should be the function of the educational administrator to achieve it for 

which he may take the view of the students, consult with the staffs, specialists, expects and 

community members before taking any decision. This result in the emergence of a good 

and effective social order by the school or educational institution as an agency of education. 

Overall speaking this type of democracy as a principle of educational administration gives 

importance on practicability and relevance of day to day happenings of democracy in 

relation to educational perspective so far its administrative aspect is concerned. 

3. Justice: 

Generally speaking justice refers to provide every individual his due in the society by 

honoring his individuality. This meaning of justice is the essence of democracy. As justice is 

one of the basic hallmarks of democratic administration, it is regarded as an essential 

principle of educational administrating which is democratic in form and practice. For 

practicing justice in educational administration there is the need and essentiality of giving 

due reward and share to every individual to his efforts and achievements. 

Besides, every individual is to be given task or assignment in accordance with his needs, 

requirements, abilities, aptitudes etc. Hence the educational administrators for practicing 

justice as one of the principles of educational administration must be judicious while 

dealing with employees, students and public. But in Practice it is not happening as the 

educational administrators very often arbitrarily exercise discretionary powers and too 

narrowly apply uniform rules in one point. 

4. Equality of Opportunity: 

One of the important social objective of education is to equalize opportunity or facility for 

enabling the backward or under privileged classes and individuals to use education as a 

means for improvement of their condition. 

In order to keep equality of opportunity in concrete shape in the field of education, 

educational administration plays a vital role. For this greater emphasis should be given on 

equality of educational opportunity for the shake of accelerating the process for building up 

of on egalitarian human society in which the age old social exploitation will be reduced to 

minimum. 

5. Prudence: 

Overall speaking prudence refers to thinking or planning or showing thought for future. 

Being contextual in approach it can be said that the futuristic outlook, vision and forward 

looking must be incorporated it the field of administration. Like general administration 

educational administration has to practice the exercise of foresight skill and vision with 

respect to matters concerning practical living and utility of the system of administration in 

future by the educational administrator. 

This principle “Prudence” is closely related to intelligent economy which implies quality 

control. In order to ensure quality control in the field of education, educational 

administration has to make expenditure on education by accepting it as an investment on 

human resource. Because without necessary expenditure on education there will be no 

question of quality in it and then what about the matter of quality control? 

6. Adaptability, Flexibility and Stability: 

An institution must be able to adjust with changing situations by fulfilling the developing 

needs and by improving its day-to-day dealings with persons or agencies involved. This 

characteristic of an institution is called adaptability. In the process of achieving its 

educational objectives, it has to deal differently with different human beings like teachers, 

parents and the public at large, who are affected in one way or other by the process or its 

products. This tendency is called flexibility. 

The educational institution however must be able to achieve adaptability without creating 

any dislocation or disruption in its process and achievements. This property is named as 

stability. An institution must have these three characteristics in order to be able to achieve 

its objectives adequately and to give due regard to all persons concerned in some way or 

other. 

These three characteristics are dynamic, adaptability and flexibility are especially so. 

Stability, however, is called as prudential check on the change which retains good in the old 

and gives up bad in the new. Hence, careful evaluation of the old as well as the new is an 

essential feature of stability. 

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8605 Spring 2019

aiou solved assignments code 8605

Q.2 As being a complete code of conduct, Islam has given some golden principles 

of administration, explain. 

Answer: 

`When there are three on a journey they should appoint one of them their commander1.’ 

This tradition of the Holy Prophet spotlights the importance that Islam attaches to 

organized activity in human life. A religion that induces administrative order in a group of 

three persons cannot fail to appreciate the need for regulating human behaviour on a wider 

scale. In fact, Islam is by nature administration-oriented, as is borne out by its rituals like 

daily congregational prayers and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. All kinds of practices in 

Islam recieve their sanction from certain fundamental value-principles. Confining ourselves 

to administration, we can identify four such principles: 

A. Ideological Orientation. 

B. Primacy of Humanistic Ends. 

C. Moral Accountability. 

D. Supremacy of Law. 

We shall take them up in that order. After we have examined their theoretics in this section, 

we shall be concerned in the next with their practical implications. 

A. Ideological Orientation 

Leiserson and Marx have defined ideologies as `systems of social interpretation’ competing 

for men’s `attention as the most satisfactory method of explaining the facts of a complex 

world2.’ Islam is an ideology in this sense. It interprets the facts of the world with reference 

to its three cardinal beliefs: the Oneness of God, the (Final) Prophethood of Muhammad 

(pbuh), and the Hereafter. The essence of Islam is bearing obedience to the One God’s 

commandments as contained in the Holy Quran and illustrated by the Prophet’s life, with a 

view to upgrading the quality of life on the earthly planet and achieving salvation in the 

world to come. When this essence gets into the veins of people and they are motivated to 

mould their individual and collective lives in accordance with Islam, we have an ideology in 

dynamic operation. 

An administration is part of the larger societal structure. Like its parent discipline, political 

science, public administration in Islam is based on the triad of convictions stated above. 

From them, therefore, it must take its spirit, sanction, and strength, and to them must its 

form, goals, and character conform. This is what Islam demands generally of administration. 

There are several specific demands of which only a few will be discussed in the next section. 

B. Primacy of Humanistic Ends 

The triumph of mechanistic science in the West was celebrated with a death-bell for the 

human soul. Frederick Taylor complacently christened his theory “Scientific Management”. 

Since then public administration has changed greatly in outlook and method. The human 

relation school has left an indelible mark on it and today man is believed to be a distinct 

and important variable in any organizational set-up. 

Islam has approached the human aspect of administration in its characteristic way. It 

regards man as a thinking and feeling entity, declares him to be the supreme creation and 

sets him the highest possible task, that of achieving moral perfection. This primacy of 

humanism, in the context of administration, rejects the exclusively materialistic value-scales 

and objectives of Western societies. Of its practical consequences we shall be talking in 

Section II. Suffice to say here that the Islamic concept of human relations has a clear adge 

over its Western counterpart for two main reasons. One, Islam addressed itself to the 

question long before the West ever did and supplied a solution whose practicability was 

proved beyond doubt. Two, Western human relationing may not be so human after all, for it 

is as much a grudging concession to the intractable human nature as a positive recognition 

of man’s greater intrinstic worth. That is why it has become in the West a saleable art or 

commodity and is being traded in on the same commercial principle of quid pro quo as any 

other. In Islam, on the contrary, it is not an opportunistic device for stepping up the profit 

margin but a necessary ingredient of the creed itself; it is an inviolable behavioural tenet, it 

is a moral imperative. 

C. Moral Accountability 

Like other systems, Islam provides legal checks and social strictures in order to make 

administrative accountability possible. What makes it unique, however, is its emphasis on 

accountability in the Hereafter. This stress is ethical in nature and Islam inculcates the sense 

of responsibility in its adherents by equipping them with what Reinhold Neibuhr describes 

as `the passion of moral good will3′ and what Marshall Dimock calls `a sense of mission4′. 

With its techings it strengthens man from within so that he feels impelled—and not 

compelled—to do the right and proper thing. 

The idea of moral accountability is rooted in the concept of the Hereafter. The omniscient 

and omnipotent God will, at an appointed time, cause the Day of Reckoning to come5 when 

He will justly reward men for their good and bad deeds and send them either to paradise or 

to Hell. None will be exempted from the questioning of that awful Day, not even the 

prophets6. Accountability is to be individual7, thoroughgoing8, and unshiftable9. Thus 

dereliction of duty is not only a crime in law, it is also a sin in religion. Anybody who is put 

in a position of trust will have a heavy job accounting for his doings. This is particularly true 

of rulers and administrators10. 

D. Supremacy of Law 

Supremacy of law in Islam should not be mixed up with the English rule of Law. The latter is 

usually contrasted with the French Droit Administratif (Administrative Law), but in one sense 

these two are alike. That is, although Rule of Law and Administrative Law stand for two 

different kinds of legal spirit, yet neither of them points up the presence of any definite 

body of law. But the Islamic doctrine, besides upholding the cause of law, also implies the 

existence of a definite and identifiable corpus juris—the Shariah. Hence supremacy of law is 

perhaps better called supremacy of the law. The Shariah being something recognizable and 

its supremacy having been conceded, it brings, on being applied, its own tinge to 

administrative situations. A test example is the relationship that Islam establishes between 

politics and administration. In the Quran we find three guiding principles, those of the 

delegated authority of man11, permission of dissent12, and settlement of dispute according 

to the dictates of Allah and His Prophets13. All three follow logically from the idea of Allah’s 

sovereignty14. How they work out in administrative practice will be seen in the following 

section. 

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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8605 Spring 2019

aiou solved assignments code 8605

Q.3 What are the different steps involved in educational administration? Discuss 

them in detail. 

Answer: 

The four functions of management comprise of the primary functions of managers, which 

must be performed efficiently for the success of an organization. These functions are 

common across all fields of management, be it at a factory, a super market, a restaurant or 

even at home. For the smooth functioning of any organization, the functions are planning, 

organizing, leading and controlling. These functions are referred to as the management 

process. 

Planning 

Planning is the first and base component of management. It involves recognizing the 

organization’s goals and developing strategies to achieve these goals. This is called strategy 

planning. These strategies may have to be altered or completely changed constantly based 

on the macro and micro factors affecting an organization. Thus planning is a constant 

process. Even though all planning involves the same kind of thought process, different types 

of plans are made for different functions of an organization. Examples of planning are 

strategic planning, marketing planning, business planning, succession planning, project 

planning, sales planning, etc. 

Organizing 

Organizing is an important responsibility of a manager. Unless a manager manages in an 

organized manner, no work will get done. A manager’s organizational responsibilities 

include organizing the resources of an organization, identifying different roles, choosing the 

right people for these roles, delegating tasks to people, etc. He also has to ensure that the 

employees have the required resources to perform their tasks better. Inefficient 

organization can lead to chaos in the company. 

Leading 

Even though many use the term managing and leading synonymously, nothing could be 

farther from the truth. Simply managing tasks means making people do their jobs. But 

leading means influencing and inspiring people in such a way that they feel motivated to do 

their jobs. People find it easier to follow a leader. Following the orders of a manager is 

something that is done as a part of one’s job, but following a leader is something that is 

done more willingly by people. Thus, every manager must aim at becoming a good leader. 

A leader focuses on interpersonal relations with each employee and constantly motivates 

them to perform better. By creating a positive working environment a leader can effectively 

help improve the employees’ job performance and hence their morale. 

Controlling 

Controlling as the name suggests means controlling the various functions in the 

organization to ensure they are on track with the goals that were set at the beginning of the 

planning process. Controlling also involves setting certain performance standards for the 

employees and constantly evaluating their job performance. Sometimes the strategies and 

plans that were developed and implemented may not work out as initially planned due to 

certain external factors. Controlling and evaluating helps a manager recognize these failures 

and quickly implement corrective measures to bring the task back on track. 

It involves evaluating the expected and actual job performance. This helps a manager 

recognize potential problems and take preventive measures against the consequences. 

These four functions of management are very important for an organization and if done 

well can be the reason behind the success of the business. 

{================} 
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8605 Spring 2019

aiou solved assignments code 8605

Q.4 Why supervision is required in an educational institution? How is it different 

from administration? 

Answer: 

Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers 

in education. Educational supervisors make sure the educational institution operates 

efficiently and within the legal requirements and rules. The purpose of this field is to make 

sure teachers and other faculty members are doing what they’re supposed to be doing and 

that students are receiving the best education possible. 

Educational supervision and guidance are among the most important duties, which are 

required for administration of a desirable educational system. Its main goal is to modify and 

to improve educational status. Available educational supervision and guidance plans and 

quality of its perpetuation in materialization of educational goals play a determining role. 

Nowadays, educational guides as educational leaders cooperate with teachers and help 

them with educating in order to modify educational status, aiming at promotion of quality 

of teachers’ performance and removal of their problems through professional cooperation. 

Although educational supervision and guidance plans and titles of educational guides are 

different in various educational systems, their duties are similar to some extent. 

Definition of educational supervision and guidance 

According to Ben Harris: Educational supervision of school personnel over individuals, 

even objects for the purpose of control and administration of school until educational plans 

are changed and directly influence achievement of fundamental educational objectives of 

the school accordingly. 

Echson Vegal defines educational supervision and guidance as follows: Supervision is 

cooperation with individuals and is interactive instead of being direct; and instead of 

authority, it is a sign of people-orientation and instead of supervisor-orientation it is 

teacher-oriented. 

Snops considers supervision an operation and experience, aiming at improvement of 

teaching and educational plans. 

Kimble Wise delivers a comprehensive interpretation of the concept of educational 

supervision and guidance and states that the main goal of educational supervision is to 

modify educational plan, to modify teaching methodology, on-the-job training, to 

encourage using educational aids during teaching, to conduct effective evaluation, to 

promote participation of society in development of school plans and to modify learning 

conditions for students. In fact, supervision is a service activity, which has been designed in 

order to help improve teaching methodology of teachers. 

Difference between educational supervision and administration: 

Both, educational supervision and administration are part of the educational system and 

they complement each other. Although it is commonly understood that administration 

encompasses supervision, they have different purposes. In order to evaluate the differences 

between them, it is necessary to clear up what they are. But first, it is important to 

understand that schools at any level are organizations. 

Organizations are functional structures established to achieve goals. To be able to achieve 

them, they must rely on several people who are part of it. Administrators and supervisors 

are some of them. Through their activities, duties and tasks they achieve the goals and 

quality work determines quality results. It is also well known that organizations have an 

undeniable impact in human life. 

Administration and supervision have been used in politics, 

Industry and business for a long time, but for educational purposes it began to be applied 

in the middle of the 20th century. Although educational administration has borrow many of 

its principles from traditional administration principles, its goals are independent and it has 

its own framework. What is educational administration? A basic definition implies that it is 

the management of institutes aimed to foster learning and teaching at any level. 

This management includes physical and human resources. What make unique educational 

administration are its objectives, which are aimed to learning and teaching activities. 

Although everyone involved with schools is aware of needs and difficulties from their own 

point of views, only administrators have a wider perspective. This perspective allows them to 

organize and align people, resources and actions to achieve the goals. Despite of this wide 

spectrum of functions, it is only a supportive role and many times they do not deal directly 

with students or teachers. Its main skill is related to put together pieces and resources in the 

most advantageous way. 

The main differences between educational administration and supervision are related to 

their scope and goals. Administrators organize and control the resources, represent and 

guide the instructional communities. Supervisors visit, diagnose, evaluate and survey 

instructional methods, teachers and learners, as well as overall climate. 

Although educational supervision and administration differ in many ways and may vary for 

different educational systems, there are some common features and goal they both share. 

Both of them try to deliver and improve the education in general with the best conditions. 

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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Spring 2019 Code 8605

aiou solved assignments code 8605

Q.5 Define educational planning. Write a note on different approaches to 

educational planning. 

Answer: 

Educational planning is the activity that allows the public authorities to orient educational 

development and identify priority interventions. After going through a major crisis of 

confidence in the 1980s, educational planning has undergone major transformation: it has 

become more participatory, more flexible, less technocratic, and more diverse. It has gone 

beyond what its main focus was for a long time – planning infrastructures, increasing access, 

and increased efficiency – to become more strategic and addressing a variety of key issues 

of the educational system, such as quality, inequality, and factors influencing demand for 

schooling. 

Educational planning strives to research, develop, implement and advance policies, 

programs and reforms within educational institutions. Educational planners might work at 

the local, national or international level to advance or improve education. While educational 

planning might center on pre-school and K-12 education, you could also work in 

postsecondary education as well. As an educational planner, you could work within 

educational institutions, government agencies, and private or not-for-profit organizations. 

Educational planners typically hold graduate degrees. You might also consider becoming a 

licensed teacher or earning additional degrees in education. Administrators within schools 

or districts are commonly involved in educational planning. 

Different approaches to educational planning: 

There are four major approaches to educational planning. 

1. Social Demand Approach: 

This approach was used in the Robbins Committee Report on Higher Education in Britain. In 

India too, this approach is a popular one while opening new schools and colleges in 

particular. 

In this method are involved the following steps: 

(a)To estimate the proportion of students completing school education and are likely to 

enter into higher education. 

(b)To estimate how many of these successful school leaving students would actually apply 

for admission to colleges. 

(c)To determine how many of the applicants should be given admission to higher education. 

(d)To determine the length and duration of the study. 

Thus, the major issue involved in this approach is to forecast future demands for seats 

keeping in mind social and educational trends as well as demographic changes. The 

underlying assumption in this approach is that expansion of education is beneficial to the 

economy and thus, additional expenditure on education would not create a burden too 

heavy to bear. This approach is more prevalent in those societies which favour traditional 

cultural values, where decisions are taken on the basis of public opinions (in a fragile polity 

and sometimes in a democracy) and in societies where the social environment is generally 

pessimistic in nature. The approach is based on currently expressed preferences and does 

not take into account public expenditure on education vis-a-vis the benefits as the demand 

for education may far exceed the resources available in a vast country like India. Also, it 

sometimes leads to a mismatch between the output of higher education and the demands 

of the economy. 

2. Social Justice Approach: 

This approach emphasizes justice to the disadvantaged sections of society and is based on 

Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. This approach is aimed at making special provisions for 

the socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged communities for a longer 

duration. This includes opening Ashram schools for tribal areas, special concessions and 

scholarships, incentives and relaxation. 

3. Rate of Returns Approach: 

According to this approach, investment in education should take place in such a way that 

the returns from the investment are equal to the returns from other kinds of investment of 

capital, e.g., investment in industry. This principle is known as ‘equi-marginal returns’ in 

economic theory and could be extended to educational sector. This approach treats 

education as an investment in human capital and uses rate of returns as a criterion in 

allocation of financial resources. The approach implies that if the rate of return is low, 

expenditure on education should be curtailed. 

However, in reality, it is difficult to apply this approach to education due to problems 

associated with measuring rate of returns in education. An educated person’s earnings or 

rate of returns depend upon his/her innate intelligence, parental socio-economic status, 

motivation and aspirations. Hence, it is not easy to attribute the rate of returns only to 

education acquired. Hence, this approach is least frequently applied to education. 

4. Manpower Planning Approach: 

In this method, the general demand for and the capacity of supply of human resources in 

different streams of and at different levels of the educational sector are estimated. The 

approach asserts that the system of education produces the right quality of human 

resources with desirable knowledge, attitudes and skills in the right numbers and thus, 

education is directly linked with economic development. 

The application of the manpower planning approach depends on these factors: 

(a) An appraisal and analysis of the existing employment conditions and the system of 

education, 

(b) Planning the system of education vis-a-vis the manpower needs of the economy, and 

(c) Using the financial resources (which are limited) in an optimum way so as to fulfill the 

demands of the employment sector without incurring wastage on account of 

unemployment. 

(d) Making an appraisal of the number of students enrolled, the number of existing teachers 

and their qualifications, enrolment in teacher education institutions (availability of future 

teachers), as well as the existing number of school buildings, equipments, infrastructure and 

other facilities. 

{================} 
aiou solved assignments code 8605

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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