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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8604 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8604 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8604 Research Methods in Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Research Methods in Education (8604) Level: B.Ed 1.5 Years Semester: Autumn 2018

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1. Discuss in detail the validity and reliability of tools for qualitative research.

 Answer: There has been considerable debate among qualitative researchers for decades, but a common and unified approach to describing the criteria for quality has not emerged clearly. It may be that there is no one method that can be identified, as the nature of qualitative research makes it difficult to reach agreement on criteria for assessing its quality. Currently, there are six broad positions, which can be adopted with respect to the criteria for trustworthiness. A researcher will generally select from one or more of these positions in making the claim of trustworthiness. Position 1 — using the criteria of quantitative research. This position argues that the process of quantitative reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for ensuring rigour in qualitative research. It emphasizes procedural precision and the use of ‘verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself’ (Morse et al. 2002 p 1). To a certain extent, meta-synthesis suits this position. Position 2 — parallel methodological criteria. This position argues that qualitative research requires a different set of criteria for evaluating trustworthiness. Commonly cited are those of Guba and Lincoln (1989) who developed criteria which have a parallel relationship to those used in quantitative research. These are: ‘credibility with internal validity’, ‘audit ability (dependability) with reliability’, ‘fittingness (transferability) with external validity’ and ‘conformability with objectivity’. Position 3 — multiple criteria. This position argues one list of criteria per qualitative research approach. For example, it has been proposed that the trustworthiness of an ethnographic report can be evaluated by the application of three criteria: veracity, objectivity and Develop an interview for curriculum developers to explore the “existing curriculum of secondary level in public school as tool for socio-economic development”.perspicacity (Stewart 1998). In grounded theory various forms have been suggested. McCann and Clark (2003) highlight the differences between the criteria proposed by Glaser of ‘fit’, ‘work’, ‘relevance’ and ‘modifiability’. Position 5 — each study develops suitable, justifiable criteria. Growing in popularity is the flexibility for researchers to develop their own list of criteria for trustworthiness of a study. The choice is justified because of the qualitative research approach used and also on other grounds, such as philosophical, ethical and political reasons. Some common criteria selected are described below.

•An audit (decision trail), where care is taken to record the decisions made, particularlyregarding design planning, sampling, data collection methods and analysis decisions. Sandelowski (1986) described this as a ‘decision trail’ which, it is claimed, provides evidence of the trustworthiness of the study for the reader. This represents a fundamental shift in responsibility for evaluating trustworthiness from the researcher to the reader (Rolfe 2006).

•Member (participant) checking, where researchers seek to claim trustworthiness bychecking the descriptions, categories, concepts or theory produced with the participants for approval and acceptance. This can be problematical as participants rarely think abstractly and conceptually about aspects of their life reported to or observed by researchers.

•Peer analysis checking, where peers check either the acceptability of data analysis or of theresearch process overall. This is sought during the life of the study (e.g. using a supposedly independent peer-coder, or using a panel of ‘expert’ peers to evaluate emerging interpretations or application of the research approach). Position 4 — fresh and universal criteria. There are unique ‘general’ criteria for evaluating the rigour of qualitative research (all approaches). These criteria are yet to be identified and agreed on, although there have been numerous suggestions as to what the criteria should be. For instance, Morse and Richards (2002) suggest generic criteria grouped under the headings of: ‘asking the right question’, ‘ensuring an appropriate design’, ‘making trustworthy data’, ‘verification or completion’ and ‘solid theory- building’, if that is an aim.

Definition of Interview The interview is a data collection method wherein a direct, in-depth conversation between interviewer and respondent takes place. It is carried out with a purpose like a survey, research, and the like, where both the two parties participate in the one to one interaction. Under this method, oral-verbal stimuli are presented and replied by way of oral-verbal responses. It is considered as one of the best methods for collecting data because it allows two way exchange of information, the interviewer gets to know about the respondent, and the respondent learns about the interviewer. There are two types of interview:

Personal Interview: A type of interview, wherein there is a face to face question-answer session between the interviewer and interviewee, is conducted.

Telephonic Interview: This method involves contacting the interviewee and askingquestions to them on the telephone itself. Key Differences between Questionnaire and Interview The difference between questionnaire and interview can be drawn clearly on the following grounds: 1.A form consisting of a series of written or printed multiple choice questions, to bemarked by the informants, is called questionnaire. A formal conversation between the Position 6 — no criteria is necessary. There is also a post-modern position that rejects the need for criteria to be selected or stated by a researcher in regard to trustworthiness of a qualitative research study or its product. Part of the rationale for this position is that the findings in qualitative research are ‘both a process and a product in which the researcher is deeply and unavoidably implicated’ (Sandelowski & Barroso 2002). The findings are therefore a subjective construction in which the knowledge, beliefs and activities of the researcher’s play a significant role. The findings are ‘unique social interactions’ and, for this reason, qualitative research can never be truly ‘generalisable’. The research and its reported product are accepted or rejected by the reader of the report or user of the product according to their own subjective criteria. interviewer and respondent wherein the two participates in the question-answer session is called interview

2.The questionnaire method of collecting data involves emailing questionnaire torespondents in a written format. On the contrary, interview method is one wherein theinterviewer communicates to the respondent orally. 3.The questionnaire is objective while the nature of the interview is subjective. 4.As question are written in a proper manner in a questionnaire, the order cannot bechanged. Unlike interview, wherein the order of questions can be changed as per needsand preferences. 5.The collection of data through questionnaire is relatively cheap and economical, asmoney is spent only on the preparation and mailing of the questionnaire to therespondent. In contrast, an interview is a little expensive method, because, to providedata either the respondents have to come to the interviewer or the interviewer has tovisit the respondents individually. 6.Questionnaire method is more time consuming than an interview, as in an interview, theresponses are spontaneous, while the informant takes his own time to reply, in the caseof the questionnaire. 7.In questionnaire method, a single questionnaire is mailed to many respondents.However, only one person at a time can be interviewed in a case interview. 8.The probability of non-responses is very high in case of the questionnaire, as manypeople avoid answering it and so they return the questionnaire with providing theirresponses. On the other hand, the chances of non-responses are almost nil in case of aninterview, because of direct interaction between interviewer and respondent. In an interview, open-ended questions are asked by the interviewer to the respondent. As against this, closed-ended questions are asked through a questionnaire. The questionnaire provides fact-based information to the respondents. Conversely, analytical information can be gathered through interviews. 9.In the questionnaire, it is not known, as to who replies it, which is not in the case of aninterview. Conclusion

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Q.2. Differentiate between sample and sampling. Discuss the importance of probable and non-probable sampling techniques in qualitative and quantitative research?

Answer: Sample variance refers to variation of observations (the data points) in a single sample. Sampling variance refers to variation of a particular statistic (e.g. the mean) calculated in sample, if to repeat the study (sample-creation/data-collection/statistic-calculation) many times. Due to central limit theorem, though, for some statistics you don’t have to repeat the study many times in reality, but can deduce sampling variance from a single sample if the sample is representative (this is asymptotic approach). Or you could simulate repetition of the study by a single sample (this is bootstrapping approach). An additional note on “sample variance”. Two may be mixed in one term:

•Estimate of population variance based on this sample. This is what we usually use, ithas denominator (degrees of freedom) n-1.

•Variance of this sample. It has denominator n. Definition of Probability Sampling

in statistics, probability sampling refers to the sampling method in which all the members of the population has a pre-specified and an equal chance to be a part of the sample. This technique is based on the randomization principle, wherein the procedure is so designed, So, whatever method you use for your research project, to collect information, it must fulfil your requirements. As both the methods have their pros and cons, it cannot be said which method is best, i.e. while questionnaire method takes more time, interview method requires high investment. So, you can choose any of the two, considering your needs and expectations from the data collected. Which guarantees that each and every individual of the population has an equal selection opportunity. This helps to reduce the possibility of bias. Statistical inferences can be made by the researchers using this technique, i.e. the result obtained can be generalised from the surveyed sample to the target population. The methods of probability sampling, are provided below:

•Simple Random Sampling

•Stratified Sampling

•Cluster Sampling

•Systematic Sampling Definition of Non-Probability Sampling When in a sampling method, all the individuals of the universe are not given an equal opportunity of becoming a part of the sample, the method is said to be Non-probability sampling. Under this technique as such, there is no probability attached to the unit of the population and the selection relies on the subjective judgment of the researcher. Therefore, the conclusions drawn by the sampler cannot be inferred from the sample to the whole population. The methods of non-probability sampling are listed below:

•Convenience Sampling

•Quota Sampling

•Judgment or Purposive Sampling

•Snowball Sampling Key Differences between Probability and Non-Probability Sampling The significant differences between probability and non-probability sampling 1.The sampling technique, in which the subjects of the population get an equalopportunity to be selected as a representative sample, is known as probabilitysampling. A sampling method in which it is not known that which individual from thepopulation will be chosen as a sample, is called nonprobability sampling. 2.The basis of probability sampling is randomization or chance, so it is also known asRandom sampling. On the contrary, in non-probability sampling randomizationtechnique is not applied for selecting a sample. Hence it is considered as Non-random sampling. 3.Probability sampling is used when the research is conclusive in nature. On the otherhand, when the research is exploratory, nonprobability sampling should be used. 4.The results generated by probability sampling, are free from bias while the results ofnon- probability sampling are more or less biased. 5.As the subjects are selected randomly by the researcher in probability sampling, sothe extent to which it represents the whole population is higher as compared to thenonprobability sampling. That is why extrapolation of results to the entire populationis possible in the probability sampling but not in non-probability sampling. 6.Probability sampling test hypothesis but nonprobability sampling generates it.

Conclusion While probability sampling is based on the principle of randomization where every entity gets a fair chance to be a part of the sample, non-probability sampling relies on the assumption that the characteristics are evenly distributed within the population, which make the sampler believe that any sample so selected would represent the whole population and the results drawn would be accurate. In probability sampling, the sampler chooses the representative to be part of the sample randomly, whereas, in non-probability sampling, the subject is chosen arbitrarily, to belong to the sample by the researcher. The chances of selection in probability sampling, are fixed and known. As opposed to non-probability sampling, the selection probability is zero, i.e. it is neither specified not known.

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Q.3. Develop a research proposal on following topic “Comparison of 18th grade students achievements in mathematics at elementary level in Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

Answer: Education is a basic need of every society. A better education system can enhance the The purpose of higher education is not simply to impart knowledge in certain branches of knowledge; it has deeper meaning and objectives. The purpose may be multidimensional and may be termed as personal, social, economical, and cultural (Moore & Farris, 1991). Education and particularly higher education cannot be divorced from its milieu and social context. Religious, moral, historical, and cultural ethos permeates through the fabric of the educational system of a country (Best, 1994). Allen (1988) found “In the time of rapid social, scientif ic, and technological improveme nt of a country. The human resource development of a country depends upon the quality of education imparted in country (Mohanthy, 2000). Higher education caters to the education in the colleges and universities. Allen (1988) observed “It is academically consider suitable to present distinctive feature of two stages for the purpose of clarity of concepts and avoiding duplication” Higher education is admittedly a separate stage quite distinct from primary, secondary, elementary, and higher secondary stage. (Best, 1994) Higher education is recognized today as a capital investment and is of paramount importance for economic and social development of the country (Barnet, 1990). Institutions of higher education have the primary responsibility for equipping individuals with advanced knowledge and skills required for positions of responsibility in government, business, and other professions (Mughal & Manzoor, 1999). Quality higher education is a source of great potential for the socio economic and cultural development of the country. Stone, Horejs, & Lomas (1997) found “The nation can be transformed into a developed nation within the life time of a single generation.” Factors such as the distinctive nature of higher education institutions, international mobility of students, and teachers accessibility of computer based learning pursuit of research and scholarship, globalization of economy, and emerging challenges of the 21st century have a direct impact on the future development of higher education. (Mughal & Manzoor, 1999). 9

international, political, and economical changes, the universities in South Asia and in developing countries are being transformed. Public expectations about access to higher education direct concern about role that universities can play in innovation and economic development” The applications of principles of market economies to the university systems of all countries have created a new context for higher education (Rao, 2003). Challenges in Higher Education South Asian countries are facing a critical period in their history, and on that account, everybody concerned with education has a responsibility for knowing what he is trying to do in bring up the next generation and why he is trying to do it (Mohanthy, 2000). Higher education is faced with very severe challenges in the shape of various economic, social, political, and moral changes, and its future depends on the response made by its people to these challenges (Rao, 2003). Hayes (1987) found “The problems plaguing the educational system of Pakistan and South Asian countries are multidimensional like population explosion, lack of resources, non participation of the private sector, scarcity of qualified man power, inconsistency in the policies of various regimes, political instability, inefficient educational management system, wastage of resources, and poor implementation of policies and programme etc.” The major challenges in higher education include: he people in Rawalpindi and Islamabad are neither deficient in talent nor in moral qualities in comparison to any other nation of the world, but about two centuries of foreign rule and blind imitation of western attitudes and methods, unsuited to the genius and spiritual conditions of its people, have spoiled some of the virtues and have brought a bad name to their intellectual capacities (Siddiq, 1978). Hassan (1990) observed “Pakistan is unfortunately really backward in education as in certain other spheres of intellectual activities but luckily people are not inherently incompetent or morally incurable.” It is however necessary that the diagnosis about maladies should be correct and the measures for curing these maladies should be appropriate in the light of that diagnosis (Abdullah, 1992).

Quantity Equity The major break through was evident in the democratic countries of the world where franchise was given to all adults irrespective of caste, creed, sex, and economic or social status (Barnet, 1990). Qureshi (1997) stated “The ideal of equity was severely constrained by exiting in qualities in the distribution of property and productive resources, low level of education and awareness among the people, and strong influences exercised by individual and group to further their own sectional interest rather than total social interest.” “The philosophy of social justice is very much akin to the principle of equity. It is a welcome development over the concept of inherent inequality which was sought to be explained by biological differences among individuals” (Bayli, 1987). 1.The philosophy of equality of men being applied to political process, distribution ofproperty, and productive resources is viewed as the source of inequities in society. This approach helped the development of capabilities among men through equal distribution of higher educational opportunities both in quality and quantity. Despite the constraints of resources, the quantitative expansion has been highly spectacular

in the post independence period. The institutions have not only been multiplied, the student enrollments at colleges and universities have registered exceptionally high rate of growth (Aeth, 1975). “The numbers of new entrants is now more than the total number of students in higher education prior to independence” (Iqbal, 1981). “The demand of higher education has thus increased by leaps and bonds. In spite of quality control as well as consolidation, it will continue to grow constantly for a long time to come” (Adeeb, 1996). “The quantitative expansion is evident due to increasing aspiration of the people and social, economical, and political forces influencing the development of higher education. In the post independence period, the role of higher education has been very well recognized in the development of science and technology, as well as various arenas of human advancement” (Mohanthy, 2000). 2.There is the philosophy of inequality as a natural hereditary, biological phenomena,without any scientific rational evidence. This concept is rooted in sectional interest rather than in societal interest. Quality The scope of the idea of quality is severely limited by two widely prevailing views. 1.Quality is a selective phenomenon and only few can attain it. 2.Quality for quality sake or with regards to specific area rather than quality as mutuallyexclusive and emphasize selectively at the expense of equity. Attempts to realize specific objectives of quality tend to narrow down the scope and discourage efforts to attain quality in various walks of life. Allen (1988) determined that “Various programs have been developed and are being implemented for the last two decades for improving the quality of teachers and their proficiency in discharging their duties and responsibilities.” “The higher education commission has been providing financial assistance for these programs of faculty improvement which enable teachers to keep abreast with the latest development in their subject and conduct research studies as well as interact with experts in their own subject’s area and related field” (Hassan, 1990). “These programs aim at improving the professional competence of teachers so that they can impart high quality instructions and contribute significantly to raising the standard of higher education in developing countries” (Quddus, 1990). The growing numbers of colleges and universities have provided access to higher education to the people in various parts and sections of developing countries in South Asia. “But the enrollments of students especially female students is relatively very small” (Varghese, 1980). Development of society not only depends upon quantity of goods and services produced, but also on their quality. “It again leads to quality of life of the people and the quality of the society in general” (Hayes, 1987). It is rightly said that the philosophical basis of quality is the innate characteristics of a human being to attain a higher standard and the need of excellence for attaining a higher stage in the development (Quddus, 1990). Suggestions to meet the Challenges 1.Stress is laid on the need for improving the quality of education at every stage so that aproper foundation can be laid for advanced study in science, engineering, agriculture, and those other areas which are most closely allied to the national economic development and reconstruction of the nation as a whole.

2.multidimensional, flexible, and dynamic education system, which serves people according to their ability and aptitude and is responsive to their economic, social political and cultural needs. 3.The new system of higher education should be flexible enough to offer a variety ofcourses, formal and non formal, full time and part time, correspondence and media based to fit every individual as well as the economic needs of the country 4.Economic conditions of the people cannot be ignored in all matters in which thequestion of equal opportunities to all is involved. In an atmosphere of economic depression as it is today in Pakistan how could one expect from our youth to be able to develop their potential qualities in desired way. 5.The test of qualities must be made reliable upon examination and more effective; theteaching method must be made more rational and natural; and last of all, the teachers must be kept fully satisfied. It is well known, that a foreign medium of instruction and examination is seriously hampering the progress of education. Pakistan will have to determine its policy with regards to this question also. 6.There is great question of availability of qualified university teachers, suitably equippedlibraries, and fully developed plants and laboratories. It is a matter of common knowledge that our resources in all these areas are very merger. Any unnecessary addition to the To begin from the top without reforming the lower stages is against the law of nature; it is against the law of evolutionary progress. Before any restrictions are imposed on the higher education, the earlier stages should be improved so as to produce better students for the higher stage. A critical point to be considered by educational planner is the adaptation of a number of the universities at present would therefore mean nothing, but more ill-fed and ill-equipped institutions with no specially or individuality of purpose.

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Q.4. Write the characteristics of a research report. What is a reference in research report? Read APA Manual 6th edition and enlist the rules of references for research report.

Characteristic # 1. Simplicity: The language shall be as simple as possible so that a report is easily understandable. Jargons and technical words should be avoided. Even in a technical report there shall be restricted use of technical terms if it has to be presented to laymen. Characteristic # 2. Clarity: The language shall be lucid and straight, clearly expressing what is intended to be expressed. For that the report has to be written in correct form and following correct steps. Characteristic # 3. Brevity: A report shall not be unnecessarily long so that the patience of the reader is not lost and there is no confusion of ideas. But, at the same time, a report must be complete. A report is not an essay. Characteristic # 4. Positivity: As far as possible positive statements should be made instead of negative ones. For example, it is better to say what should be done and not what should not be done. Characteristic # 5. Punctuation: Higher education institutions must be responsive to the challenges of the rapidly changing and challenging new world: expectation of society and growing demands of the rising

student population. This policy therefore looks forward to a new beginning in higher education in South Asian developing countries.

Punctuations have to be carefully and correctly used otherwise the meaning of sentences may be misunderstood or misrepresented. Characteristic # 6. Approach: Characteristic # 7. Readability: Characteristic # 8. Accuracy: A report shall be accurate when facts are stated in it. It shall not be biased with personal feelings of the writer. Characteristic # 9. Logical Sequence: The points in a report shall be arranged with a logical sequence, step by step and not in a haphazard manner. A planning is necessary before a report is prepared. Characteristic # 10. Proper Form: A report must be in the proper form. Sometimes there are statutory forms to follow. Characteristic # 11. Presentation: A report needs an attractive presentation. It depends on the quality of typing or printing as well as quality of paper used. Big companies make very attractive and colourful Annual Reports. APA Manual 6th edition and enlist the rules of references for research report: There are two types of approaches: (a) Person—When a report is written based on personal enquiry or observations, the approach shall be personal and the sentences shall be in the first person and in direct speech, (b) Impersonal—When a report is prepared as a source of information and when it is merely factual (e.g. a report on a meeting), the approach shall be impersonal and the sentences shall be in the third person and in indirect speech. The keynote of a report is readability. The style of presentation and the diction (use of words) shall be such that the readers find it attractive and he is compelled to read the report from the beginning to the end.’ Then only a report serves its purpose. A report on the same subject matter can be written differently for different classes of readers.

•Your references should begin on a new page. Title the new page “References” andcenter the title text at the top of the page.

•All entries should be in alphabetical order.

•The first line of a reference should be flush with the left margin. Each additional lineshould be indented (usually accomplished by using the TAB key.)

The reference section should be double-spaced.

Titles of books, journals, magazines, and newspapers should appear in italics.

•The exact format of each individual reference may vary somewhat depending onwhether you are referencing an author or authors, a book or journal article, oran electronic source. It pays to spend some time looking at the specific requirementsfor each type of reference before formatting your source list. A Few More Helpful Resources If you are struggling with APA format or are looking for a good way to collect and organize your references as you work on your research, consider using a free APA citation machine. These online tools can help generate an APA style referenced, but always remember to double-check each one for accuracy.

Purchasing your own copy of the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is a great way to learn more about APA format and have a handy resource to check your own work against. Looking at examples of APA format can also be very helpful. While APA format may seem complex, it will become easier once you familiarize yourself with the rules and format. The overall format may be similar for many papers, but your While earlier versions of APA format required only one space after each sentence, the new sixth edition of the style manual now recommends two spaces. All sources cited should appear both in-text and on the reference page. Any reference that appears in the text of your report or article must be cited on the reference page, and any item appearing on your reference page must be also included somewhere in the body of your text. instructor might have specific requirements that vary depending on whether you are writing an essay or a research paper. In addition to your reference page, your instructor may also require you to maintain and turn in an APA format bibliography.

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Q.5. Discuss questionnaires as a research tool covering the following concept. Its …any written instruments that present respondents with a series of questions or statements towhich they are to react either by writing out their answers or selecting from among existing answers. (Brown 6) The questionnaire may be self administered, posted or presented in an interview format. A questionnaire may include check lists, attitude scales, projective techniques, rating scales and a variety of other research methods. As an important research instrument and a tool for data collection, a questionnaire has its main function as measurement (Oppenheim 100). It is the main data collection method in surveys and yield to quantitative data. Also, due to provision for open endedness, the instrument may be used to generate qualitative and exploratory data (Dornyei 101) Measurement specification will depend on several factors. The nature of the population to be surveyed is the major concern. The kind of survey may be factual or analytical. If factual, then complications are less. If analytical, the survey may be hugely value laden as to reduce accuracy. However, it is possible to objectify the subjectivity by designing more complex research questions. The kind of respondents would also play a big role in determining how the survey will be conducted. For instance, there may be slight differences on how to conduct a survey with chief executives of flourishing multinational corporations, as opposed construction different forms and administration of questionnaires. Answer: A questionnaire is a set of systematically structured questions used by a researcher to get needed information from respondents. Questionnaires have been termed differently, including surveys, schedules, indexes/indicators, profiles, studies, opinionnaires, batteries, tests, checklists, scales, inventories, forms, inter alia. They are to the aged in a remote set up. Survey into phenomena that is subject to seasonal fluctuation would also vary with one that does not fluctuate. Behavioural questions: deals with both past and present deeds of the respondent; Attitudinal questions: comprises of world views. It covers people’s opinions, attitudes, beliefs and values. Elements of a Standard questionnaire

1.Title: this identifies the domain of the investigation. The respondent is initially oriented to the investigation. It should be captivating enough to attract attention and enthusiasm. 2.General introduction: this has a description of the purpose of study as well as theorganisation(s) involved. The respondent is assured of anonymity/confidentiality ofinformation volunteered, making clear that there are no wrong or right answers.Honest answers are also requested. 3.Specific instructions: this offers succinct demonstration on how to carry on with the business of responding to the questionnaire. 4.Questionnaire items: is the main part of the questionnaire schedule, to be clearly separated from the aforementioned parts. Value laden surveys need complex questions so as to reduce biasness. Such deal with subjects like social representation, opinion, attitudes, stereotypes, awareness, brand images, precepts and values. Due to their multifaceted nature, they warrant questions that are equally multifaceted. Responses from such subjects are often influenced by the environment, and hence tentative. Findings are difficult to validate since they reflect the state of the mind at a given time in a specific environment. Three types of data about a respondent may be accessed by use of questionnaire instrument. Factual questions: These include demographic information, socio-economic status, education, etc. 5.Additional information: includes the full contact information of the researcher/administrator. May include a promise that a copy of the summary of the final reportwould be send to the respondent on request. 6.”Thank you” may end the questionnaire. 1.MAIN METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Mail questionnaires and standardized interviews A mail questionnaire is one that has been sent to a respondent by a researcher, and the respondent would answer at his own time, basing on his own understanding. It is not as controlled as with the case of a standardized interview. Mail questionnaires however have their own advantages. 1.The researcher incurs low cost of collecting data. Just designing a questionnaire andsending it to a respondent; 2.Analysing and processing the data is less expensive in terms of both time andmaterial resources; 3.There is no likelihood of interviewer bias as the interviewee would be interpreting thequestions his own way; 4.The questionnaire can be handled by a geographically distant correspondent. A number of disadvantages abound. 1.There is no follow-up mechanism; Before coming up with a questionnaire, a researcher has to come up with a precise operational statement on the variables. The instruments to be used have to be well identified and variables well defined. Several considerations have to be made before designing the questions. These considerations are discussed below. The case here is the consideration of a questionnaire. This includes a standardized formal interview, the postal, self-administered questionnaire and the group administered

questionnaire. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses, and this should help in coming up with an appropriate one to suit a specific survey need. 2.No control n how questions are being answered. Questions may be passed on toanother person; 3.Response rate is low; 4.Some questions may be left unanswered; 5.Not suitable for a low literacy society, the old, of small children; 6.Not suitable for the visually impaired persons; 7.No data (ratings or assessments) based on observation. Self-administered questionnaires Self administered questionnaires are presented to respondents, but the researcher is available to make little clarifications. He does not, however, interpret the questions for the respondents as this may increase interviewer bias. There is some degree of personal contact as the two parties would be interacting. The advantage with this is that response rate is high and clarification are made where need arises. Group-administered questionnaires This is presented to respondents in a group. The group may be one of students or labourers, where they are supposed to respond as a group. These questionnaires will be administered by the researcher, and may be in form of a film being shown, and then the respondents are asked questions to respond. Is such cases, the size and literacy of the group is a vital consideration. Each respondent may be required to respond, and in case of a film, it may only make the responses flow. The respondents will be answering by following a certain pattern as the film progresses. Questions may be read out aloud as respondents answer on their own. As opposed to mail questionnaires, interview schedules have a higher response rate and provide an opportunity for both the interviewer and the interviewee clarifying their points. Follow-ups are possible as ratings and assessments can be taken from observation. There may be no problem with disabled or less literate respondents. The major disadvantage is the huge time and material resources need for the purpose.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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