AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8601 General Method Of Teaching 2019. Submit to allama iqbal open university tutors address
Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601) Level: B.Ed (1 1⁄2 & 21⁄2 Years) Semester: Autumn 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 A teacher’s personality traits are important to create and maintain a class room learning environment why?
Knowledge and skills are taught and learned at school. School is a little community in itself where
teachers and students interact with each other. During this interaction teachers influence their learner’s behavior and learners influence their teacher’s behavior. The nature of this interaction is an important factor in determining the learner’s perceptions of school and his/her attitudes toward school-related persons and activities. This factor involves the relationship between the personality of the teacher and that of the learner.
A teacher’s personality traits are important as Callahan, (1966) says that the teacher whose personality
helps create and maintain a classroom or learning environment in which students feel comfortable and in
which they are motivated to learn is said to have a desirable teaching personality.
Research says that teachers are cognitively oriented toward pupils while pupils are affectively oriented
toward teachers. Teacher’s personality is, therefore, directly and indirectly related to learning and teaching
in the affective domain as well as to that in cognitive and psychomotor domains, (LEW, 1977). Teachers have rights and responsibilities to develop a climate in the classroom which supports
effective learning. Aristotle quoted in Stephen Covey, “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective
People”, says we are what we repeatedly do.
Climate in their classroom is based on the teachers’ personality and style of teaching, the tone of their
voice, and the little things they continually say and do on a daily basis. In the classroom, the learners’
behavior could be determined from the way their teachers behave with them.
Best, (1991, p. 275) says the teaching is “primarily concerned with developing qualities such as curiosity,
originality, initiative, cooperation, perseverance, open-mindedness, self-criticism, responsibility, self
confidence and independence”.
Marchbanks, (2000) in a study, examined the personalities of sixty students at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill through a 110-question questionnaire. The traits of passion,
patience, cooperation, authoritativeness, and creativity were studied in particular because these
are the essential personality traits of an effective elementary school teacher. He says teachers in
the twenty- first century are responsible for the overall well-being of their students, as well as
educating, disciplining, and stimulating their developing minds. Because teachers have these
additional duties, many more requirements are needed to be an effective teacher. Let us read the personality traits, necessary to be able to accomplish all of the above stated tasks and duties.
Elementary school teachers need the following characteristics:
strong interpersonal and communication skills·
a genuine interest in children and respect for their individuality·
the ability to sense children’s individual needs·
the ability to be creative, imaginative, patient, energetic, organized and resourceful·
the ability to establish rapport children· and parents
strong leadership and teamwork skills and a good sense of humour·
a high level of dedication to work which often impacts personal lifestyle choices·
a clear, pleasant speaking voice and the ability to convey confidence·
positive confli·ct resolution skills and the ability to handle stress well.
They can enjoy finding different ways to solve problems and present information, and organizing and
coordinating the work of others.
One must be passionate, patient, cooperative, authoritative, and creative in order to be an effective
teacher beside the basic and extended knowledge of the subject he/she is teaching. A true passion for
both the profession and the children is indispensable; a teacher must look forward to his/her job every
single day, having the desire to instill in the students all the knowledge and skills needed to lead a happy,
healthy life in today’s world. Patience is needed to maintain that passion and desire for teaching. In order
to interact with the children and other teachers most effectively, an overall cooperative personality is
needed. A degree of authoritativeness is necessary to preserve order and discipline in the classroom.
Finally, teachers have to be creative in their approaches to instruction to earn the most successful results
in educating their students (Marchbanks, 2000).
Thompson, Greer, and Greer (n.d) says that “every teacher should possess twelve characteristics such as
displaying fairness, having a positive outlook, being prepared, using a personal touch, possessing a
sense of humor, possessing creativity, admitting mistakes, being forgiving, respecting students,
maintaining high expectations, showing compassion, and developing a sense of belonging for students”.
Let us read these characteristics as given bellow:
Fairness is one of the characteristics of the students’ favorite teachers. All humans possess an inbuilt
sense of fair play. Whenever a person violates, the other person in this situation is prone to react
Any impression of favoritism, or lack of fairness, leaves scars on the life of persons that lasts forever. The
students report in great detail, the unfair actions of their teachers when they had negative experience of
competition between classmates, even after many years have passed.
2) Positive Attitude
Another characteristic that students’ like most is the positive attitude and approach of their teachers they use into the classroom. Scholars suggest that effective teachers are those who use meaningful verbal
praise to get and keep students actively participating in the learning process. The effective teachers are
generally positive minded individuals who believe in the success of their students as well as their own
ability to help students achievements.
If the teachers have positive attitude they “catch students doing things right” rather than “catching them
doing something wrong.” The students often recall praise and recognition that was given by their teachers
at schools, and they point to the confidence and direction that often resulted in their lives.
Competence and knowledge of the content area being taught is something that our college students have
always mentioned about their favorite teachers. In a research the students pointed out that in classrooms
where teachers were well prepared, behavior problems were less prevalent. The well-prepared teacher is
more likely to be able to take time during lessons to notice and attend to behavioral matters, and is less
likely to miss the beginnings of potentially disruptive activity. If, on the other hand, teachers have not
spent sufficient time in planning and preparation, they tend to be so focused on what they are doing that
they miss the early signs of misbehavior. This ultimately results in frequent disruption, waste of valuable
instructional time, and student’s frustration.
4) Personal Touch
Teachers who are connected personally with their students; call them by name, smile often, ask about
students’ feelings and opinions, and accept students for who they are. As well as the teachers who tell
stories of their own lives events which relate to subject matter currently being taught, motivate student’s
interest and endorse bonding with the students. Teachers who show interest in their students have
5) Sense of Humor
If a teacher has the ability to break the ice in difficult situations with the use of humor, this is an extremely
valuable asset for teaching. According to McDermott & Rothenberg (2000) students enjoy teachers with a
sense of humor and remember those teachers who made learning a fun. Good teachers enjoy a laugh
with the class occasionally.
Students always like the unusual things that their teachers do in creative ways. Construction of models or
things from wastage like plastic bottles provides a field xxxvi
into which children could go and work by themselves quietly on academics activities like puzzles and
Fun activities arranged by teachers into the classroom encourage the students towards learning.
Teachers can use unique ways of motivating their class. Teacher can set a reward for the class on
reaching a particular academic goal. For example a teacher can give extra marks of work done by the
students in a creative way.
7) Willingness to Admit Mistakes
Like everybody, teachers may make mistakes. Sometimes students may know when their teachers make
mistakes. Unfortunately, some teachers try to let the mistakes go unnoticed or cover over them quickly.
Teachers who recognize their mistakes in a very humble and pleasant way and apologize them. This act
of teacher provides an excellent model for the students, and they may be remembered as a good teacher.
The effective teachers reflect a willingness to forgive students for misbehavior. For example if a student
repeatedly asks irrelevant questions and detracts others from the lesson. The teacher can simply say the
question is irrelevant and direct the student for further study.
The teachers desire be respected by their students. The teachers who give respect to their students are
always respected by them. Effective teachers can train their students be respectful by many ways such
as, he can keep individual grades on papers confidentially, or can speak to students privately after
misbehavior not in front of others. Good teachers show sensitivity for feelings and consistently avoid
situations that unnecessarily make students uncomfortable.
10) High expectations
Teachers with positive attitudes also possess high expectations for success. Teachers’ expectation levels
affect the ways in which teachers teach and interact with students. Generally, students either rise to their
teachers’ expectations or do not perform well when expectations are low or non-existent. The best
teachers have the highest standards. They consistently challenge their students to do their best.
Hopefully, school is a place where children can learn and be nurtured in an emotionally safe environment.
Sometimes in youngsters classrooms there may happens a significant amount of cruelty and hurt feelings.
In these situations a caring teacher tries to reduce the impact of hurt feelings on learning xxxvii
12) Sense of Belonging
Teachers developed a sense of family in their classrooms. A variety of strategies, such as random act of
kindness awards, class picture albums, and cooperative class goals build a sense of unity and belongings
and maintain an emotionally safe classroom. Good teachers also took strong measures to prevent mean
and hurtful behavior like teasing and bullying. Effective teachers know well that when children feel
emotionally and physically safe, they learn far better.
The teacher quality is the most important factor in determining school quality. But what factors determine
the teacher quality? There are fifteen key characteristics that the administrators look for in their teachers,
given in an article from Teaching for Excellence. Let us read the teacher’s characteristics from the
administrator’s point of view:
· Exhibit enthusiasm: The enthusiastic teacher can make learning fun for the students. if the teacher
has willingness to teach he can make a difference in the motivation of students. This quality also helps in
building a sense of teamwork even beyond the classroom.
· Know your content: Teachers must keep up with their field of expertise. The teacher must have
mastery of the knowledge and new developments in the field. For example if you teach kindergarten,
subscribe to an early childhood journal. If you teach chemistry, attend the seminar at the local college.
Only the knowledge of changing trends can make the teachers expertise of the field.
· Be organized: In order to be organized, the teacher must learn how to handle the routine for example
collecting student work, handing out materials, posting assignments, what to do when finished with an
assignment, communicating class news, etc. Organized planning of teaching lessons spare teacher’s time
and let him/her spend more time on student’ learning. Time with students. Established routines keep the
class on track and give you more time for teaching and engaging students.
· Teach actively: Hard working teachers are always appreciated. Good teachers are actively involved in
teaching. They continuously move around, and notice the students’ behaviour and their learning activity.
· Show a good attitude: A philosopher, Voltaire, said, “the most courageous decision one makes each
day is the decision to be in a good mood”. The students need models with positive attitudes. Notice what
you say to others and your tone of voice. The teacher must show care, concern, and respect.
· Establish successful classroom management: Teacher must establish the classroom management
system from the first day of class. Because the discipline and management structure are essential for
students to be on work. Teachers enforce management rules for an orderly class environment by using
their qualities of consistent and fair. The inconsistent rules should not be enforced.
· Pace instruction: learning is directly related to the opportunity to learn. Students learn the most by
doing, not by watching, not by standing in line, and not by listening. Teachers must plan an instructional
time line for courses to be taught.
· Maintain good people skills: On a primary report card, this trait is referred to as “works well with
others”. the teachers must have quality of work well with other people. the teacher’s behavior is judged by
others. Education is a people business. Good human relations skills are necessary for successful
· Communicative: Good teachers give information clearly. They are concise, demonstrate and explain in
detail. Teachers must give accurate directions when presenting new information. This process includes
explaining, outlining, summarizing, and reviewing. Too often children have no idea what they are learning
or why they are learning it.
· Question effectively: Questioning is a powerful teaching tool. The productive thinking occurs only
through questioning. Ask questions directed to the whole class as well as to individuals. The questions are
asked directly to the students by calling them by their names. Give time for students to think through their
responses. This wait time keeps everyone involved and gives students a chance to think.
· Differentiate instruction: One of the biggest challenges to teaching is working with students having a
great range of learning styles, personalities, and rates of learning. Teachers need to mix different teaching
techniques such as auditory, visual, and hands-on techniques. For specific lessons, make subgroup of the
students with similar weaknesses or skills.
· Build success into your class: Success rate is important. If a student continuously makes mistakes,
he/she can become frustrated which may result in behavior problems and loss of effort. Researches
indicate that eighty percent success rate is acceptable. When students are not successful, provide them,
i) further instruction and/or ii) simplify the task until they can master the task.
· Hold high expectations: High expectations need to be communicated for good performance.
Successful teachers don’t just accept participation but they require it. In fact, students respect teachers
who expect them to do their best.
· Create a pleasant atmosphere: Don’t allow your classroom to send out the aura of the haunted house
on the hill. Miserable, dull, and boring environment will decrease the percentage of learning. Cheerful and
happy classrooms will stimulate learning. Teachers have to create a pleasant situation where students
feel comfortable is a must for turning up the academic burner.
· Be flexible: teaching requires flexibility. Teachers must be able to adjust and their teaching according
to the available time and resources. During teaching it usually happens when teacher is sensitive enough
to student needs. He/she can vary from the routines and rules to help a child? As a recent saying goes,
“The flexible shall not be bent out of shape.”
Let us have a knowledge of the teachers’ professional qualities.
AIOU Solved Assignments General Methods Of Teaching Code 8601
Q No 2. Describe the process of course design planning?
A lesson plan is a road map of the instructions. It shows what will be taught and how it will be done
effectively during the class time. Teachers require a lesson plan to describe their course of instruction for
one class. The lesson plan is necessary to guide the instruction. A lesson plan is required to describe the
preferences of the, subject being covered, activities being held in the class, and to ensure the progress of
the students about the lesson being taught to them.
A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It contains the objectives of the
lesson formulated in behavioral terms (indicate the change in behavior). The best and appropriate
practices of teaching methodology and techniques to achieve the objectives are included in the lesson
plan. The content to be covered in a class is indicated in a lesson plan. The evaluation procedures are
also included in the lesson plan.
Lesson planning is beneficial for the teacher in many ways; such as:
It helps in ac·hieving goals and objectives, and same can be said on the part of the students.
It helps to get rid of problems or avoid them.·
It gives a reality check of everyday performance.·
It improves the habit and attitude of the students.·
It improves the· teaching skills.
It makes teaching ordinary and easy.·
It makes the teacher organized during teaching.·
Lesson planning determines when to include the interesting facts to attract the students·’ attention.
It enables the teacher to impart the thi·ngs the students can do at the best of their abilities.
1.1 Process of lesson planning
First of all, a teacher need to identify the learning objectives for the class, then design appropriate learning
activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. A successful lesson plan
addresses and integrates these three key components:
Objectives for student learning·
Te a ching/le a rning a ctivitie s·
Strategies to check student understanding·
Objectives specified for student learning help in determining the kinds of teaching and learning activities to
be used in class. These activities will define the achievements of learning objectives. The following figure
outline the planning of a lesson lxv
Figure No. 1: Planning of a lesson
A detailed planning of a lesson is emphasized through following stages:
Before teaching the teacher has to think about the lesson plan for a particular class. The Center of
Excellence in teaching (1999) recommends that the answers to the following questions may help the
teachers to proceed for effective planning:
– What are my objectives for this class? Objectives are the statements of what the teacher wants students to learn. The objectives are most likely
to be the same, or close to, the goals outlined during course planning. These are specific for a particular
– What are the objectives for this class?
Objectives are the specific goal statements written in behavioral terms. They state exactly what the
students should be able to do, in a class/ on a paper/ in an exam, etc. Objectives also specify the
conditions under which the students should learn the material.
– Why is this material important?
The teacher thinks about the importance of the skills or knowledge being taught to the students.
– What content will be covered in the particular class?
Statement of the rationale (logical reasoning) will help the teachers to decide
What content needs to be conveyed? Or
What will students need to know to meet the goals and objectives laid down in the course? Or
What content is most essential for them to understand?
– What will the students already know?
Each learner has different knowledge, the teacher must try to assess, what it is the students already
understand or are able to do. Having the knowledge of the students’ previous learning the teachers are in
a better position to decide where to begin the class and how to help students learn.
– What materials will be needed?
These are the equipment to accomplish the goals the teacher decides if he/she needs equipments,
overheads. Well planning in advance will allow the teachers to be prepared.
1.2 Designing a Lesson Plan
There are three main elements to a lesson plan that most of the teachers use. There is variation among
these components. All of these may not be used in every class, because some plans may spread out over
two or more classes. The elements are as following:
The introduction is a way to warm up students, to ease them into the class and to give them a context for
what they are about to learn. Any of the following will be helpfull to take a good start:
Provide an outline of what will be done in the class. Giving a structure helps the students to organize·
their thoughts and integrate new ideas.
Summarize the previous lesson if the ideas are similar to this class. Rec·all of previous knowledge helps the students to relate new ideas too.
Present an issue related to the topic and ask students to generate a list of questions. Connecting the·
lesson with these questions will give a picture of students’ experiences, they are familiar with and be able
to relates the topic to their lives. This shows that what you are teaching is relevant and draws their
Development is an important part as it describes about teaching, or “instructional methods” such as,
lectures, discussions, labs, collaborative learning, etc.
Try to engage students as much as possible in the learning process. Active learning is one of the ways·
to engage students. It not only retains students’ attention but also helps them to develop higher-level
Attempt to use a variety of· teaching methods in a class. Any single method may not work for all
students. A variety of methods keeps their attention and enhances learning.
Give students the chance to apply the taught skills by using the concepts. This will help them learn and·
give a chance to the teacher to assess informally. This assessment will provide clarification of learning
and need for further practice.
Planning of how to tie it all together for the students is also important. Tell them once again what they
would learn and why it is important to them. Consider the following activities in conclusion:
iv) Ask for questions:
The last few minutes of class are an excellent time to have students raise questions and explore the ideas
on their own.
v) Summarize the main points and explain how they relate to the course:
Students do not always see how everything fits together. The teacher makes the link between the
activities of one class to the larger course. In this way a teacher best helps the students develop a
vi) Next lesson:
Again, this shows relevance to the lessons linked to one another and helps students develop a conceptual
vii) Recapitalize or one-minute writing about the taught lesson:
With one or two minutes remaining in class, ask students to take out a sheet of paper and, without putting
their name on it, write what they believe was the main idea of the class and one question they have about
the lesson content.
1.3 The Post-Planning Stage
The teacher’s lesson planning process should take into consideration the need to assess whether
students have learned? How effective the lesson was? This assessment is not a complicated or difficult task. It is very simple and informal. For instance, using
part of the class to let students work on problems you have given them, or discuss issues and apply
concepts, can give you a good sense of what and how much they have learned. The one-minute writing
about the lesson or homework problems can be similarly helpful. Let us do an activity to ensure the learning of the read concept.
aiou assignments marks
AIOU Solved Assignments General Methods Of Teaching
Q No.3 What strategies a teacher canuse in the classroom to motivate students?
“The strategic teacher”. A strategic teacher is a model and mediator who demonstrates how to
think through a given task, how to apply the strategies, and “what to do when you don’t know
what to do”. Intercedes between the students and the learning environment to help students learn
and grow. Anticipates problems in learning and plans solutions to solve them. Guides and
coaches students through the initial phases of learning to independent learning.
Tkfinley (2011) has suggested different ways to create classroom discussion where students enjoy more
freedom and safety to express them. These are as followings: clvi
1. Classroom arrangement: Chairs and desks arranged in a circle is a preferred classroom arrangement
for a discussion group. Students do not feel comfort in sitting in rows because it covers too much space
and classroom looks confined. With a circle, the room will also feel less cluttered and students are likely to
have more conversations because they can see each other’s faces.
2. Respect of opinions: Teacher should establish rules before generating classroom discussion. An
environment where every one’s ideas are given respect is highly appreciated.
3. Tackle the opinions: Teacher should tackle the wrong answers very carefully. Students with wrong
answers should not be openly disagreed in front of the class. It may create unrest and fear among
students of giving wrong answers. If a student gives an incorrect answer or doesn’t understand the
material, he/she may be asked questions to get him to reconsider. These questions can also be directed
at the group. This process of asking questions will help him to rethink his position, help other students
who are confused and give their peers the opportunity to answer correctly.
4. Memorization of students’ names: It is important for a teacher to motivate students to learn each other’s
names. The first few days of class, if students have learnt their names and shared something interesting
among the class, it would give them an opportunity to develop some rapport for onward classroom
discussions. Teacher can play his role to help students to memorize their names by playing a game where
students try to match names with personal information. When students are given permission to speak, call
names. Identifying everyone by name will make the class more personable.
5. Grouping: grouping is another important thing to create a smooth discussion. Small groups are more
preferable. In these smaller groups, each student may be given a mini-assignment. Now everyone in the
small group has a responsibility and something to share. This encourages students who are shy or less comfortable with speaking in front of larger groups.
6. Students’ involvement: Keep students involved in the discussion. Some students are very open and feel
comfortable to share their opinions but some students are very shy to share their views with others.
Teacher should ask follow-up questions to encourage students to get involved.
7. Flexible schedule: flexible class schedule is also very important. Local, national, and international
events can grab students’ attention. Take some time to discuss these events. It will show to students that
they are being valued what they’re thinking about.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8601 Autumn 2018
Q No.4 What is meant by inductive reasoning? Provide examples regarding application of this
method in classroom setting?
In any class students come from different backgrounds and contexts, they have different capabilities and
different styles of learning. This situation demands different teaching techniques, strategies and
methodologies, which teacher adjusts according to the situation and requirement. There are variety of
techniques and methods which teachers use under the umbrella term inquiry approach. Inquiry is an
approach that roots in the Socrates logical thinking. Teachers often use logic to foster the thinking of their
students. During this process the teachers impose questions to their students after judging the level and
ability. If the student answers the question correctly the question of higher order is asked. On the other
hand if he/she could not the follow up questions are imposed to create the link between the known and
the unknown. There is variety of techniques but many teachers prefer inductive method according to
Prince and Felder (2006) in inductive teaching learning process the instruction begins with specifics for
example a set of observations or experimental data to interpret, a case study to analyze, or a complex
real-world problem to solve. As the students attempt to analyze the data or scenario or solve the problem,
they generate a need for facts, rules, procedures, and guiding principles, at which point they are either
presented with the needed information or helped to discover it for themselves.
The inductive reasoning method moves from specific to general. These examples will help us to
understand the concept of inductive reasoning. Consider this “Previous car accidents of this sort were
caused by brakes failure, and therefore, this accident was also caused by brakes failure.” Similarly
while doing exercises of mathematics children use induction method “as previous question was solved by
adding the numbers, therefore, this question may also be solved by same method”, and most of the time it
Some important aspects of the inductive teaching method are given as below.
1. It gives new knowledge as student are supposed to involve in the process of knowledge construction.
2. It is a method of discovery, where students discover the fact by their own involvement.
3. It is a method of teaching; teachers used this by starting from the known facts and using different inquiry techniques to discover the hidden ones.
4. Child acquires firsthand knowledge and information by actual observation.
5. It is a slow process, as all the steps are interlinked and the students cannot move forward without the mastery of the previous one.
6. It trains the mind and gives self confidence and initiative to the students after being exposed to
inductive method the students has more positive attitude towards taking initiatives in their studies.
7. It is full of activity, many activities lead towards the generation of new knowledge.
8. It is an upward process of thought and leads to principles, the students understand the philosophy
behind that principle.
Education is back bone in the development of a society and teacher has a pivotal role in the education
system. Effectiveness of a teacher is always gauged on the basis of teaching skills. Effective teaching
skills are a precondition for translating theory into practice. The criterion of effective teacher includes not
only the subject expertise, but ability to create an effective classroom environment in the classroom to
reshape and redesign the knowledge, stimulate intellectual curiosity, encourage innovative and
independent thinking of students. To inculcate these attributes in teachers, teacher training programs put
utmost stress on developing skills among student teachers. During teaching practice, the novice student
teacher uses teaching skills strictly per guidelines given by the teacher educator, but this state of affair
becomes different in real class room situations.
Most importantly, the aim of teachers has always been to assist students to learn efficiently. To meet with
this target, teachers have to be expert in applying different teaching skills during instruction. To achieve
learning targets and to maximize learning, teachers must understand the significance of individual skill
and the integration of various skills. This is imperative in secondary classes where teacher uses various
techniques to keep students involved in the classroom, e.g. discussions, questions answers, use of
teaching aids to change the sensory focus and, in particular, summarize to help students learn. A
thorough knowledge of content matter is fundamental for teaching effectively. Besides this, logical
presentation of subject matter is also essential for effective instruction. To plan the instruction in a logical
sequenced way, teaching expertise is crucial. Even experienced teachers need to refine this aspect and
add value to maximize the effect of teaching in the classroom (Sharma, 2000).
Teacher training programs inculcate effective teaching skills among teachers. Such Pre-service training
programs assist teachers in grasping different teaching-learning theories related to help them to design
subject matter, develop curriculum, and know psychological principles of andragogy and pedagogy. Such
trainings foster teachers to learn the basics to teaching-learning process. Without understanding of how
and under what circumstances a pupil becomes engaged in instructional activities, mapping a learning
environment is vague. The circumstances under which students engage in learning include the classroom
environment, the explicit teaching strategy used, and the place of the learning goal. In executing plans for
instruction, a significant role is the introduction of introductory experiences a teacher applies to produce
the yearning high level of students’ involvement. Techniques for set induction are crucial for planning and
following precise procedures for getting the best of instruction. Pre-service training programs make use of
a range of techniques i.e. simulation, demonstration, and especially, micro teaching to increase teaching
skills among novices. Much value is attached to proper use of set induction, presentation, understanding students’ psychological needs and students’ evaluation (Murthy, 2008).
There are two aspects of effective teaching. One aspect focuses on the teaching behavior and second
aspect emphasizes on learning outcomes. Effective teacher is one who intellectually effective and utilizes
different approaches during instruction by applying different learning activities. Implementation of teaching
principles in the classroom is facilitated with certain skills acquired by teachers through education and
training. Teaching skills is the combination of verbal and non-verbal behavior of a teacher. These skills
can be examined and gauged in terms of a student’s change in behavior. This indicates that teaching
skills are instructional techniques used by teachers to make teaching learning viable by initiating two way
communications between teacher and student. Teacher’s performance is judged by the ability to know
where and how to apply these skills. Teaching skills are essential for teachers as the means to
accomplish the eventual target of bringing constructive and desired change in the behavior of the
students. All the teaching skills are interrelated and indispensible for each other. Teacher’s success is not
determined not by the number of skills he/she applies in the class, but depends on how these skills are
interlinked, regulated and adapted to make teaching an effective tool in helping students to become active
learners, explorers and critical thinkers (Bhargava, 2009).
Here is a simple example of how induction works. Below is a proof (by induction, of course) that the
th triangular number is indeed equal to (the th triangular number is
defined as dots).imagine an equilateral triangle composed of evenly spaced
Base Case: If
Inductive Step: Suppose the conclusion is valid for . That is,
suppose we have
Adding to both sides, we get
conclusion holding for complete.
implies that it holds for and our induction is
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8601 Autumn 2018
Q No. 5 a) What is an activity ?Discuss the importance of activity method.
What is Activity Method?
Before explaining the activity method, it seems better to answer this question, what is an activity?
Anything which is carried out with a purpose in a social environment involving physical and mental action.
Such activities help in the establishment of stimulating environment for creative expression.
Types of Activities:
Activities can be of three types:
1. Exploratory – Knowledge getting
2. Constructive – Experience getting
3. Expressional – Presentation
Activities will vary according to the age group of the students. At elementary level of education pupils may
involve in different activities such as listening observing, planning, collecting, talking, singing, dramatizing,
experimenting and constructing. The variety of activities grows as children progress in elementary
program. This may include, painting, drawing, designing, wood carving, writing, composing, interviewing,
acting, reading, map-making and graph making, field trips, gardening and camping. It is not always
necessary that activity should only be motor or manipulative. It can also be mental. Knowledge-getting
activities occupy a prominent place.
a) Knowledge – Getting Activities
(i) Here a group of pupils may be asked to make a study of the various sources of food articles consumed
at home by questioning parents, merchants etc; by consulting labels on the foods. The data may be
compiled and interpreted by the group.
(ii) A committee of pupils may undertake to find out in a rural area, how many families have members who
work also in the city or town for a part of the time. In a city, it may be enquired how many people in the
local community have come from rural areas and why they have come. With the teachers help, rough
estimate of probable experience can be made.
b) Experience – Getting Activities
For selection of activities and giving firsthand knowledge to the students teacher may arrange some field
trips of any area such as industrial or agricultural. But for arranging the visit of any area, the provision of
the available local resources must be focused, otherwise school will never allow for having this
experience. Overall focused must be laid on no cost field visits.
A debate can be arranged on the topic “In the opinion of the house, mechanized agriculture is the only
way of economic uplift in the Punjab. Maps showing the distribution of (1) agriculture crops, (2) major
industries, (3) outstanding and localized cottage industries in the Punjab can be drawn. Charts showing
(a) The classification of industries on the basis of nature of goods produced, (b) flow of raw materials,
labour and power to few major industries can be made. Graphs showing the member of industrial laborers
in the Punjab from 1947 to 2010 etc can be prepared.
Practical and productive work can help in the better understanding of almost every subject. In geography,
it may take the form of drawing maps, making models, illustrations, organizing excursions, keeping
weather records, constructing in appropriate materials scenes from the life of different region is of the
world etc. In history, in addition to the preparation of suitable illustrations, they may prepare and stage
historical plays making the costumes, the stage effects, fixing the lights etc, themselves or co-operatively
study local history or set up a small history museum and in fact, take up any projects that will bring history
to life, in connection with the study of languages – particularly the mother tongue – they may undertake to
write small booklets on subjects of special interest to them. The collection of material from relevant
sources, its writing, editing, the binding of the booklets attractively will all form parts of a joyous project.
Illustrated charts about great writers may be prepared-containing their pictures, short notes on their lives
and works and brief appropriate question in prose or poetry from their writings or they may possibly
attempt translations of some easy books and articles in English with the object of providing rich reading
material for their fellow students in the library. Taking in view these three types of activities, some of the
activities are suggested as under:
1. Local survey and excursions.
2. Debates, discussions, dialogues and symposiums.
5. Clubs and societies
8. Re-creational and cultural programmes
9. Social Service squads
10. Students-self Government
12. Writing of community books in games etc.
In modern education, creative activities are occupying a prominent place in the school programme.
Creative experiences and social activities are breaking away from the other approaches and exploring the
new avenues of learning. This emerging pattern for teaching requires that teachers play a more vital role.
The creation of a stimulating atmosphere for the learner, both in the learning laboratory and in the
community is essential for an experience approach to function. Education for children should be rich
enough to meet all needs in a way that will contribute to society.
Examples of Classroom Activities
Furthermore, in the classroom, students work primarily in group and learning and knowledge are
interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well
as collaboration and exchange of ideas. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students
work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhard to and
guided by a text book. Some activities encouraged in the classroom:
· Experimentation: Students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to
discuss the results.
· Research Project: Students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
· Field Trips: This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world
· Films: These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into learning experience.
· Classroom Discussions: This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the
most important distinctions of student centered teaching methods.
Activity method is more applicable in computer assisted teaching and online learning.
Role of Teacher
The teacher occupies very important position in the activity method. While it is really a sound practice that
pupils should involve practically in different learning activities but, in all this accomplishment, the teacher
and has to play a vital role. The teacher has got mature experience, deeper and broader knowledge than
the pupils. For this very reason, his guidance and prompting is not only desirable but also indispensable.
The pupils are out on a venture; they need suggestions and guidance at every step. The teacher has to
save the pupils from faltering and floundering. So the teacher has skilfully guided in the selection of
activities. The teacher is supposed to give help when help is required. So, let the teacher be a good
prompter, just behind the curtain and not make his appearance on the stage itself, for stage is meant and
reserved for the actors and actresses, the pupils.
The relations of the teacher to the pupils are to be much closer and informal than it is in an ordinary
classroom teaching. He is there like a friend or elder brother with rich and mature experience. He is a
director and not a dictator. His psychological knowledge must be thorough and scientific.
The teacher must be a keen observer and a true sympathizer. He should be able to win the good will of
the pupils so that they would not feel discouraged. He should be a storehouse of information and
knowledge so that he may anticipate the difficulties before-hand and suggest remedies as and when
necessary. He should command respect of the pupils so that the pupils might look to him for help,
guidance, support and affection. No method, however good, is ever superior to its teachers. So the need
is for devoted educational leaders.
The teacher has still another role to play. He has to see that all the pupil’s work co-operatively. The
activity method is based on correlated teaching. This presupposes that the teacher should have
knowledge of many subjects. He has to guide the selection and execution of the activities in such a way
that the maximum number of subjects concerned is learnt by the pupils; gaps are properly filled. He
should see that not only practical knowledge is to be imparted but complete and integrated knowledge is
given. Experiences and contributions of the group should provide increased knowledge in the particular
Lastly, the teacher should be able to spare enough time for the success of this method. Only a devoted
and enthusiastic teacher can make a success of this method, not the discouraged, time-serving, bell-
Overall in the activity based teaching learning classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate
students. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead
them to develop their own conclusions on the subjects.
Benefits of Activity Based Learning Approach
– The learners are actively involved as the environment is democratic.
– The activities are interactive and student-centered.
– The teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and
– Children learn on their own pace.
– Provision of more time for self-directed learning and teacher directed learning is reduced considerably.
– Group learning, mutual learning and self learning are promoted.
– Teachers teaching time is judiciously distributed among children. Only needy children are addressed by
– Children participation in every step is ensured in the process of learning.
– Evaluation is inbuilt in the system it is done without the child knowing it.
– Role learning is discouraged and almost no scope for rote learning.
– Periodical absence of child from school is properly addressed.
– Classroom transaction is based on child’s need and interests.
– Freedom to child in learning as he chooses his activity.
– Multigame and multilevel in learning is effectively addressed.
No child can move to the next higher step of learning unless attains the previous one.
– Sense of event boosts child’s confidence and morale.
– Attractive cards and activity create interest among children.
– Scope for child’s development in creative and communicative skills.
– Children will have a feel of security as they sit in rounds in the groups.
– Children are allowed to move in the classroom as they choose their activity.
– Moreover the distance between teacher and the child is largely reduced and the teacher acts as a
facilitator rather than teacher.
Limitations of Activity Method
– Careful consideration of emotionalized controls may be overlooked during classroom activities.
Apparently some teachers forget that all classroom activities contribute directly or indirectly to the
formation of attitudes, favorable or unfavorable.
– Some classroom activities become contradictory with values of and culture of the students.
– This method is time consuming and does not cover the course/subject matter timely.
– Our teachers are over burden. So they feel difficulty to plan relevant and appropriate activities all the time.
– Our classes are overcrowded so there is problem to arrange, organize and manage classroom activities
– Lack of professional training of teachers affects to plan and process the innovative classroom activities
such as computer based activities.
– Lack of physical, financial and instructional facilities become hurdles in the application of activity method.
b) Summarize the main points bearing on the role of research project.
Uses of Projectors:
1. Large image: It projects a very large image on the screen form a minimum of projection distance.
2. Face the class: In this projector the image is projected over the shoulder of the teacher. Therefore, he
can face the class at all times. He can maintain eye contact with the students. It helps the teacher to keep
watch on the class as or indicates points of importance on the transparency.
3. Lighted room: O.H.P. can operate in an illuminated room. There is no need of darkening the room. It
enables the teacher to develop a ‘circuit of understanding’ by watching expression of others.
4. Bright image: The lens and mirror arrangement in overhead projector makes it possible to have a
bright image even in a well lighted room.
5. Simple operation: It is simple, easy and convenient to operate the overhead projector. It does not
need separate projector operator or the instructor. It permits the teacher to face the class and at the same
time operate the machine. Slides can be changed quite easily.
6. Light weight: The light weight of the equipment makes it portable.
7. Class control: The teacher can maintain complete class control and interest in a lesson by turning a
switch on or off. He, while sitting on hi desk, can indicate specific items on the screen buy location them
with his pencil on the slides.
8. Process on the screen: By putting a piece of ground glass over the slide space the teacher can draw
a diagram sketch with pencil or wax pencil and the class can watch the process on the screen. He can
also place sheets of transparent plastic over the slides for writing on them. Thus the overhead projector
permits the teacher to use the screen as a blackboard.
9. Large slide: Due to largeness of its aperture it may allow the use of slides of the size 20 X 20 cms or
25 X 25 cms. It may facilitate the preparation of art work for slides.
10. Use of pointer: The teacher can use a pointer or pencil to point out important details of a slide. He
has not to run about the machine to the wall to explain things to the students.
11. Preparation and presentation of transparencies: Transparencies can be prepared ahead of time,
presented exactly when required and quickly remove, when they serve their purpose.
12. Low cost: Effective visuals can be made in a minimum of time and at low cost. Once a transparency
is made, it is permanent. It need not be erased as in a blackboard. It can be stored for recall at any later time.
13. Easier to write on horizontal surface.
14. Permits the use of color.
1. Cannot be used for long time.
2. Writing by some types of writing pens get blotted out on plastic.
3. Transparencies create a storage problem.
It permits the teacher to stand in front of the class while using the projector, thus enabling her to point out
features appearing on the screen by pointing to the materials at the projector itself and at the same time,
to observe the students reactions to her discussion. Gains attention of the student
Multimedia is a term frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today. Unless
clearly defined, the term can alternately mean .a judicious mix of various mass media such as print, audio
and video or it may mean the development of computer-based hardware and software packages
produced on a mass scale and yet allow individualized use and learning. In essence, multimedia merges
multiple levels of learning into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation.
According Fenrich, 1997 Multimedia is the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that
allows you to integrate video, animation, audio, graphics, and test resources to develop effective
presentations on an affordable desktop computer.
Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound, animation and video; some or all of
which are organized into some coherent program. (Phillips, 1997).
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the concept of multimedia took on a new meaning, as the capabilities of
satellites, computers, audio and video converged to create new media with enormous potential. Combined
with the advances in hardware and software, these technologies were able to provide enhanced learning
facility and with attention to the specific needs of individual users. A primary application of the interactive
multimedia for instruction is in an instructional situation where the learner is given control so that he/she
may review the material at his or her own pace and in keeping with his/her own individual interests,
needs, and cognitive processes. The basic objective of interactive multimedia material is not s much to
replace the teacher as to change the teacher’s role entirely. As such multimedia must be extremely well
designed and sophisticated enough to mimic the best teacher, by combining in its design the various
elements of the cognitive processes and the best quality of the technology. With today’s multimedia
courseware, once a programme has been designed and built in with the appropriate responses, it should
be flexible and permit change and alteration.
Today’s multimedia is a carefully woven combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation, and
video elements. When you allow an end user, i.e. the viewer of a multimedia project, to control
‘what’ and ‘when’ and ‘how’ of the elements that are delivered and presented, it becomes