ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ


Home / Education Tutors / AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8601 Spring 2019
ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ





AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8601 Spring 2019

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2019. Solved Assignments code 8601 General Methods of Teaching 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601) Level: B.Ed (1 1⁄2 & 21⁄2 Years) Semester: Autumn 2018 ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q No.1 Elaborate different types of classroom discussion.

Answer

Structure of Classroom Discussion

Marilla and Svinicki (2011, Pp.133-134) have elaborated the structure of classroom discussion. The

discussion class is necessarily a tiny crowd trying to complete an assignment. As such, the class

can perform its tasks more effectively if each student in the group is conscious of the different types

of activities and responsibilities he/she can perform to make discussion smoother. Every individual

has his own specific style of acting in classroom discussion. Some students prefer to lead, some

students work to keep the group focused on the discussion task, and some act to keep the group

from taking itself too seriously. Here are some different tasks students usually perform in discussion

group:

Types of Classroom Discussion

There are different types of classroom discussion which can be effectively used by the teacher.

Kinne (2000) has suggested the following types of classroom discussion:

Small Groups

Small groups have fewer than 20 members, making it easier for people to actively participate. They

meet as small gatherings or as break-outs of large meetings and offer many opportunities for

creative, flexible interchange of ideas and lively, meaningful participation. Small group discussion in

usually preferred for classroom discussion. Size will depend on time and the sensitivity or

complexity of the subject. In most cases each group selects a reporter to summarize its discussion.

Haugen (1998) has given some suggestions for small group discussion:

1. Make a safe place. Students don’t contribute to a discussion if they are afraid that they will be

ridiculed for what they say.

2. Small group discussion is useful when there are clear learning objectives. Teacher should have

clear objectives for the discussions and communicate them clearly. It’s helpful for the teachers and

students if the objectives are stated in “action” terms. Useful objectives relate to what students

should know, understand, be able to apply, or use effectively. The memorization of a list of facts or

dates is not in itself very useful objective but being able to identify how current events both

resemble and differ from an historic event, for example, would be a workable objective.

3. Teacher should formulate and communicate his/her expectations of the students. Will they be

graded on participation? So, there should be clear expectations for what is expected from the

students and how they will be tested. Students also need to understand what they will have to know,

how well they need to know it, and how they will have to demonstrate what they know.

4. Avoid yes/no questions. Ask “why” or “how” questions that lead to discussion and when students

give only short answers, ask them to elaborate. Also, avoid questions that have only one answer.

5. Don’t fear silence. This may be the most difficult thing to do but it’s absolutely essential. When

small group discussion is facilitated, teacher tends to feel that a lack of response within one or two

beats is stretching into an eternity. But even if teacher has posed a very interesting question or

situation, the students will need some time to think and formulate a response.

6. When possible, set up the room for discussion. A circle works best, especially if the group can sit

around a table. If it’s difficult to re-arrange the furniture; then teacher should move around the room,

sit among the students; become a discussion participant rather than a teacher.

7. Get to know the students’ names and who they are. Students are more likely to be engaged with

the group if addressed by name rather than by being pointed at. If a teacher knows the interests,

majors, experiences, etc. of the students, it becomes much easier to think of ways to involve them.

8. Participants should be provided positive feedback. Feedback can be a good means of getting

through a lull in the discussion also. A recap of what has been discussed so far helps to reinforce

main points, and often stimulates further discussion.

9. Show enthusiasm for the subject. Students can’t become interested in a discussion topic for

which the instructor shows no enthusiasm. If teacher is interested in the subject, then it will help him

to discover what students think and feel about it.

10. Teach students how to participate. Many of them may have had little or no experience with small

group discussion, and most of those who have experience have never been taught how to do it well.

Teacher could prepare a handout for his students or assign a project that involves their preparing

information for the rest of the group about small-group communications.

11. Ease students into discussion. One tactic is to arrive at the classroom early and engage the first

students to arrive in “chit chat” about the weather, a recent sports event, something in the news,

etc. The point is to get students comfortable and talking so that to make them at ease into the

subject for the day. This will also help teacher to establish the idea that discussion is a natural

process, not cruel and inhuman punishment, or something with which they have no experience.

12. Teacher should also clarify his role as a discussion facilitator. If a teacher is uncomfortable, his

students will also be uncomfortable.

13. Provide opportunities for students to talk to each other in smaller, unsupervised groups so that

they get to know each other and become comfortable with sharing

ideas. Instructor can do this with small “break-out” groups which are assigned a specific task about

which they will report to the larger group. Students can also be assigned group projects,

encouraged to form small study groups, or have the class form interest groups which are

responsible for contributing something related to their particular interest periodically. The point is to

encourage interaction that is not under the watchful eye of the instructor and helps students to

become comfortable with each other.

14. Manage both process and content. This is often rather difficult at first but becomes much easier

with practice. Good discussion is as much about process as it is about content and if teacher

concentrates on one but neglects the other, he is likely to have problems. To a great extent, teacher

will need to take his cues from the students. While instructor is part of the discussion, he has the

added responsibility of monitoring it as well.

15. Listen, learn, and adapt. There is no single prescription for all groups. Much like individual

people, groups have individual characters and teacher will need to adapt his style to them as much

as is comfortable for him. If instructor can be open to those differences, they will become part of

what makes teaching an interesting challenge year after year after year.

Buzz Groups

In buzz group every member of a larger group is directly involved in a discussion process.

Participants discuss in pairs for a limited period. This method is especially effective for articulating

ideas in preparation for a general discussion or to give expression to personal response to a film,

presentation, or experience. After talking in pairs, couples might be asked to combine in groups of

four and compare their opinions. (Lesmeister, 2011).

In buzz groups the learners are divided into small groups, usually two or three. These small groups

meet for a short period to consider a simple question or problem. The ideas, thus exchanged, may

then be presented to the other participants by each of the small groups in turn, so promoting further

discussion. Buzz groups are devised to enable every person in a group to seek advice from other

members of a group, to produce fresh ideas on a topic and to resolve a clashes within a group.

There is a discussion leader who poses a simple question or problem. This is discussed by the

small groups for a limited period (up to three minutes) without any time for preparation or reflection.

A representative of each small group then reports briefly to the other participants. This method is

equally effective for small and large groups. For small groups, it can be used to consult all the

members of a group on a precise question. It can be applied to settle a conflict between members of

a group. Or it can be used to produce fresh ideas on a topic or a problem. In all these cases, it can

be used within a group which is already discussing a topic, or is about to discuss a topic. On the

other hand, it can be used with a much larger group at the beginning, or during a talk. In such a

case, the participants simply turn to face one another, making small groups of two or three people,

without too much disturbance, or rearrangement of the chairs. After the discussion, they turn to face

the speaker and report clxii

their findings. It is worth noting that a similar method (known in French as ‘Six Six’) involves larger

groups of up to six people, discussing a topic for up to six minutes (hence the title). This can also be

used at the beginning of, or during a talk (The Scout Association, 1999).

Lesmeister (2011) has given the role of facilitator in buzz group. He has indicated that the facilitator

should split the large group into smaller groups (3-5). Then he should present a problem or pose a

question for the brainstorming of the groups. Every group should be given 5-10 minutes. To discuss

simple topics, each group should be given 5 minutes, and 10 minutes for difficult or complex topics.

Afterwards, each group should be encouraged to report (1-2) key thoughts from their discussion.

AIOU Solved Assignments  2 Code 8601 Autumn 2018

____________________________________________________________________

Q No 2. What is cooperative learning and what are different strategies used for it? Describe

principles of cooperative learning?

Answer

INTRODUCTION

Cooperative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of

learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Cooperative

learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk

among themselves.

Cooperative Learning (CL) is a philosophy. In all situations where people come together in groups, it

suggests a way of dealing with people which respects and highlights individual group members’

abilities and contributions. There is a sharing of authority and acceptance of responsibility among

group members for the group’s actions. The theme of cooperative learning is based upon

consensus building through cooperation by group members, in contrast to competition among

individuals. There are many mechanisms for group analysis and introspection the fundamental

approach is teacher centered whereas cooperative learning is more student centered.

COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to

maximize their own and each other’s learning (Johnson and Johnson, 1993, p. 9). Further these are

principles and techniques for helping students work together more effectively (Jacobs, Power, & Loh, 2002, p. 1). According to UNESCO 2003:

Cooperative learning is the process of getting two or more students to work together to learn.

Students often work in small groups composed of participants with differing ability levels and using a

variety of learning activities to master material initially developed by an instructor, or construct

knowledge on substantive issues. Each member of the team is responsible for learning what is

taught and for helping teammates learn

Panitz (1996) differentiates between collaboration and cooperation in the following words:

“Collaboration is a philosophy of interaction and personal lifestyle whereas cooperation is a

structure of interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of an end product or goal.”

Gerlach (1994) described the definition of cooperative learning as “Cooperative learning is based on

the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is

through the talk that learning occurs.” While Gokhale (1995)

defines cooperative learning as “An instruction method in which students work in groups toward a

common academic goal.”

Different authors categorize “community” as “…cultural aggregations, a group of people who

exchange words and ideas” (Rheinhgold, 1994), “alliances of members based on emotional

relationship” (Dyson, 1997), “people who interact socially to satisfy their own needs” (Preece, 2000),

“members with a shared goals, interest need” (Issacs, et al, 2000), “people who create, manage,

and participate in a group” (Kom, 2000).

Sharing of Ideas in Cooperative Learning Speaking in groups is more natural, because in real life students spend most of their time talking to

one another. If they speak to a large group of people, it is usually a more formal situation where

they have spent time preparing what they are going to say (Qiang, 2007, p100). Small group work

helps students learn to work cooperatively and it helps them develop interpersonal skills. When

students work with other students who are not their friends, they learn how to work with a wider

variety of people and this fosters development of tolerance, mutual respect and harmony. If

students cooperate in harmony and with joy, anxiety will surely be forgotten.

Benefits to Learners

● Work at own pace and control their learning path

● Learn from an infinitely patient tutor

● Actively pursue learning and receive feedback

Benefits to Teachers

● Allows for creative work

● Saves time for more challenging topics

● Replaces ineffective learning activities

● Increases student contact time for discussion

Specific uses of multimedia include:

● Drill and practice to master basic skills

● The development of writing skills

● Problem solving

● Understanding abstract mathematics and science concepts

● Simulation in science and mathematics

● Manipulation of data

● Acquisition of computer Skills for general

● Purposes, and for business and vocational training

● Access and communication to understand populations and students

● Access for teachers and students in remote locations

● Individualized and cooperative learning

● Management and administration of classroom activities

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8601 Autumn 2018

____________________________________________________________________

Q No.3 a) Critically analyze importance of set induction?

Answer

Importance of Set Induction: Alliss (2011) says that many teachers spend outrageously little time preparing their students for classroom activities. Often this preparation consists only of telling their students to read some story by the next class session or to watch some demonstration carefully. With such a limited introduction, could any teacher truly expect students to be attentive and eager to learn the material? Several psychological experiments have demonstrated the importance of set induction in learning. Research indicates that activities preceding a learning task influence the performance of the task. The research also indicates that the effectiveness of a set depends somewhat on the situation to which it is applied. Hence, teachers must find those kinds of sets most appropriate to their purposes and must modify these sets to fit the specific classroom situation. In most cases, the initial instructional move of the teacher should be to establish a set. The set focuses students’ attention on some familiar person, object, event, condition, or idea. The established set functions as a point of reference around which the students and the teacher communicate. The teacher uses this point of reference as a link between familiar and new or difficult material. Furthermore, an effective set encourages student interest and involvement in the main body of the lesson. The establishment of a set usually occurs at the beginning of a class period, but it may occur during the session. Set induction is appropriate whenever the activity, the goal of the content of the lesson is changed so that a new or modified frame of reference is needed. Set induction is also used to build continuity from lesson to lesson and from unit to unit. Thus, a new set may be linked to an established set to a series of sets. All of us have experienced the influence of set induction on our responses to a situation. If we have

been told that some person is a brilliant scientist, we respond differently than we would if we had

been told he or she was a star athlete. What we “learn” during our conversation with this person will

depend in part on what we have been told. Similarly, whatever information a teacher gives students

about the degree of difficulty and format of a test will probably affect the way they study for it.

Q No.3 b) Discuss different techniques of students’ evaluation.

Answer STUDENTS’ EVALUATION According to Tufo (2002) evaluation is the process of determining the value or worth of a program, course, or other initiative, toward the ultimate goal of making decisions about adopting, rejecting, or revising the innovation. It should not be confused with assessment, which encompasses methods for measuring or testing performance on a set of competencies. Evaluation is the more inclusive term, often making use of assessment data in addition to many other data sources. While student evaluation is to make decisions about teaching and students’ performance. Understanding the purposes of evaluation helps teachers make decisions about the types of assessments and criteria they will use in evaluating student progress. The purpose of an assessment may be clarified by asking “who is this information for and how will it be used. There are different techniques for students’ evaluation. Davis (1993) has highlighted following tools for students’ evaluation:

· Questioning: A very simple tool for checking effective teaching is to incorporate specific questions within a lesson to gauge student understanding of the material. For example, an instructor may ask students to verbally answer a question similar to one that will be asked on an exam. This tool is more useful than simply asking if students have any questions because students who are confused may not be able to articulate their questions. Moreover, some students may falsely believe they understand the lesson and not ask questions. Checking for understanding within a lesson helps the instructor discover students’ level of learning and to make adjustments during the lesson itself. · Classroom Response Systems: A problem with simple questioning is that an instructor generally will get a response from only one or two students rather than the entire class. This problem can be resolved with a few strategies that fall under the Classroom Response umbrella.

The first strategy is the easiest to implement. An instructor asks a multiple choice question or makes an agree/disagree statement about the material. Students indicate by the position of their thumb whether they believe the answer is A (upright), B (sideways), or C (downward) or Agree (upright) or Disagree (downward).The instructor can then quickly look around the room to determine how many students have the correct answer. The second strategy involves the use of colored index cards. Its method is identical to the first strategy except that the instructor is using color coded cards for the responses. The advantage of using colored index cards is that they are easier to see than thumbs. The third strategy involves the use of hand-held remote controls (“clickers”) to measure student

responses. The technology is linked to software in a computer, either a laptop or a classroom

computer and can keep a record of student responses. Many instructors use this technology by

imbedding the question into their presentation software. Both the instructor and students receive

immediate feedback to the responses. In addition to the recordkeeping aspect of this system, a

primary advantage of clickers is student anonymity in their responses in the classroom.

A major disadvantage is the cost and performance reliability of the clickers themselves. · Open Class Discussion: This technique can be used either during the class session or by monitoring student online discussion. By asking discussion questions that require critical thought, instructors are able to gauge students’ understanding of the lesson material and whether they are making necessary connections to other course material. Many times students believe they know the material but their misunderstandings are revealed during discussion. · Minute Paper: This evaluation tool is done at the end of class several times during the quarter. It derives its name from the fact that students spend no more than one minute answering any number of questions. The instructor reads the responses before the next class meeting and responds appropriately. Examples of questions asked are: · What was the most important thing you learned during class? · What unanswered questions do you have? · What was the muddiest point for you? · At what point this week were you most engaged as a learner? · Can you summarize today’s lesson in one sentence? If so, please summarize it. · What has been most helpful to you this week in learning the course material? · Index Card: A variation on the Minute Paper is for the instructor to write the responses to the following questions on a 3 x 5” index card following a lesson:“What worked? What didn’t work? What are some ideas for changing the lesson?”The 3 x 5 card limits the amount of information than can be written down and serves as a reminder to write down ideas but to only spend a few minutes writing them down. Attach the card to the lesson notes to serve as a reminder the next time the lesson is taught. · Course Exams and Assignments: Student success on course exams and assignments are a

powerful data source on teaching effectiveness. A short questionnaire at the end of exams can ask students to identify which questions were the most difficult to answer and why they were difficult. A pattern may develop that can be used to make changes. Additionally, an instructor may ask students to critique assignments. Questions instructors may ask are: · Were instructions clear? · Did the assignment help students learn course material? · Were the expectations reasonable for the time-frame? · How many hours were devoted to completing the assignment? · Mid-quarter evaluation: An effective way of gauging student learning and satisfaction is via anonymous mid-quarter evaluations. The evaluations can take a variety of forms. A simple survey asking students to describe what is working, what is not working, and suggestions for change can be conducted via paper-pencil or online. Many of the course management systems have tools that allow anonymous feedback. Instructors need to check with their system’s administrator to find out how to do it. Many instructors provide 15-25 minutes of class time to a neutral party for the purpose of getting feedback from students. A more formal method is to use the same forms that are used for course evaluations. One thing to note is that even if course changes cannot be made during the quarter the evaluation takes place, mid-quarter evaluations allow instructors to engage in dialogue with their students regarding the teaching-learning process and students will feel more positive toward the instructor.

AIOU Solved Assignments  2 Code 8601

_____________________________________________

Q No. 4 a) Briefly express the need and importance of teaching tools in education.

Answer THE TEACHING TOOLS in education

Every individual has the tendency to forget. Proper use of teaching tools helps to retain more

concepts permanently. Students can learn better when they are motivated properly through different

teaching tools.

Teaching tools develop the proper image when the students see, hear taste and smell properly.

Teaching tools provide complete example for conceptual thinking. The teaching tools create the

environment of interest for the students. Teaching tools helps to increase the vocabulary of the

students.

Teaching tools helps the teacher to get sometime and make learning permanent. Teaching tools

provide direct experience to the students.

Need and Importance

Teaching aids play very important role in Teaching- Learning process. Importance of Teaching aids

are as follows:

1) Motivation: Teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better.

2) Clarification: Through teaching aids, the teacher clarifies the subject matter more easily.

3) Discouragement of Cramming: Teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding to the

students which discourage the act of cramming.

4) Increase the Vocabulary: Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students more

effectively.

5) Saves Time and Money: Teaching aids are helpful to save time and money

6) Classroom Live and active: Teaching aids make the classroom live and active.

7) Avoids Dullness: Teaching aids motivate the students to take active part n the classroom

activities and avoid dullness.

8) Direct Experience: Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students

_________________________________ ______

Q No. 4 b) Highlight the problems in using projectors in the classrooms. Answer

Many researchers have defined scientific method with slight difference but the main theme is the

rigorous approach adopted to resolve the science and social science problems.

According to Keyes (2010) definitions of the scientific method can be found in textbooks in both the

social and natural sciences and, while some variations exist, all have certain common features.

Students collected a number of definitions of scientific method from textbooks in the natural (“hard”)

sciences and then were asked to compare these to the one provided in their sociology textbook.

Some definitions list the steps or process involved while others provide a general overview of the

method.

Consider the following definitions in the light of different disciplines.

Resource Arranger

o This person arranges for supplies and resources for the session.

o Resources may include reference books from the library, peer tutors, or overhead projectors

Most teaching tools are visual in nature. Blackboards and whiteboards, posters, calendars, charts,

drawings, and overhead projectors are all examples of visual teaching tools. This type of tool is

important because many people learn best through use of visual/special thinking. Some teaching

tools are aurally-based. These aural aids include recordings of spoken broadcasts and songs.

Audio-visual teaching tools include film projectors, videocassettes, DVDs, and movies on the Web.

Though audio-visual aids were once seen as a method for students to teach themselves, they are

now considered to be educational tools rather than a replacement for teachers.

_________________________________ ______

Q No. 4 C) What steps are required for preparing effective audiovisual aids?

Answer

The key to preparing effective audiovisual aids is to remember that they are only aids. Their

role is to add a visual dimension to the points that you made orally. They cannot make

those points for you; they can only reinforce them. When you plan for audiovisual aids,

follow these simple guidelines:

1. We can use them to summarize or show the sequence of content.

2. We can use them to visually interpret statistics by preparing charts and graphs that

illustrate what you will say.

3. We can use them to illustrate and reinforce your support statements.

4. We can use them to add visual clarity to your concepts and ideas.

5. We can use them to focus the attention of the target group on key points.

6. We should not project copies of printed or written text. Instead, summarize the

information and show only the key points on the visual aids. If the group must read every

word, use handouts for reading, either before or after your presentation.

7. Do not put yourself in the role of aiding your visuals: A presentation is primarily an oral

form of communication. If your only function is to read the information on your overheads or

slides, the target group will become easily bored.

8. Do not use copies of your transparencies as handouts. They reinforce what you are

saying– they don’t say it for you. If you want your target group to remember what you

meant, you’ll need to provide written text in addition to any key point summaries or charts

that you need for your transparencies.

9. Do not use charts, graphs, or tables that contain more information than you want to

provide. The group will have difficulty focusing on the point that you’re trying to make.

AIOU Solved Assignments  2 Autumn 2018 Code 8601

_________________________________ ______

Q No. 5 Write Short notes on:

A. Small Groups Small groups have fewer than 20 members, making it easier for people to actively

participate. They meet as small gatherings or as break-outs of large meetings and offer

many opportunities for creative, flexible interchange of ideas and lively, meaningful

participation. Small group discussion in usually preferred for classroom discussion. Size will

depend on time and the sensitivity or complexity of the subject. In most cases each group

selects a reporter to summarize its discussion. Haugen (1998) has given some suggestions

for small group discussion:

1. Make a safe place. Students don’t contribute to a discussion if they are afraid that they

will be ridiculed for what they say.

2. Small group discussion is useful when there are clear learning objectives. Teacher

should have clear objectives for the discussions and communicate them clearly. It’s helpful

for the teachers and students if the objectives are stated in “action” terms. Useful objectives

relate to what students should know, understand, be able to apply, or use effectively. The

memorization of a list of facts or dates is not in itself a very useful objective but being able

to identify how current events both resemble and differ from an historic event, for example,

would be a workable objective.

3. Teacher should formulate and communicate his/her expectations of the students. Will

they be graded on participation? So, there should be clear expectations for what is

expected from the students and how they will be tested. Students also need to understand

what they will have to know, how well they need to know it, and how they will have to

demonstrate what they know.

4. Avoid yes/no questions. Ask “why” or “how” questions that lead to discussion and when

students give only short answers, ask them to elaborate. Also, avoid questions that have

only one answer.

5. Don’t fear silence. This may be the most difficult thing to do but it’s absolutely essential.

When small group discussion is facilitated, teacher tends to feel that a lack of response

within one or two beats is stretching into an eternity. But even if teacher has posed a very

interesting question or situation, the students will need some time to think and formulate a

response.

6. When possible, set up the room for discussion. A circle works best, especially if the

group can sit around a table. If it’s difficult to re-arrange the furniture; then teacher should

move around the room, sit among the students; become a discussion participant rather than

a teacher.

7. Get to know the students’ names and who they are. Students are more likely to be

engaged with the group if addressed by name rather than by being pointed at. If a teacher

knows the interests, majors, experiences, etc. of the students, it becomes much easier to

think of ways to involve them.

8. Participants should be provided positive feedback. Feedback can be a good means of

getting through a lull in the discussion also. A recap of what has been discussed so far

helps to reinforce main points, and often stimulates further discussion.

9. Show enthusiasm for the subject. Students can’t become interested in a discussion topic

for which the instructor shows no enthusiasm. If teacher is interested in the subject, then it

will help him to discover what students think and feel about it.

10. Teach students how to participate. Many of them may have had little or no experience

with small group discussion, and most of those who have experience have never been

taught how to do it well. Teacher could prepare a handout for his students or assign a

project that involves their preparing information for the rest of the group about small-group

communications.

11. Ease students into discussion. One tactic is to arrive at the classroom early and engage

the first students to arrive in “chit chat” about the weather, a recent sports event, something

in the news, etc. The point is to get students comfortable and talking so that to make them

at ease into the subject for the day. This will also help teacher to establish the idea that

discussion is a natural process, not cruel and inhuman punishment, or something with

which they have no experience.

12. Teacher should also clarify his role as a discussion facilitator. If a teacher is

uncomfortable, his students will also be uncomfortable.

B. Buzz Groups

In buzz group every member of a larger group is directly involved in a discussion process.

Participants discuss in pairs for a limited period. This method is especially effective for

articulating ideas in preparation for a general discussion or to give expression to personal

response to a film, presentation, or experience. After talking in pairs, couples might be

asked to combine in groups of four and compare their opinions. (Lesmeister, 2011).

In buzz groups the learners are divided into small groups, usually two or three. These small

groups meet for a short period to consider a simple question or problem. The ideas, thus

exchanged, may then be presented to the other participants by each of the small groups in

turn, so promoting further discussion. Buzz groups are devised to enable every person in a

group to seek advice from other members of a group, to produce fresh ideas on a topic and

to resolve a clashes within a group. There is a discussion leader who poses a simple

question or problem. This is discussed by the small groups for a limited period (up to three

minutes) without any time for preparation or reflection. A representative of each small group

then reports briefly to the other participants. This method is equally effective for small and

large groups. For small groups, it can be used to consult all the members of a group on a

precise question. It can be applied to settle a conflict between members of a group. Or it

can be used to produce fresh ideas on a topic or a problem. In all these cases, it can be

used within a group which is already discussing a topic, or is about to discuss a topic. On

the other hand, it can be used with a much larger group at the beginning, or during a talk. In

such a case, the participants simply turn to face one another, making small groups of two or

three people, without too much disturbance, or rearrangement of the chairs. After the

discussion, they turn to face the speaker and report their findings. It is worth noting that a

similar method (known in French as ‘Six Six’) involves larger groups of up to six people,

discussing a topic for up to six minutes (hence the title). This can also be used at the

beginning of, or during a talk (The Scout Association, 1999).

Lesmeister (2011) has given the role of facilitator in buzz group. He has indicated that the

facilitator should split the large group into smaller groups (3-5). Then he should present a

problem or pose a question for the brainstorming of the groups. Every group should be

given 5-10 minutes. To discuss simple topics, each group should be given 5 minutes, and

10 minutes for difficult or complex topics. Afterwards, each group should be encouraged to

report (1-2) key thoughts from their discussion.

C. Talking Tickets

Talking tickets provide every student an equal opportunity to speak. Each participant is

given three talking tickets, each representing a certain amount of “air time.” Once someone

has used all her or his tickets, that person has no further opportunities to speak. This

technique not only encourages students for critical thinking, time management and

confidence, but also gives every student an equal opportunity to speak. Whole class is

involved in discussion and more talkative and less talkative students are given equal

chances to speak (Kinne, 2000).

D. Think Pair- Share

This technique was introduced in 1981 by Professor Frank Lyman. This strategy is based

on the idea of co-operative learning and peer interaction. It is considered as a foundation

stone for the development of cooperative classroom with a basic purpose to develop

thinking skills, increase information and develop communication skills among students. The

core of this method is ‘wait or think’ time, which improves students’ responses to questions.

It is an effective and simple strategy, useful from early childhood through all consequent

stages of education. It has a very flexible structure, which has been utilized in variety of

ways for various learning purposes. It helps students to share information, develops

effective listening ability, questioning skills, summarizing others’ ideas, reinforces positive

interdependence, enhances individual accountability, promotes equal participation,

increases simultaneous interaction and develops paraphrasing ability. There are four steps

in think-pair-share technique:

· Problem: Teacher asks students an open-ended question or poses a problem to which there may be a variety of answers. · Think: Students are given ‘think time’ and are directed by the teacher to think about the problem or question.

· Pair: Students utilize the ‘think time’ and turn their faces to their learning partner and work together to share ideas, discuss, clarify, challenge and arrive at possible solutions. · Share: The pair then shares their ideas with another pair, or with the whole class. It is important that students need to be able to share their partner’s ideas as well as their own (Ledlow, 2001).

AIOU Solved Assignments  2 Autumn 2018 Code 8601

Drop Your Book Code & Get Assignments

comments

About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

Apni Assignments Ka Code Yahan Likhein

%d bloggers like this: