Aiou Solved Assignments code 837 Autumn & Spring 2020 assignments 1 and 2 Course: Educational Research (837) spring 2021. aiou past papers
Course: Educational Research (837)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2020
Level: MA/M. Ed
Assignment no 2
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 837 Autumn & Spring 2020
Question 1: define research hypothesis. Why do we formulate hypothesis? How can a good hypothesis be developed? Please explain.
A research hypothesis (H1) is the statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the outcome of a research or experiment. Every true experimental design must have this statement at the core of its structure, as the ultimate aim of any experiment. The hypothesis is generated via a number of means, but is usually the result of a process of inductive reasoning where observations lead to the formation of a theory. Scientists then use a large battery of deductive methods to arrive at a hypothesis that is testable, falsifiable and realistic. The precursor to a hypothesis is a problem, usually framed as a question.
The precursor to a hypothesis is a research problem, usually framed as a question. It might ask what, or why, something is happening. For example, we might wonder why the stocks of cod in the North Atlantic are declining. The problem question might be ‘Why are the numbers of Cod in the North Atlantic declining?’
This is too broad as a statement and is not testable by any reasonable scientific means. It is merely a tentative question arising from literature reviews and intuition. Many people would think that instinct and intuition are unscientific, but many of the greatest scientific leaps were a result of ‘hunches’. The research hypothesis is a paring down of the problem into something testable and falsifiable. In the above example, a researcher might speculate that the decline in the fish stocks is due to prolonged over fishing. Scientists must generate a realistic and testable hypothesis around which they can build the experiment. This might be a question, a statement or an ‘If/Or’ statement. Some examples could be:
• Over-fishing affects the stocks of cod.
• If over-fishing is causing a decline in the numbers of Cod, reducing the amount of trawlers will increase cod stocks.
These are acceptable statements and they all give the researcher a focus for constructing a research experiment. The last example formalizes things and uses an ‘If’ statement, measuring the effect that manipulating one variable has upon another. Though the other one is perfectly acceptable, an ideal research hypothesis should contain a prediction, which is why the more formal ones are favored. A hypothesis must be testable, but must also be falsifiable for its acceptance as true science.
A scientist who becomes fixated on proving a research hypothesis loses their impartiality and credibility. Statistical tests often uncover trends, but rarely give a clear-cut answer, with other factors often affecting the outcome and influencing the results. Whilst gut instinct and logic tells us that fish stocks are affected by over fishing, it is not necessarily true and the researcher must consider that outcome. Perhaps environmental factors or pollution are causal effects influencing fish stocks.
A hypothesis must be testable, taking into account current knowledge and techniques, and be realistic. If the researcher does not have a multi-million dollar budget then there is no point in generating complicated hypotheses. A hypothesis must be verifiable by statistical and analytical means, to allow a verification or falsification. In fact, a hypothesis is never proved, and it is better practice to use the terms ‘supported’ or ‘verified’. This means that the research showed that the evidence supported the hypothesis and further research is built upon that.
Your hypothesis should…
• Be written in clear, concise language
• Have both an independent and dependent variable
• Be falsifiable – is it possible to prove or disprove the statement?
• Make a prediction or speculate on an outcome
• Be practicable – can you measure the variables in question?
• Hypothesize about a proposed relationship between two variables, or an intervention into this relationship
A research hypothesis, which stands the test of time, eventually becomes a theory, such as Einstein’s General Relativity. Even then, as with Newton’s Laws, they can still be falsified or adapted. The research hypothesis is often also callen H1and opposes the current view, called the null hypothesis (H0).
A researcher has a null hypothesis when she or he believes, based on theory and existing scientific evidence, that there will not be a relationship between two variables. For example, when examining what factors influence a person’s highest level of education within the U.S., a researcher might expect that place of birth, number of siblings, and religion would not have an impact on the level of education. This would mean the researcher has stated three null hypotheses.
Taking the same example, a researcher might expect that the economic class and educational attainment of one’s parents, and the race of the person in question are likely to have an effect on one’s educational attainment. Existing evidence and social theories that recognize the connections between wealth and cultural resources, and how race affects access to rights and resources in the U.S., would suggest that both economic class and educational attainment of the one’s parents would have a positive effect on educational attainment. In this case, economic class and educational attainment of one’s parents are independent variables, and one’s educational attainment is the dependent variable—it is hypothesized to be dependent on the other two.
Conversely, an informed researcher would expect that being a race other than white in the U.S. is likely to have a negative impact on a person’s educational attainment. This would be characterized as a negative relationship, wherein being a person of color has a negative effect on one’s educational attainment. In reality, this hypothesis proves true, with the exception of Asian Americans, who go to college at a higher rate than whites do. However, Blacks and Hispanics and Latinos are far less likely than whites and Asian Americans to go to college.
Formulating a Hypothesis
Formulating a hypothesis can take place at the very beginning of a research project, or after a bit of research has already been done. Sometimes a researcher knows right from the start which variables she is interested in studying, and she may already have a hunch about their relationships. Other times, a researcher may have an interest in a particular topic, trend, or phenomenon, but he may not know enough about it to identify variables or formulate a hypothesis.
Whenever a hypothesis is formulated, the most important thing is to be precise about what one’s variables are, what the nature of the relationship between them might be, and how one can go about conducting a study of them.
How to Formulate an Effective Hypothesis A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.
1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.
o Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the
2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.
o Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is
3. Define the variables
o In scientific experiments, a hypothesis proposes and examines the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. The effect on the dependent variable (the idea being tested) depends on or is determined by what happens when you change the independent variable (the factor being changed). For example, let us take a look at this hypothesis:
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 837 Autumn & Spring 2020
Question 2: explain research proposal in your own words. Discuss each step of research proposal by giving examples.
A research proposal is a concise and coherent summary of your proposed research. It sets out the central issues or questions that you intend to address. It outlines the general area of study within which your research falls, referring to the current state of knowledge and any recent debates on the topic. It also demonstrates the originality of your proposed research.
The proposal is the most important document that you submit as part of the application process. It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate that you have the aptitude for graduate level research, for example, by demonstrating that you have the ability to communicate complex ideas clearly, concisely and critically. The proposal also helps us to match your research interest with an appropriate supervisor.
A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.
Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it.
The proposal should have sufficient information to convince your readers that you have an important research idea, that you have a good grasp of the relevant literature and the major issues, and that your methodology is sound.
The quality of your research proposal depends not only on the quality of your proposed project, but also on the quality of your proposal writing. A good research project may run the risk of rejection simply because the proposal is poorly written. Therefore, it pays if your writing is coherent, clear and compelling.
• A cover page This is essential – it identifies: o your research area via a tentative or proposed title o your name, contact details, and qualifications o the institutional or university name, as well as the specific department o supervisor’s and co-supervisor’s names o the degree level being attempted
• Table of contents A table of contents should: o list the research proposal sections in a hierarchical way, using titles and subtitles o give accurate page references for each section
• Introduction An introduction should: o Follow a general-to-specific writing pattern o Start by providing background information that orientates the reader to the research’s general socio-political, historical, scientific, and educational contexts (whichever is most relevant) o Perhaps include a theoretical, personal, or policy-based motivation for the research as a starting point o Attempt to persuade, inform or indicate to the reader of the need for the research. This is an attempt to convince the reader that the research will be useful, interesting, or significant for the academic community, and may be suggestive of the research ‘gap’ which arises from the following literature review
• Purpose and aims This section should: o state unambiguously and concisely the purpose of the research (and situating it in the broader context) o outline the aims and key research questions (make sure that you relate the aims to the purpose above and to the research questions which follow on from this) 3
• Literature review The purpose of this is to: o demonstrate to your readers that you have read enough to show that you are aware of who the most significant writers or researchers are in your area of research o specify which issues or concepts you will concentrate on in your review (this may well change as you read more widely and deeply) o show that you can exercise critical judgement in selecting which issues to focus on and which to ignore o show that you can take a critical approach to your area of research o argue for the validity of your area of research in terms of its need to address a ‘gap’ o establish the theoretical orientation you are planning to take
• Research design (or methodological approach) The purpose of this is to describe your research plans and approach by: o indicating the rationale and theoretical source for your choice of research approach o describing your rationale for the selection of participants, methods of data collection and analysis, and the steps you will take to ensure that ethical practices are followed o suggesting the limits, restrictions or boundaries of your research o providing a timetable or research action plan which explains each of the tasks to be carried out and the anticipated times for completion (the format of this should be clear and concise)
• Thesis structure This section should provide: o a description of each proposed chapter via a small paragraph which shows how it links to any previous chapters, and how links to any chapters which may follow o a proposed table of contents (following the same rules as given above)
• Significance/expected outcomes This section should provide: o the anticipated outcomes 4 o a series of paragraphs predicting of the significance of the research
• Glossary of terms This section should provide: o a list of specialised terms, words, or concepts, and their meanings (e.g. foreign borrowings, acronyms, specialised concepts etc.)
• Appendices This section should provide: o relevant documents which are best not seen in the main proposal text (because they affect readability). These may be source documents, pilot study data, interview questions, surveys questionnaires instruments, etc.
• References This section should provide: o a list of the sources or academic works that have been found and consulted up to the present o use the Harvard UTS referencing conventions, as adopted by most faculties in UTS, or use one recommended by your supervisor(s) Adapted from the following source: Royce, T 2009, Writing a research proposal, ELSSA Centre, UTS.
• AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 837 Autumn & Spring 2020
aiou solved assignments code 837
Question 3: discuss in detail the significance of sources of information in research
Research resources are usually thought of as primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources can be firsthand accounts of actual events written by an eyewitness or original literary or artistic works. They may be letters, official records, interviews, survey results, or unanalyzed statistical data. These sources contain raw data and information, such as the original work of art or immediate impressions. Secondary sources, on the other hand, are usually discussions, evaluations, syntheses, and analyses of primary- and secondary-source information. You will no doubt use both primary and secondary sources throughout your academic career. When you use them, and in what combination, usually depends on what your research inquiry is and the
discipline for which you are writing. If you are unclear about which sources to use, ask your instructor for guidance.
Your research resources can come from your experiences; print media, such as books, brochures, journals, magazines, newspapers, and books; and CD-ROMs and other electronic sources, such as the Internet and the World Wide Web. They may also come from interviews and surveys you or someone else designs. You may develop your own field research where you collect data through observation or experimentation. For example, before you interview your candidates for a study on adolescent girls, you may use library research to get some background information on adolescent girls and their current issues. You may also want to observe them in a school setting, noting certain behaviors, dress, or mannerisms, depending on your focus. You may also want to review other studies on adolescent girls to see how the studies were conducted and the data interpreted. You may even design a survey to collect firsthand information from the girls themselves or from their teachers.
Your research question and the kind of research you do will guide the types of resources you will need to complete your research. Students now have easy access to a wider range of information than ever before. Conducting research today requires that you understand how to locate resources—in libraries and frequently online—and that you have the skill and motivation to work with librarians and library technology. Identifying and managing those resources within your research project is as important as integrating them into your own words and your research writing voice.
• Primary sources include firsthand accounts, raw data, and other original material.
• Secondary sources include material that interprets and analyzes primary sources.
Primary resources contain first-hand information, meaning that you are reading the author’s own account on a specific topic or event that s/he participated in. Examples of primary resources include scholarly research articles, books, and diaries. Primary sources such as research articles often do not explain terminology and theoretical principles in detail. Thus, readers of primary scholarly research should have foundational knowledge of the subject area. Use primary resources to obtain a first-hand account to an actual event and identify original research done in a field. For many of your papers, use of primary resources will be a requirement.
Examples of a primary source are:
• Original documents such as diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, records, eyewitness accounts, autobiographies
• Empirical scholarly works such as research articles, clinical reports, case studies, dissertations
• Creative works such as poetry, music, video, photography
Secondary sources describe, summarize, or discuss information or details originally presented in another source; meaning the author, in most cases, did not participate in the event. This type of source is written for a broad audience and will include definitions of discipline specific terms, history relating to the topic, significant theories and principles, and summaries of major studies/events as related to the topic. Use secondary sources to obtain an overview of a topic and/or identify primary resources. Refrain from including such resources in an annotated bibliography for doctoral level work unless there is a good reason.
Examples of a secondary source are:
Publications such as textbooks, magazine articles, book reviews, commentaries, encyclopedias, almanacs
Significance of source of information
Depth What is the depth of coverage of the information? A source that is completely reliable may still only give a light overview of the important information. In many cases, you will need to have more than a simple overview of information in order to connect the data to your topic.
Is the information you are using biased in any way? If so, does the bias affect the conclusions of the research? Does the information come from a source that will profit from a particular point of view? If so, the information may not be reliable. Does the source use proper citation?
How up-to-date is the information? When was it written? Many assignments, especially in the sciences, require research from the past five or ten years.
Who is the author? Does the author have a degree in the field? Is the author affiliated with an unbiased reputable organization? Note that scholarly articles tend to have multiple authors.
What is the purpose of the source? Is it to entertain, to change public opinion, to present research, or to teach? Who is the intended audience? Reliable research articles are usually very specific in nature and relate to a very specific field.
These five areas give you a way to reduce a large body of sources into the specific information that you need to include. This process will enhance the credibility of your writing and lead you to more accurate conclusions.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 837 Autumn & Spring 2020
aiou solved assignments code 837
Question 4: why do we use research tools? Explain briefly when and how each research tool should be used?
Your research will dictate the kinds of research methodologies you use to underpin your work and methods you use in order to collect data. If you wish to collect quantitative data you are probably measuring variables and verifying existing theories or hypotheses or questioning them. Data is often used to generate new hypotheses based on the results of data collected about different variables. One’s colleagues are often much happier about the ability to verify quantitative data as many people feel safe only with numbers and statistics.
However, often collections of statistics and number crunching are not the answer to understanding meanings, beliefs and experience, which are better understood through qualitative data. And quantitative data, it must be remembered, are also collected in accordance with certain research vehicles and underlying research questions. Even the production of numbers is guided by the kinds of questions asked of the subjects, so is essentially subjective, although it appears less so than qualitative research data.
Research is not confined to science and technology only. There are vast areas of research in other disciplines such as languages, literature, history and sociology. Whatever might be the subject, research has to be an active, diligent and systematic process of inquiry in order to discover, interpret or revise facts, events, behaviours and theories. Applying the outcome of research for the refinement of knowledge in other subjects, or in enhancing the quality of human life also becomes a kind of research and development. Research is done with the help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparison and reasoning. Research is in fact ubiquitous. For example, we know that cigarette smoking is injurious to health; heroine is addictive; cow dung is a useful source of biogas; malaria is due to the virus protozoan plasmodium; AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is due to the virus HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus). How did we know all these? We became aware of all these information only through research. More precisely, it seeks predictions of events, explanations, relationships and theories for them. As stated by Gerald Milburn Scientific research is a chaotic business, stumbling along amidst red herrings, errors and truly, creative insights. Great scientific breakthroughs are rarely the work of a single researchers plodding slowly by inexorably towards some final goal. The crucial idea behind the breakthrough may surface a number of times, in different places, only to sink again beneath the babble of an endless scientific discourse.
What Makes People do Research?
This is a fundamentally important question. No person would like to do research unless there are some motivating factors. Some of the motivations are the following:
(1) to get a research degree (Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)) along with its benefits like better
employment, promotion, increment in salary, etc.
(2) to get a research degree and then to get a teaching position in a college or university or
become a scientist in a research institution
(3) to get a research position in countries like U.S.A., Canada, Germany, England, Japan,
Australia, etc. and settle there
(4) to solve the unsolved and challenging problems
(5) to get joy of doing some creative work
(6) to acquire respectability
(7) to get recognition
(8) curiosity to find out the unknown facts of an event
(9) curiosity to find new things
(10) to serve the society by solving social problems.
Some students undertake research without any aim possibly because of not being able to think of anything else to do. Such students can also become good researchers by motivating themselves toward a respectable goal. As pointed out by Prof. Rajesh Kasturirangan (NIAS, IISc) even if you work in a company or run a company, a mind inclined towards research would do better than a mind not trained for it and it was like the story of the hare and the tortoise. If you have a mind trained for research, you will be the tortoise – the climb would be slow and steady, but eventually you would win the race.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2020 Code 837
aiou solved assignments code 837
Question 5: define research report. Write a note on each main part/ component of research report.
A research report is a document prepared by an analyst or strategist who is a part of the investment research team in a stock brokerage or investment bank. A research report may focus on a specific stock or industry sector, a currency, commodity or fixed-income instrument, or on a geographic region or country. Research reports generally, but not always, have actionable recommendations such as investment ideas that investors can act upon.
Mostly, research work is presented in a written form. The practical utility of research study depends heavily on the way it is presented to those who are expected to act on the basis of research findings. Research report is a written document containing key aspects of research project.
Research report is a medium to communicate research work with relevant people. It is also a good source of preservation of research work for the future reference. Many times, research findings are not followed because of improper presentation. Preparation of research report is not an easy task. It is an art. It requires a good deal of knowledge, imagination, experience, and expertise. It demands a considerable time and money.
Definitions: 1. In simple words: Research report is the systematic, articulate, and orderly presentation of research work in a written form.
2. We can also define the term as: Research report is a research document that contains basic aspects of the research project.
3. In the same way, we can say: on the research work carried out. It may be in form of hand-written, typed, or computerized.
Report Format: There is no one best format for all reports. Format depends on several relevant variables. One must employ a suitable format to create desirable impression with clarity. Report must be attractive. It should be written systematically and bound carefully. A report must use the format (often called structure) that best fit the needs and wants of its readers. Normally, following format is suggested as a basic outline, which has sufficient flexibly to meet the most situations.
Research report is divided into three parts as: I. First Part (Formality Part):
(i) Cover page
(ii) Title page
(iii) Certificate or statement
(iv) Index (brief contents)
(v) Table of contents (detailed index)
(vii) List of tables and figures used
(ix) Summary report
II. Main Report (Central Part of Report): (i) Statement of objectives
(ii) Methodology and research design
(iii) Types of data and its sources
(iv) Sampling decisions
(v) Data collection methods
(vi) Data collection tools
(viii) Analysis and interpretation (including tables, charts, figures, etc.)
(xi) Conclusions and recommendations
(xii) Any other relevant detail
III. Appendix (Additional Details): (i) Copies of forms used
(ii) Tables not included in findings
(iii) A copy of questionnaire
(iv) Detail of sampling and rate of response
(v) Statement of expenses
(vi) Bibliography – list of books, magazines, journals, and other reports
(vii) Any other relevant information
Key Considerations/Factors: While preparing research report, following issues must be considered: (i) Objectives
(ii) Type of problem/subject
(iii) Nature and type of research
(iv) Audience or users of research work
(v) Size of report
(vi) Form of writing – handwritten, typed, or computerized.
(vii) Time and cost
(ix) Contents of report
(x) Order of contents
(xi) Number of copies
(xii) Format – type and size of paper; lengths width, and depth of report; and pattern of writing including paragraph, indent, numbering, font size and type, colouring, etc.
(xiii) Binding (for soft, and, particularly, for hard copy) – type, quality of material, colour, etc., related issues.
aiou solved assignments code 837