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Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 829 Autumn 2018

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 829 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 829 Teacher Education in Pakistan 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (829) Level: M.A / M. Ed Semester: Autumn 2018 Assignment No. 1

Q 1. Critically analyze that to what extent the aims and objectives of teacher education as given in the national educational policy 2009 are consistent with the objectives define by Aggarwal.


The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (“the Policy”) is the latest in a series of education

policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the

National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first public document, the

White Paper, was finalised in March 2007. The White Paper, as designed, became the basis for

development of the Policy document. Though four years have elapsed between beginning

and finalisation of the exercise, the, lag is due to a number of factors including the process of

consultations adopted and significant political changes that took place in the country.

Two main reasons prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to launch the review in 2005

well before the time horizon of the existing Policy (1998 – 2010)1 : firstly, the Policy did not

produce the desired educational results and performance remained deficient in several key

aspects including access, quality and equity of educational opportunities and, secondly,

Pakistan’s new international commitments to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and

Dakar Framework of Action for Education for All (EFA). Also the challenges triggered by

globalisation and nation’s quest for becoming a knowledge society in the wake of compelling

domestic pressures like devolution and demographic transformations have necessitated a

renewed commitment to proliferate quality education for all.

This document is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 describes overarching challenges,

identifying two fundamental causes that lie behind the deficiencies in performance (the

commitment gap and the implementation gap), and outlines the way forward. Chapters 2 and

3 articulate the ways of filling the Commitment Gap (system values, priorities and resources)

and Implementation Gap (Ensuring good governance) respectively. Chapter 4 puts forward

the provisions of Islamic Education and transformation of the society on Islamic human

values. Chapters 5 to 8 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector levels.

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Chapter 9 broadly suggests a Framework for Implementation of the Action Plan of this Policy

document. Annex- I describes the current state of the education sector. Available indicators

have been assessed against data in comparable countries

Most of the issues recognised in this document were also discussed in previous policy

documents. A new policy document on its own will not ameliorate the condition but all

segments of society will have to contribute in this endeavour. However, the document does

recognise two deficits of previous documents i.e. governance reform and an implementation

roadmap, which if redressed, can improve the performance of the present Policy.

The policy discusses issues of inter-tier responsibilities wherein the respective roles and

functions of the federal-provincial-district governments continue to be unclear. Confusion has

been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’

mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other

issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for

management of various sub-sectors of education and, at times, within each sub-sector.

Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations


This document includes a chapter that describes the implementation framework. The

framework recognises the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education

policy measures. The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a coordinator

and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity in achievement of

educational goals nationally.

Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to

the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them

as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing

Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of

education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII

while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be


Literacy and Non-Formal Education

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Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education

through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to

55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and

income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic

educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted

to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing

disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.

Elementary Education

About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03.

Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and

Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner.

Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for

introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary

education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the

teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising

teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the

existing examination and assessment system. Integration of primary and middle level

education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65%

by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous

evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for

improving quality of education.

Secondary Education

One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a

career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls,

desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum

for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced.

The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical

and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of

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matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple

textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.

Teacher Education

To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers,

teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other

techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by

introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels

i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and

methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal

means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working

teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall

be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher

educators shall be created.

Technical and Vocational Education

To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing

trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development

goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of

employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static,

supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be

made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for

accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence,

communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be

reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the

relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g.

telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food

preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand

in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for

Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.

Higher Education

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Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the

year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher

education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given

autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with

any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award

of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at

higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. and Ph.D programs shall be launched and

laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split Ph.D programs shall be launched in

collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be

annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students

from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to

eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.

Information Technology

Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula

shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software

development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc

Library and Documentation Services School, college and university libraries shall be equipped

with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to

each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be


Private Sector in Education

Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national

and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed

schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A

reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of

educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing

educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through

Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate

for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education.

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Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in

residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools

running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions

must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks

and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately

managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.

Innovative Programes

The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer

standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will

become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is

expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests

shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.

Implementation Monitoring And Evaluation

A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to

the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure

public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal

and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at

their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and

Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing

EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the

need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and

Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands

of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial

EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System

(NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and

evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on

qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for

developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to

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facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for

collecting data from all over the country.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 829 Autumn 2018


Q 2. a) Highlight the responsibilities of a Muslim teacher, provide examples from

Holy Prophet (PBUH) life?


A right can be interpreted as an authority or power that ethically one can work, own,

abandon, use or demand something. The right can also mean a calling of the will of others to

the mediator of reason, contrary to the power or physical strength to recognize the authority

that exists on the other. Every human has a right, so the teacher has some rights too. The

teacher is the one who gives knowledge to the learners. Teachers in the community view are

those who carry out education in certain places (not only in formal educational institutions)

teachers have heavy duties and responsibilities. The teacher is a leader figure.

“And among men and moving creatures and the cattle (are) various [their] colors likewise. Only

fear Allah among His slaves those who have knowledge. Indeed, Allah (is) All-Mighty, Oft-

Forgiving.” (Fatir 35:28)

Teachers have spent time with learners in educating the nation’s children so that teachers

have some rights like below.

1. Lead his pupil

The duty of a teacher is to make her pupils become smarter and have a good akhlaq. In this

case, the teacher should lead his pupils to obtain the objectives that they are looking for.

“From Ibnu Umar ra said: The Messenger of Allah said: each of you is a shepherd and each

responsible for the shepherd: the leader is a shepherd, the husband is a shepherd to his family

members, and his wife is a shepherd in the middle of her husband’s household and against her.

Every one of you is a shepherd, and each is responsible for what is the shepherd. “(H.R. Bukhari

– Muslim)

2. Salary/wage

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Regarding the receipt of this salary at first, there was a dispute. Regarding this salary, the

pikers and philosophers differ in the opinion of the teacher receiving the salary or rejecting it.

The most famous refused to receive a salary is Socrates, then followed by the Muslim

philosophy of al-Ghazali, concluding forbidden salaries. While Al-Qabisi has different

opinions, he considers receiving the salary may be held. Al-qabisi’s reason, teachers receive

salaries because educators have become professions, of course, they are entitled to get

prosperity in economic life, in the form of salary or honorarium.

Teachers are part of the state apparatus that serves for the benefit of the State through the

education sector, appointed civil servants, given salaries and educational personnel

allowances. But if compared with developed countries, the income is not satisfactory but the

task is noble, not an obstacle for teachers in educating students. For teachers whose status is

non-civil servants then they are on the salary of the foundation, not even a few they do not

get it but they still serve in order to seek Allah SWT pleasure.

“Give a worker his wages before his sweat is dry.” (HR Ibnu Majah)

3. Getting the award and appreciation

The teacher is the spiritual father of the students. He is the one who provides spiritual

nourishment and improves the behavior of learners. That is the profession of teachers must

be honored, given its very significant role in preparing future generations. Respecting

teachers means respect for our children. The nation who wants to advance is a nation that is

able to give awards and respect to the teachers.

4. Give his pupil a lesson

It is the duty of the teacher to give his pupil a lesson. This lesson will make his pupils more

knowledgeable and smarter. There should not be an intervention for the teacher to give the


“As We sent among you a Messenger from you (who) recites to you Our verses and purifies you

and teaches you the Book and the wisdom and teaches you what not you were knowing.” (Al-

Baqarah 2:151)

5. Give his pupil a direction

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Pupils are like people that don’t know a direction and still not knowing anything. As a teacher,

he should give his pupils a direction and make them have a clear path in the future.

“You will not achieve that science except with six things. I will explain to you broadly:

intelligently, earnestly, patiently, there is provision, there is a guiding teacher and a long time.

(Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji)

6. Have freedom of expression

The teacher should have freedom of expression because how a teacher can transfer his

knowledge to his pupils without freedom. Obstacles and intervention should be cleared.

“I am the servant of the man who taught me a letter. If he wants to sell me and can also set me

free. “ (Sayyidina Ali r.a.)

7. Judge which is the right and the wrong one

There are some cases that make the teacher should choose between two options. As the

pupils, they need to accept the judgment of the teacher.

“Indeed, Allah orders you to render the trusts to their owners, and when you judge between the

people to judge with justice. Indeed, Allah excellently advises you with it. Indeed, Allah is All-

Hearing, All-Seeing.” (An-Nisa 4:58)

8. Get respect from people

The words of Allah and the words of the Apostle describe the high position of the one who

has knowledge (teacher). It is argued that the knowledge can lead people to always think and

analyze the nature of all phenomena that exist in nature, so as to bring people closer to Allah.

With the ability that exists in humans are born theories for the benefit of human beings. So,

we need to respect the teacher who is willing to give us the knowledge.

“Stand up and respect the teacher and reward him, a teacher is almost as an Apostle.” (Syauki)

9. Accept or reject gift

Teachers should avoid livelihoods that are contemptible in the view of syara ‘and away from

situations that can bring slander and do not do something that can drop the price in the eyes

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of the people. They also need to choose carefully between accept or reject a gift from the

parents or pupils to avoid slander.

“O you who believe[d]! Eat from (the) good (of) what We have provided you and be grateful to

Allah if you alone worship Him.” (Al-Baqarah 2:172)

10. Advise his pupil

The teacher should advise and correct those who do not maintain good manners in class,

such as insulting friends, laughing loudly, sleeping, talking to friends or not accepting the

truth. By doing this, the teacher can create a good behavior and akhlaq to his pupils.

Aiou Solved Assignments code 829 Autumn 2018


Q 2. b) Highlight the teaching methods and techniques recommended by Muslim scholars. Discuss the usability these methods in the current teaching learning environment.


The very first teachers were commissioned by the Prophet, and like him they taught for free.

Next to him they were the architects of an educated society whose leaders were truly its

teachers. Members of this society, the teachers and the taught, were collectively and

individually responsible for upholding its moral standards and correcting lapses: `bidding to

honour, forbidding dishonour.’ The number of kuttabs (learned) and mu’allams (teachers) in

the Muslim world increased rapidly and on a large scale until almost every village had its

own kuttab if not more than one. In Palermo, for example, Ibn Hawqal on his visit to Sicily

claimed to have counted about 300 elementary teachers. A contemporary of Caliph Umar’s,

Jubayr b. Hayya, who was later an official and governor, was a teacher in a school in Taif.

Famous men like al-Hadjadd and the poet’s al-Kumayt and al-Tirimmah are said to have been


In the search for knowledge, al-Faruqi insists, `everybody felt himself to be a conscript.’ In

early times it was thought wrong to take pay for teaching, especially the Qur’an and religion.

This was carried to extremes; a man fell into a well and would not let a pupil pull him out, lest

this should be considered payment for his teaching. A scholar bought some things at a shop,

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more than he could comfortably carry, so the shop-keeper offered to carry some for him. On

the way the shop-keeper asked a question. Before he would answer it, the scholar took from

him what he was carrying. The voluntary help would have become payment. A youth studied

the traditions without paying any fee, but when he asked to read al-Mutanabbi with the

commentary of Abu Zakariya, his teacher demanded a fee because it was poetry; the boy’s

father paid five dinars in advance. A man took a mithqal of silver a day for teaching someone

the Qur’an; the instruction lasted for five or six months but at the end the money was

returned to the student because the payment had been only a test of his zeal.

How were these scholars able to devote so much to the performance of such intellectual

feats? According to Pedersen, it was largely because most of them lived a life of ‘great

contentment.’ Learning, the life of the intellect, was ‘intimately bound up with religion, and to

devote oneself to both afforded an inner satisfaction and was [a] service to God […] it not only

made men of letters willing to accept deprivation; even more, it prompted others to lend

them aid.’ The Mosques received a wide variety of aid and grants for scholars from a number

of institutions. `No matter what their social origins, the subsistence of the scholars was

assured, often in ‘liberal measures’.’

Caliph Umar (12-23 A.H./634-644CE) is famed for his saying: `Teach your boys swimming,

archery, horsemanship, famous proverbs; and good of poetry.’ Another public curriculum is

ascribed to Ibn al-Tawam who is recorded to have said: `To do their duty towards their sons,

fathers must educate them with writing, arithmetic and swimming.’ When those who had

learnt the Qur’an took up the task of educating children, the Qur’an became the centre of this

elementary course. Learning the Qur’an then preceded everything, and next came religious

instruction. With grammar and arithmetic, the primary course was concluded.

Ibn al-Hajj (d. 736H/1336CE) has much to say about the school in general as here summed up

by Tritton:

‘The schools should be the bazar or a busy street, not in a secluded place. The emphasis on

publicity is strong; the master must not send an elder boy to his house with a message lest

rumour should start about the relations of the boy with the women-folk. The Mosque is no place

for a school for some people send little boys to school to get them out of the way and such

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children defile their clothes and the place where the Qur’an is taught. The school is a place for

teaching, not an eating house, so the boys should not bring food or money to buy it, but should

go home for meals. A check should be kept on the time taken for the trip to prevent idleness.

One reason for this ruling is respect for the feelings of poor boys who might be jealous of the

food brought by the well-to-do. If food had to be brought, the master might not share it with the

boys nor send any of it to his house. He might take their leavings or, if a boy ate none of his

food, he might have it all but, in either case, he must tell the parents.’

From the early times, renowned scholars taught in schools. Thus Dahak ibn Muzahim, the

exegist, traditionist and grammarian, who died in either 105H/723CE) or 106H/724 CE, had a

school in Kufa, said to have been attended by 3,000 children, where he used to ride up and

down among his pupils on an ass. As language was of the utmost importance, we find a

Bedouin being appointed and paid as a teacher of the youth in Basra [26]. Writers of that

period were not class based, but came from all walks of life. For example, al-Ahmar (d.

194H/810CE), who taught the children of Harun al-Rashid, gave his lectures drenched in musk

and incense and supplied his audience with all necessary writing materials. His contemporary,

al-Farra, however, was modestly dressed and sat on the floor, while his audience squatted in

the dust in front of him. Normally the author would sit cross-legged with his listeners seated

in a circle. Next to him would be his most trusted student who would faithfully transcribe all

that his teacher said.

Learning also had its objectives. Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between

the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day [59]. They

had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and

poetic contests, their commencements, their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe

and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was

required of all candidates desirous of practising their profession, and such as were unable to

pass the test were formally pronounced incompetent. After basic undergraduate training, if he

was successful and chosen by his master as a fellow, the student of law went on to graduate

studies that lasted an indefinite period of time, some fellows worked as repetitors (mu‘ids)

under their masters for as many as twenty years before acquiring their own professorial chair.

The law student was interested in obtaining an authorisation covering a field of knowledge,

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that of law, in one ijaza, the license to teach law and issue legal opinions, ijazat al-tadris wa’l-

fatwa, which he obtained from one master-jurisconsult.

In conclusion, it is thus apparent that, from the time and with the inspiration of the Prophet

Muhammad, the organisation of education and learning took a serious and established

position within Islamic Civilisation. In whatever the discipline, Muslims were able to design

structures and methods that would ensure that knowledge was passed to future generations,

for further progress in the acquisition of knowledge.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 829


Q 3. a) Discuss the scope of teacher education in the light of 18th amendments in the

constitution of Pakistan.


THE 18th Amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is an important step forward for the

parliamentary system in the country. It promises more autonomy to the provinces — a

popular demand put forward by a number of political parties.

Apart from the political restructuring it mandates, the amendment also holds some major

implications for the country’s system of education. Through it a new article, 25A, has been

inserted into the constitution that reads: “Right to education: The state shall provide free and

compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be

determined by law.” This is an important undertaking by the state since education, in

contemporary times, is considered an important tool for enhancing one’s chances for

socioeconomic development.

In Pakistan, a large number of students do not have access to schools or drop out before they

reach the fifth grade. A major reason behind the high dropout rate is poverty, and as a result

a large number of children remain illiterate and cannot become part of the literate human

resource group which is vital for the development of a country. An effective implementation

of this article of the constitution would without doubt pave the way for enriching the national

human capital.

Another major implication of the 18th Amendment for education is that the curriculum,

syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence and standards of education will fall under the

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purview of the provinces. This is a big step forward for education.The 18th Amendment,

passed unanimously by parliament, was the result of a rare consensus between all the major

political parties. After becoming a part of the constitution, however, some strong voices of

dissent were raised by different quarters, including the Ministry of Education. A campaign has

been initiated to spread the idea that the provinces are not ready to take up the massive

challenge of dealing with the provision of education. This claim is made on the assumption

that the provinces do not have the capacity or the financial resources to cope with the huge

challenge in front of them.

It has been argued that the contents of the curricula should remain with the federation since

the provinces could take liberties which may result in putting the unity and ideology of the

country at risk. Critics have asked how standards would be maintained across the provinces

and how quality would be assured. And what if all the provinces introduced regional

languages in schools? Would this weaken the federation?

Looking at the above points, one can understand the federation’s concern regarding the

future of education once it becomes a provincial responsibility. However, this concern seems

to emanate primarily from a lack of trust in the capacity and ability of the provinces.

It is interesting to note, though, that the provinces are already providing for school and

college education and they do have the capacity (in terms of intellectual resources) to handle

the job. As far as funds are concerned, the provinces have been funding education from their

budgets. The federation would give partial grants to the universities only.

The provinces should have the autonomy to design the curricula according to contextual

needs and learners’ requirement. If the federation is very concerned about the curriculum

issue, it can keep Islamiat and Pakistan Studies under its control. The curricula for other

subjects should be designed by the provinces concerned. Education standards can be

monitored through provincial quality assurance departments and the inter-provincial

coordination committee. Similarly, the provinces may introduce regional languages as a

subject in their respective provinces as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is attempting to do.

This right was already there, even before the 18th Amendment. The diversity of languages is

more likely to strengthen the federation, rather than weaken it. Recall that the denial of the

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demand to name Bangla as a national language in addition to Urdu played a major part in the

separation of East Pakistan. A cursory glance at the points above tells us that all the problems

can be resolved without much ado. It seems, however, that concerns about the incapability of

provinces to deal with educational responsibilities emerge from a trust deficit where the

centre, in its self-righteous manner, doubts the competence and integrity of the provinces.

Why is that so? Why this reluctance on the part of the federation? Why these fears that the

provinces may mess up the education system?

To understand this, we need to realise that education has a strong link with power. Education,

as political theorist Gramsci suggested, can pay an important part in controlling minds.

Historically education has been used to take and maintain control of marginalised countries

and groups, so if education becomes a provincial matter, certain powerful groups and

organisations see it as a shift in power which is not in their favour. The outcome is a lot of hue

and cry, and the offering of lame excuses. What is required at this point is a positive attitude

by the federation, a trust in the competence, integrity and patriotism of the provinces. As has

been suggested, there are two kinds of federations in the world: hold-together and come-

together. We need to make a move from holding the provinces together to persuading them

to come together. The 18th Amendment provides an excellent opportunity for such a

paradigm shift.


Q 3. b) Compare the capacity of the provinces in implementation of teacher programs

and maintaining the quality


Two significant effects of globalization around the world are the decentralization and

liberalization of systems, including education services. In 2000, the Pakistani Government

brought major higher education liberalization and expansion reforms by encouraging market

approaches based on self-financed programs. These approaches have been particularly

important in the area of teacher education and development. The Pakistani Government data

reports (AEPAM Islamabad) on education show vast growth in market-model off-campus

(open and distance) post-baccalaureate teacher education programs in the last fifteen years.

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Many academics and scholars have criticized traditional off-campus programs for their low

quality; new policy reforms in 2009, with the support of USAID, initiated the four-year honors

program, with the intention of phasing out all traditional programs by 2018. However, the

new policy still allows traditional off-campus market-model programs to be offered. This

important policy reform juncture warrants empirical research on the effectiveness of

traditional programs to inform current and future policies. Thus, this study focused on

assessing the worth of traditional and off-campus programs, and the effects of market

approaches, on the implementation of traditional post-baccalaureate teacher education

programs offered by public institutions in a southern province of Pakistan.

Conventional teacher education remained static as one to two year post-academic training

programs until the recent initiation of more comprehensive four-year bachelor programs in

2010. The conventional programs include the Primary Certificate of Teaching (post-

secondary/higher secondary) for preparing primary teachers, the Certificate of Teaching

(post-higher secondary) for preparing middle school teachers, and the Bachelor of Education

(post-baccalaureate) for preparing secondary school teachers. Some institutions offer Master

of Education programs as post- Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.) programs to prepare

educational administrators and teacher educators. The curriculum outline and instructional

approaches (mostly lecture-based) are similar in most of the provinces, as all of the programs

require the completion of ten courses of three credit hours each (thirty credit hours in total)

and, in addition, the practicum/practice-teaching component, which equals six credit hours.

However, the content of courses and the evaluation requirements vary across institutions and

provinces (UNESCO, 2008). The newly initiated four year programs are significantly different in

terms of entry requirements, curriculum content, and instructional and evaluation approaches

Historically, all of the conventional teacher education programs were offered as on campus

programs in the face-to-face mode until the late 1970s, when Allama Iqbal Open University

Islamabad (a federal public university) began offering a variety of programs as off campus

programs in open and distance learning modes (USAID/UNESCO, 2008). However, the

curriculum outline for most of the programs remained the same. Two decades later,

influenced by globalization, the national education policy of 1998 to 2010 allowed all

institutions to offer programs in open and distance learning modes. Since the off-campus

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programs were low-cost, many other public and private institutions of teacher education,

following the market model approach, began offering off-campus programs. In the early

2000s, Pakistan’s many public sector and private sector universities offered market model off-

campus teacher education programs in open and distance learning modes in their respective

regions of operation. The universities generated more funds through the off-campus

programs because these programs were very low-cost. A typical off-campus program enrolls

about 30 to 40 students per instructor, who conducts weekly (on Sundays) short face-to-face

sessions to provide instruction about readings. Most of the instructors in the off-campus

programs are in-service school teachers, or intermediate college teachers, who have an M. A.

or M. Ed. degree, and they are hired on a yearly contract basis. Since instruction in these

programs is their part-time job, these instructors agree to work for low salaries. The

curriculum is compressed and tailored to facilitate the success of candidates in these


Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 829



Q 4. a) Describe the nature, scope and the significance of in-service teacher training.


Training program in an organization is a process by which people are taught with skills and

given the necessary knowledge or attitude to enable them to carry out their responsibilities to

the required standard in the present job and to undertake greater and more demanding roles

for effective job performance. Organisations are facing many changes which are related to

economic needs, social needs and technology needs. As such, training programe plays an

important part to overcome these problems and to cater the needs of the organisations.

Training program is also important in the education sector same as the other sectors or

organisations. The need for training in education particularly for teachers are important to

improve the quality of education in Malaysia. Teachers are crucial in implementing

educational reforms in accordance with the aspiration of the National Philosophy of

Education. The success of a school curriculum is closely related to its effective

implementation. Teachers have to be personally aware of the school curriculum, improve and

enhance the necessary skills to interpret the concept changes accurately and to implement

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the modified curriculum according to its requirements, aims and objectives. As such, the need

for in-service training or staff development programme for teachers plays an essential role in

successful education reform. It also serves as a bridge between prospective and experienced

educators to meet the new challenges of guiding students towards higher standards of

learning and self-development. In developing the professionalism status of teachers, the

training program such as in-service training should not be run away from the reformation

that occurs. In-service training has for many years been the driving force behind much

changes that has occurred in the area of teaching and learning. As in any other profession, it

is vital that teachers keep up to date on the most current concepts, thinking and research in

their field. This, in turn supports in their ‘lifelong learning’ as educators, as professionals and

as individuals who are responsible for the education of the next generation. Teachers play

and active and vital role in the development of productive and dedicated Malaysian citizens.

The knowledge, idea, skills and attitude of the educator must be developed through

integrated and systematic way. According to Marsha & Naftaly(1999), one of the important

component to improve the quality of education is through in-service training for teachers.

With respect to this, even though there are many in-service training programme been

organised by the Ministry of Education, State Education Department and District Education

Office, but the effectiveness of in-service training in schools should not be taken lightly by

school management and also teachers.

The need for in-service training for teachers

The need for in-service training in schools is getting more attention for teachers to equip with

new knowledge and skills for them to face new challenges and reformation in education. In-

service training can enhance the professionalism of teachers who can contribute to the

organisation to achieve it’s goals. In-service training is a professional and personal

educational activity for teachers to improve their efficiency, ability, knowledge and motivation

in their professional work. In-service training offers one of the most promising roads to the

improvement of instruction. It includes goal and content, the training process and the

context. According to Ong (1993), In-service training is the totality of educational and

personal experiences that contribute toward an individual being more competent and

satisfied in an assigned professional role. The primary purpose of in-service training is to

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enable teachers to acquire new understanding and instructional skills. It focuses on creating

learning environments which enable teachers to develop their effectiveness in the classroom.

In this aspect, in-service training for teachers is the driving force behind much change that

has occured in the are of teaching and learning.

It is vital that teachers keep up to date on the most current concepts, thinking and research in

their field and also promote professional growth among teachers in order to promote

excellent and effective teaching and learning environment for students. According to

Kazmi,Pervez & Mumtaz (2011), inservice training for teachers enables the teachers to be

more systematic and logical in their teaching style. In-service training is a planned process

whereby the effectiveness of teachers collectively or individually is enhanced in response to

new knowledge, new ideas and changing curcumstances in order to improve, directly or

indirectly the quality of pupils education. According to Abdul Rashid (1996), in-service

training comprises two main elements, that is the fulfillment of pupils leraning needs and

ensuring personal and career development of the academic staff. In-service training is a

fundamental aspect for the enhancement of teachers profesionalisme related to the teachers

vision to improve the quality of their work.

Through in-service training, teachers can identify and evaluate critically the culture of the

school which can bring changes to the working culture. Studies by Ekpoh,Oswald & Victoria

(2013) shows that, teachers who attend in-service training perform effectively in their work

concerning knowledge of the subject, classroom management, teaching method and

evaluation of students. Studies by Jahangir, Saheen & Kazmi (2012) also shows that in-service

training plays a major role to improve the teachers performance in school.

Beside that, in-service training also provide teachers with ample opportunities to learn new

concepts, methods and approaches through professional development. In-service training is d

deliberate and continuous process involving the identification and discussion of present and

anticipated needs of individual staff for furthering their job satisfaction and career prospects

and of the institution for supporting its academic work and plans, and the implementation of

programmes of staff activities designed for the harmonious satisfaction of these needs. In-

service training can also change the attitude and skills of teachers and further increase the

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performance of students. It also can help to change the procedures, approaches and practices

teacher teach, the way student learn and would also help to create an excellent school culture

in schools. According to Frederick & Stephen (2010), during the in-service training, teachers

will schools management skills, evaluation techniques and master wider content areas of their

subjects. For this reason, teachers and educational experts should increase their effort in

fostering and implementing in-service training in schools so as to improve the effectiveness

of development in schools. In-service training have undegone considerable change in the

recent years. As a practice, “result-driven in service training is concerned with changing

behaviour and/or attitudes of teachers, administrators and staff members rather than being

concerned with the number of participants in such programs”.(Ronald,2004:169). It is literally

impossible today for any individual to take on a job or enter a profession and remain in it

without any changes. Therefore “in-service training is not only desirable but also ab activity to

which each school system must commit human and fiscal resources if it is to maintain a

skilled and knowledgeable staff”.(Ronald, 2004:170)

The importance of in-service training should be looked in various perspectives. It promotes a

very flexible environment and allow teachers to adapt with the working situation and it is also

one form of motivation for employees or employers and it will continue to increase creativity

in teaching and learning process. It also enable teachers to acquire new understanding and

instructional skills to develop their effectiveness in the classroom. In-service training for

teachers should have a positive effect on teachers in increasing knowledge, communication

with their involvement i n planning school activities and also it increased the staff motivation.

Studies done by Thompson (1992) shows that, after going through in-service training, there

are positive change in teachers attitude, increase self-confidence and also follow up with

teachers readiness in facing any various resistance situation.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 829


Q 5. Elaborate the structure of teacher education in Pakistan, also critically analyze its

possible effect of on skills of the further teacher


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Teacher education (TE) or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision

designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills

they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.

The professionals who engage in this activity are called teacher educators (or, in some

contexts, teacher trainers).

There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe

these activities. The term ‘teacher training’ (which may give the impression that the activity

involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at

least in the U.S., to ‘teacher education’ (with its connotation of preparing staff for a

professional role as a reflective practitioner).

Teacher Education Programs at Pakistan

Primary School Teachers

Teacher training at the post secondary level takes place in Regional Institutes of Teacher

Education (RITE), and at the Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for a one-year program

known as the Primary Teaching Certificate. In addition, prospective teachers are also prepared

at the private sector institutions affiliated or enlisted with universities of public or private


Secondary School Teachers

Government training institutes of education and different affiliated colleges in private sector

train teachers for the secondary school level. They are awarded a Certificate of Teaching (CT)

for one year study after passing the examination of Higher Secondary School Certificate.

Teacher Education at Universities

The prospective teachers aspiring to teach at the higher secondary school level study for one

year at the Education Colleges for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, after two-year

bachelor’s of Arts or Science (BA/BSc) education. Teachers possessing B.Ed degree are eligible

to teach at the Secondary school level. Masters of Education (M.Ed) is a one year university

education after completion of B.Ed.

Policy Priorities for Teacher Education

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All the National Education Policies of Pakistan have accorded great importance to teacher

education. The 1959 Commission on National Education stressed upon the necessity of

adequate pre service teacher education gave recommendations about functions of teachers

in a university and about selection and promotion of teachers. The Education Policy 1972-80

estimated the teacher producing capacity of then existing 12 teacher training colleges and 55

teacher education institutions in Pakistan, to be four thousand which was much less than the

estimated demand of three hundred thousand additionally required teachers. It

recommended the introduction of Education subject at Secondary, Higher Secondary and

Degree level and students qualifying these subjects were suggested to be taken as primary,

middle and high level teachers. Relaxation of training requirements for women teachers in

special cases was recommended in order to increase the number of women teachers. An

academy for teachers’ and educational Administrators’ training was recommended to be set

up. The outdated nature of the teacher training courses was admitted, and their revision was

recommended, along with this preparation of model standard textbooks for teacher trainees

were advised.

The National Education Policy 1979 had vividly valued the significant role of teachers in the

effective implementation of the education policies. It was asserted that teacher is the pivot of

the entire educational system. In order to promote pre-service teacher education, all the

Primary Teacher Training Institutions were planned to be upgraded to Colleges of Elementary

Education. An Academy of Higher Education was approved to be established to provide in-

service and pre-service training to the College and University teachers. Another Academy for

Educational Planning and Management was also established to provide opportunities of

training to administrators and supervisors working at different levels of the educational

system. This National Education Policy envisaged that every teacher would be expected to

undergo one in-service course during five-year cycle of his/her service. A system of National

Awards for best teachers was planned to be instituted. Every year ten teachers of various

levels and categories were planned to receive these awards from the President of Pakistan at

national level. Similar awards were planned to be given to selected teachers by the respective

provincial governors.

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The Sixth five Year Plan (1983-88), earmarked sixty million rupees for the teacher education

programs to establish additional primary and secondary teacher training institutes and to

enhance the training capacity of the existing primary and secondary teacher training

institutions, and departments of Education at the Universities. This plan was unique in the

sense that it allocated special funds categorically for the teacher education programs. Prior to

this the trend of blanket approval was in practice and the badly needed requisite

improvement in the standard of teachers could not be facilitated. The incremental allocation,

as given in the following table reflected the increased importance accorded to teacher


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