Aiou Solved Assignments code 829 Autumn & Spring 2021
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 829 Autumn & Spring 2021. Solved Assignments code 829 Teacher Education in Pakistan 2021. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (829)
Level: M.A / M. Ed
Semester:Autumn & Spring 2021
Assignment No. 1
Q 1. Critically analyze that to what extent the aims and objectives of teacher education as given in the national educational policy 2009 are consistent with the objectives define by Aggarwal.
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (“the Policy”) is the latest in a series of education
policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the
National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first public document, the
White Paper, was finalised in March 2007. The White Paper, as designed, became the basis for
development of the Policy document. Though four years have elapsed between beginning
and finalisation of the exercise, the, lag is due to a number of factors including the process of
consultations adopted and significant political changes that took place in the country.
Two main reasons prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to launch the review in 2005
well before the time horizon of the existing Policy (1998 – 2010)1 : firstly, the Policy did not
produce the desired educational results and performance remained deficient in several key
aspects including access, quality and equity of educational opportunities and, secondly,
Pakistan’s new international commitments to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and
Dakar Framework of Action for Education for All (EFA). Also the challenges triggered by
globalisation and nation’s quest for becoming a knowledge society in the wake of compelling
domestic pressures like devolution and demographic transformations have necessitated a
renewed commitment to proliferate quality education for all.
This document is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 describes overarching challenges,
identifying two fundamental causes that lie behind the deficiencies in performance (the
commitment gap and the implementation gap), and outlines the way forward. Chapters 2 and
3 articulate the ways of filling the Commitment Gap (system values, priorities and resources)
and Implementation Gap (Ensuring good governance) respectively. Chapter 4 puts forward
the provisions of Islamic Education and transformation of the society on Islamic human
values. Chapters 5 to 8 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector levels.
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Chapter 9 broadly suggests a Framework for Implementation of the Action Plan of this Policy
document. Annex- I describes the current state of the education sector. Available indicators
have been assessed against data in comparable countries
Most of the issues recognised in this document were also discussed in previous policy
documents. A new policy document on its own will not ameliorate the condition but all
segments of society will have to contribute in this endeavour. However, the document does
recognise two deficits of previous documents i.e. governance reform and an implementation
roadmap, which if redressed, can improve the performance of the present Policy.
The policy discusses issues of inter-tier responsibilities wherein the respective roles and
functions of the federal-provincial-district governments continue to be unclear. Confusion has
been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’
mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other
issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for
management of various sub-sectors of education and, at times, within each sub-sector.
Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations
This document includes a chapter that describes the implementation framework. The
framework recognises the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education
policy measures. The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a coordinator
and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity in achievement of
educational goals nationally.
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to
the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them
as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing
Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of
education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII
while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be
Literacy and Non-Formal Education
Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education
through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to
55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and
income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic
educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted
to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing
disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03.
Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and
Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner.
Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for
introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary
education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the
teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising
teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the
existing examination and assessment system. Integration of primary and middle level
education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65%
by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous
evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for
improving quality of education.
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a
career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls,
desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum
for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced.
The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical
and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of
matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple
textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.
To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers,
teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other
techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by
introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels
i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and
methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal
means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working
teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall
be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher
educators shall be created.
Technical and Vocational Education
To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing
trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development
goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of
employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static,
supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be
made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for
accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence,
communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be
reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the
relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g.
telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food
preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand
in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for
Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.
Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the
year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher
education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given
autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with
any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award
of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at
higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. and Ph.D programs shall be launched and
laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split Ph.D programs shall be launched in
collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be
annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students
from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to
eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.
Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula
shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software
development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services School, college and university libraries shall be equipped
with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to
each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be
Private Sector in Education
Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national
and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed
schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A
reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of
educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing
educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through
Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate
for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education.
Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in
residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools
running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions
must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks
and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately
managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer
standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will
become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is
expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests
shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Implementation Monitoring And Evaluation
A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to
the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure
public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal
and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at
their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and
Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing
EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the
need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and
Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands
of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial
EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System
(NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and
evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on
qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for
developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to
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facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for
collecting data from all over the country.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 829 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q 2. a) Highlight the responsibilities of a Muslim teacher, provide examples from
Holy Prophet (PBUH) life?
A right can be interpreted as an authority or power that ethically one can work, own,
abandon, use or demand something. The right can also mean a calling of the will of others to
the mediator of reason, contrary to the power or physical strength to recognize the authority
that exists on the other. Every human has a right, so the teacher has some rights too. The
teacher is the one who gives knowledge to the learners. Teachers in the community view are
those who carry out education in certain places (not only in formal educational institutions)
teachers have heavy duties and responsibilities. The teacher is a leader figure.
“And among men and moving creatures and the cattle (are) various [their] colors likewise. Only
fear Allah among His slaves those who have knowledge. Indeed, Allah (is) All-Mighty, Oft-
Forgiving.” (Fatir 35:28)
Teachers have spent time with learners in educating the nation’s children so that teachers
have some rights like below.
1. Lead his pupil
The duty of a teacher is to make her pupils become smarter and have a good akhlaq. In this
case, the teacher should lead his pupils to obtain the objectives that they are looking for.
“From Ibnu Umar ra said: The Messenger of Allah said: each of you is a shepherd and each
responsible for the shepherd: the leader is a shepherd, the husband is a shepherd to his family
members, and his wife is a shepherd in the middle of her husband’s household and against her.
Every one of you is a shepherd, and each is responsible for what is the shepherd. “(H.R. Bukhari
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Regarding the receipt of this salary at first, there was a dispute. Regarding this salary, the
pikers and philosophers differ in the opinion of the teacher receiving the salary or rejecting it.
The most famous refused to receive a salary is Socrates, then followed by the Muslim
philosophy of al-Ghazali, concluding forbidden salaries. While Al-Qabisi has different
opinions, he considers receiving the salary may be held. Al-qabisi’s reason, teachers receive
salaries because educators have become professions, of course, they are entitled to get
prosperity in economic life, in the form of salary or honorarium.
Teachers are part of the state apparatus that serves for the benefit of the State through the
education sector, appointed civil servants, given salaries and educational personnel
allowances. But if compared with developed countries, the income is not satisfactory but the
task is noble, not an obstacle for teachers in educating students. For teachers whose status is
non-civil servants then they are on the salary of the foundation, not even a few they do not
get it but they still serve in order to seek Allah SWT pleasure.
“Give a worker his wages before his sweat is dry.” (HR Ibnu Majah)
3. Getting the award and appreciation
The teacher is the spiritual father of the students. He is the one who provides spiritual
nourishment and improves the behavior of learners. That is the profession of teachers must
be honored, given its very significant role in preparing future generations. Respecting
teachers means respect for our children. The nation who wants to advance is a nation that is
able to give awards and respect to the teachers.
4. Give his pupil a lesson
It is the duty of the teacher to give his pupil a lesson. This lesson will make his pupils more
knowledgeable and smarter. There should not be an intervention for the teacher to give the
“As We sent among you a Messenger from you (who) recites to you Our verses and purifies you
and teaches you the Book and the wisdom and teaches you what not you were knowing.” (Al-
5. Give his pupil a direction
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Pupils are like people that don’t know a direction and still not knowing anything. As a teacher,
he should give his pupils a direction and make them have a clear path in the future.
“You will not achieve that science except with six things. I will explain to you broadly:
intelligently, earnestly, patiently, there is provision, there is a guiding teacher and a long time.
” (Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji)
6. Have freedom of expression
The teacher should have freedom of expression because how a teacher can transfer his
knowledge to his pupils without freedom. Obstacles and intervention should be cleared.
“I am the servant of the man who taught me a letter. If he wants to sell me and can also set me
free. “ (Sayyidina Ali r.a.)
7. Judge which is the right and the wrong one
There are some cases that make the teacher should choose between two options. As the
pupils, they need to accept the judgment of the teacher.
“Indeed, Allah orders you to render the trusts to their owners, and when you judge between the
people to judge with justice. Indeed, Allah excellently advises you with it. Indeed, Allah is All-
Hearing, All-Seeing.” (An-Nisa 4:58)
8. Get respect from people
The words of Allah and the words of the Apostle describe the high position of the one who
has knowledge (teacher). It is argued that the knowledge can lead people to always think and
analyze the nature of all phenomena that exist in nature, so as to bring people closer to Allah.
With the ability that exists in humans are born theories for the benefit of human beings. So,
we need to respect the teacher who is willing to give us the knowledge.
“Stand up and respect the teacher and reward him, a teacher is almost as an Apostle.” (Syauki)
9. Accept or reject gift
Teachers should avoid livelihoods that are contemptible in the view of syara ‘and away from
situations that can bring slander and do not do something that can drop the price in the eyes
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of the people. They also need to choose carefully between accept or reject a gift from the
parents or pupils to avoid slander.
“O you who believe[d]! Eat from (the) good (of) what We have provided you and be grateful to
Allah if you alone worship Him.” (Al-Baqarah 2:172)
10. Advise his pupil
The teacher should advise and correct those who do not maintain good manners in class,
such as insulting friends, laughing loudly, sleeping, talking to friends or not accepting the
truth. By doing this, the teacher can create a good behavior and akhlaq to his pupils.
Aiou Solved Assignments code 829 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q 2. b) Highlight the teaching methods and techniques recommended by Muslim scholars. Discuss the usability these methods in the current teaching learning environment.
The very first teachers were commissioned by the Prophet, and like him they taught for free.
Next to him they were the architects of an educated society whose leaders were truly its
teachers. Members of this society, the teachers and the taught, were collectively and
individually responsible for upholding its moral standards and correcting lapses: `bidding to
honour, forbidding dishonour.’ The number of kuttabs (learned) and mu’allams (teachers) in
the Muslim world increased rapidly and on a large scale until almost every village had its
own kuttab if not more than one. In Palermo, for example, Ibn Hawqal on his visit to Sicily
claimed to have counted about 300 elementary teachers. A contemporary of Caliph Umar’s,
Jubayr b. Hayya, who was later an official and governor, was a teacher in a school in Taif.
Famous men like al-Hadjadd and the poet’s al-Kumayt and al-Tirimmah are said to have been
In the search for knowledge, al-Faruqi insists, `everybody felt himself to be a conscript.’ In
early times it was thought wrong to take pay for teaching, especially the Qur’an and religion.
This was carried to extremes; a man fell into a well and would not let a pupil pull him out, lest
this should be considered payment for his teaching. A scholar bought some things at a shop,
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more than he could comfortably carry, so the shop-keeper offered to carry some for him. On
the way the shop-keeper asked a question. Before he would answer it, the scholar took from
him what he was carrying. The voluntary help would have become payment. A youth studied
the traditions without paying any fee, but when he asked to read al-Mutanabbi with the
commentary of Abu Zakariya, his teacher demanded a fee because it was poetry; the boy’s
father paid five dinars in advance. A man took a mithqal of silver a day for teaching someone
the Qur’an; the instruction lasted for five or six months but at the end the money was
returned to the student because the payment had been only a test of his zeal.
How were these scholars able to devote so much to the performance of such intellectual
feats? According to Pedersen, it was largely because most of them lived a life of ‘great
contentment.’ Learning, the life of the intellect, was ‘intimately bound up with religion, and to
devote oneself to both afforded an inner satisfaction and was [a] service to God […] it not only
made men of letters willing to accept deprivation; even more, it prompted others to lend
them aid.’ The Mosques received a wide variety of aid and grants for scholars from a number
of institutions. `No matter what their social origins, the subsistence of the scholars was
assured, often in ‘liberal measures’.’
Caliph Umar (12-23 A.H./634-644CE) is famed for his saying: `Teach your boys swimming,
archery, horsemanship, famous proverbs; and good of poetry.’ Another public curriculum is
ascribed to Ibn al-Tawam who is recorded to have said: `To do their duty towards their sons,
fathers must educate them with writing, arithmetic and swimming.’ When those who had
learnt the Qur’an took up the task of educating children, the Qur’an became the centre of this
elementary course. Learning the Qur’an then preceded everything, and next came religious
instruction. With grammar and arithmetic, the primary course was concluded.
Ibn al-Hajj (d. 736H/1336CE) has much to say about the school in general as here summed up
‘The schools should be the bazar or a busy street, not in a secluded place. The emphasis on
publicity is strong; the master must not send an elder boy to his house with a message lest
rumour should start about the relations of the boy with the women-folk. The Mosque is no place
for a school for some people send little boys to school to get them out of the way and such
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children defile their clothes and the place where the Qur’an is taught. The school is a place for
teaching, not an eating house, so the boys should not bring food or money to buy it, but should
go home for meals. A check should be kept on the time taken for the trip to prevent idleness.
One reason for this ruling is respect for the feelings of poor boys who might be jealous of the
food brought by the well-to-do. If food had to be brought, the master might not share it with the
boys nor send any of it to his house. He might take their leavings or, if a boy ate none of his
food, he might have it all but, in either case, he must tell the parents.’
From the early times, renowned scholars taught in schools. Thus Dahak ibn Muzahim, the
exegist, traditionist and grammarian, who died in either 105H/723CE) or 106H/724 CE, had a
school in Kufa, said to have been attended by 3,000 children, where he used to ride up and
down among his pupils on an ass. As language was of the utmost importance, we find a
Bedouin being appointed and paid as a teacher of the youth in Basra . Writers of that
period were not class based, but came from all walks of life. For example, al-Ahmar (d.
194H/810CE), who taught the children of Harun al-Rashid, gave his lectures drenched in musk
and incense and supplied his audience with all necessary writing materials. His contemporary,
al-Farra, however, was modestly dressed and sat on the floor, while his audience squatted in
the dust in front of him. Normally the author would sit cross-legged with his listeners seated
in a circle. Next to him would be his most trusted student who would faithfully transcribe all
that his teacher said.
Learning also had its objectives. Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between
the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day . They
had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and
poetic contests, their commencements, their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe
and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was
required of all candidates desirous of practising their profession, and such as were unable to
pass the test were formally pronounced incompetent. After basic undergraduate training, if he
was successful and chosen by his master as a fellow, the student of law went on to graduate
studies that lasted an indefinite period of time, some fellows worked as repetitors (mu‘ids)
under their masters for as many as twenty years before acquiring their own professorial chair.
The law student was interested in obtaining an authorisation covering a field of knowledge,
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that of law, in one ijaza, the license to teach law and issue legal opinions, ijazat al-tadris wa’l-
fatwa, which he obtained from one master-jurisconsult.
In conclusion, it is thus apparent that, from the time and with the inspiration of the Prophet
Muhammad, the organisation of education and learning took a serious and established
position within Islamic Civilisation. In whatever the discipline, Muslims were able to design
structures and methods that would ensure that knowledge was passed to future generations,
for further progress in the acquisition of knowledge.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 code 829
Q 3. a) Discuss the scope of teacher education in the light of 18th amendments in the
constitution of Pakistan.
THE 18th Amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is an important step forward for the
parliamentary system in the country. It promises more autonomy to the provinces — a
popular demand put forward by a number of political parties.
Apart from the political restructuring it mandates, the amendment also holds some major
implications for the country’s system of education. Through it a new article, 25A, has been
inserted into the constitution that reads: “Right to education: The state shall provide free and
compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be
determined by law.” This is an important undertaking by the state since education, in
contemporary times, is considered an important tool for enhancing one’s chances for
In Pakistan, a large number of students do not have access to schools or drop out before they
reach the fifth grade. A major reason behind the high dropout rate is poverty, and as a result
a large number of children remain illiterate and cannot become part of the literate human
resource group which is vital for the development of a country. An effective implementation
of this article of the constitution would without doubt pave the way for enriching the national
Another major implication of the 18th Amendment for education is that the curriculum,
syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence and standards of education will fall under the
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purview of the provinces. This is a big step forward for education.The 18th Amendment,
passed unanimously by parliament, was the result of a rare consensus between all the major
political parties. After becoming a part of the constitution, however, some strong voices of
dissent were raised by different quarters, including the Ministry of Education. A campaign has
been initiated to spread the idea that the provinces are not ready to take up the massive
challenge of dealing with the provision of education. This claim is made on the assumption
that the provinces do not have the capacity or the financial resources to cope with the huge
challenge in front of them.
It has been argued that the contents of the curricula should remain with the federation since
the provinces could take liberties which may result in putting the unity and ideology of the
country at risk. Critics have asked how standards would be maintained across the provinces
and how quality would be assured. And what if all the provinces introduced regional
languages in schools? Would this weaken the federation?
Looking at the above points, one can understand the federation’s concern regarding the
future of education once it becomes a provincial responsibility. However, this concern seems
to emanate primarily from a lack of trust in the capacity and ability of the provinces.
It is interesting to note, though, that the provinces are already providing for school and
college education and they do have the capacity (in terms of intellectual resources) to handle
the job. As far as funds are concerned, the provinces have been funding education from their
budgets. The federation would give partial grants to the universities only.
The provinces should have the autonomy to design the curricula according to contextual
needs and learners’ requirement. If the federation is very concerned about the curriculum
issue, it can keep Islamiat and Pakistan Studies under its control. The curricula for other
subjects should be designed by the provinces concerned. Education standards can be
monitored through provincial quality assurance departments and the inter-provincial
coordination committee. Similarly, the provinces may introduce regional languages as a
subject in their respective provinces as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is attempting to do.
This right was already there, even before the 18th Amendment. The diversity of languages is
more likely to strengthen the federation, rather than weaken it. Recall that the denial of the
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demand to name Bangla as a national language in addition to Urdu played a major part in the
separation of East Pakistan. A cursory glance at the points above tells us that all the problems
can be resolved without much ado. It seems, however, that concerns about the incapability of
provinces to deal with educational responsibilities emerge from a trust deficit where the
centre, in its self-righteous manner, doubts the competence and integrity of the provinces.
Why is that so? Why this reluctance on the part of the federation? Why these fears that the
provinces may mess up the education system?
To understand this, we need to realise that education has a strong link with power. Education,
as political theorist Gramsci suggested, can pay an important part in controlling minds.
Historically education has been used to take and maintain control of marginalised countries
and groups, so if education becomes a provincial matter, certain powerful groups and
organisations see it as a shift in power which is not in their favour. The outcome is a lot of hue
and cry, and the offering of lame excuses. What is required at this point is a positive attitude
by the federation, a trust in the competence, integrity and patriotism of the provinces. As has
been suggested, there are two kinds of federations in the world: hold-together and come-
together. We need to make a move from holding the provinces together to persuading them
to come together. The 18th Amendment provides an excellent opportunity for such a
Q 3. b) Compare the capacity of the provinces in implementation of teacher programs
and maintaining the quality
Two significant effects of globalization around the world are the decentralization and
liberalization of systems, including education services. In 2000, the Pakistani Government
brought major higher education liberalization and expansion reforms by encouraging market
approaches based on self-financed programs. These approaches have been particularly
important in the area of teacher education and development. The Pakistani Government data
reports (AEPAM Islamabad) on education show vast growth in market-model off-campus
(open and distance) post-baccalaureate teacher education programs in the last fifteen years.
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Many academics and scholars have criticized traditional off-campus programs for their low
quality; new policy reforms in 2009, with the support of USAID, initiated the four-year honors
program, with the intention of phasing out all traditional programs by 2018. However, the
new policy still allows traditional off-campus market-model programs to be offered. This
important policy reform juncture warrants empirical research on the effectiveness of
traditional programs to inform current and future policies. Thus, this study focused on
assessing the worth of traditional and off-campus programs, and the effects of market
approaches, on the implementation of traditional post-baccalaureate teacher education
programs offered by public institutions in a southern province of Pakistan.
Conventional teacher education remained static as one to two year post-academic training
programs until the recent initiation of more comprehensive four-year bachelor programs in
2010. The conventional programs include the Primary Certificate of Teaching (post-
secondary/higher secondary) for preparing primary teachers, the Certificate of Teaching
(post-higher secondary) for preparing middle school teachers, and the Bachelor of Education
(post-baccalaureate) for preparing secondary school teachers. Some institutions offer Master
of Education programs as post- Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.) programs to prepare
educational administrators and teacher educators. The curriculum outline and instructional
approaches (mostly lecture-based) are similar in most of the provinces, as all of the programs
require the completion of ten courses of three credit hours each (thirty credit hours in total)
and, in addition, the practicum/practice-teaching component, which equals six credit hours.
However, the content of courses and the evaluation requirements vary across institutions and
provinces (UNESCO, 2008). The newly initiated four year programs are significantly different in
terms of entry requirements, curriculum content, and instructional and evaluation approaches
Historically, all of the conventional teacher education programs were offered as on campus
programs in the face-to-face mode until the late 1970s, when Allama Iqbal Open University
Islamabad (a federal public university) began offering a variety of programs as off campus
programs in open and distance learning modes (USAID/UNESCO, 2008). However, the
curriculum outline for most of the programs remained the same. Two decades later,
influenced by globalization, the national education policy of 1998 to 2010 allowed all
institutions to offer programs in open and distance learning modes. Since the off-campus
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programs were low-cost, many other public and private institutions of teacher education,
following the market model approach, began offering off-campus programs. In the early
2000s, Pakistan’s many public sector and private sector universities offered market model off-
campus teacher education programs in open and distance learning modes in their respective
regions of operation. The universities generated more funds through the off-campus
programs because these programs were very low-cost. A typical off-campus program enrolls
about 30 to 40 students per instructor, who conducts weekly (on Sundays) short face-to-face
sessions to provide instruction about readings. Most of the instructors in the off-campus
programs are in-service school teachers, or intermediate college teachers, who have an M. A.
or M. Ed. degree, and they are hired on a yearly contract basis. Since instruction in these
programs is their part-time job, these instructors agree to work for low salaries. The
curriculum is compressed and tailored to facilitate the success of candidates in these
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 829 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q 4. a) Describe the nature, scope and the significance of in-service teacher training.
Training program in an organization is a process by which people are taught with skills and
given the necessary knowledge or attitude to enable them to carry out their responsibilities to
the required standard in the present job and to undertake greater and more demanding roles
for effective job performance. Organisations are facing many changes which are related to
economic needs, social needs and technology needs. As such, training programe plays an
important part to overcome these problems and to cater the needs of the organisations.
Training program is also important in the education sector same as the other sectors or
organisations. The need for training in education particularly for teachers are important to
improve the quality of education in Malaysia. Teachers are crucial in implementing
educational reforms in accordance with the aspiration of the National Philosophy of
Education. The success of a school curriculum is closely related to its effective
implementation. Teachers have to be personally aware of the school curriculum, improve and
enhance the necessary skills to interpret the concept changes accurately and to implement
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the modified curriculum according to its requirements, aims and objectives. As such, the need
for in-service training or staff development programme for teachers plays an essential role in
successful education reform. It also serves as a bridge between prospective and experienced
educators to meet the new challenges of guiding students towards higher standards of
learning and self-development. In developing the professionalism status of teachers, the
training program such as in-service training should not be run away from the reformation
that occurs. In-service training has for many years been the driving force behind much
changes that has occurred in the area of teaching and learning. As in any other profession, it
is vital that teachers keep up to date on the most current concepts, thinking and research in
their field. This, in turn supports in their ‘lifelong learning’ as educators, as professionals and
as individuals who are responsible for the education of the next generation. Teachers play
and active and vital role in the development of productive and dedicated Malaysian citizens.
The knowledge, idea, skills and attitude of the educator must be developed through
integrated and systematic way. According to Marsha & Naftaly(1999), one of the important
component to improve the quality of education is through in-service training for teachers.
With respect to this, even though there are many in-service training programme been
organised by the Ministry of Education, State Education Department and District Education
Office, but the effectiveness of in-service training in schools should not be taken lightly by
school management and also teachers.
The need for in-service training for teachers
The need for in-service training in schools is getting more attention for teachers to equip with
new knowledge and skills for them to face new challenges and reformation in education. In-
service training can enhance the professionalism of teachers who can contribute to the
organisation to achieve it’s goals. In-service training is a professional and personal
educational activity for teachers to improve their efficiency, ability, knowledge and motivation
in their professional work. In-service training offers one of the most promising roads to the
improvement of instruction. It includes goal and content, the training process and the
context. According to Ong (1993), In-service training is the totality of educational and
personal experiences that contribute toward an individual being more competent and
satisfied in an assigned professional role. The primary purpose of in-service training is to
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enable teachers to acquire new understanding and instructional skills. It focuses on creating
learning environments which enable teachers to develop their effectiveness in the classroom.
In this aspect, in-service training for teachers is the driving force behind much change that
has occured in the are of teaching and learning.
It is vital that teachers keep up to date on the most current concepts, thinking and research in
their field and also promote professional growth among teachers in order to promote
excellent and effective teaching and learning environment for students. According to
Kazmi,Pervez & Mumtaz (2011), inservice training for teachers enables the teachers to be
more systematic and logical in their teaching style. In-service training is a planned process
whereby the effectiveness of teachers collectively or individually is enhanced in response to
new knowledge, new ideas and changing curcumstances in order to improve, directly or
indirectly the quality of pupils education. According to Abdul Rashid (1996), in-service
training comprises two main elements, that is the fulfillment of pupils leraning needs and
ensuring personal and career development of the academic staff. In-service training is a
fundamental aspect for the enhancement of teachers profesionalisme related to the teachers
vision to improve the quality of their work.
Through in-service training, teachers can identify and evaluate critically the culture of the
school which can bring changes to the working culture. Studies by Ekpoh,Oswald & Victoria
(2013) shows that, teachers who attend in-service training perform effectively in their work
concerning knowledge of the subject, classroom management, teaching method and
evaluation of students. Studies by Jahangir, Saheen & Kazmi (2012) also shows that in-service
training plays a major role to improve the teachers performance in school.
Beside that, in-service training also provide teachers with ample opportunities to learn new
concepts, methods and approaches through professional development. In-service training is d
deliberate and continuous process involving the identification and discussion of present and
anticipated needs of individual staff for furthering their job satisfaction and career prospects
and of the institution for supporting its academic work and plans, and the implementation of
programmes of staff activities designed for the harmonious satisfaction of these needs. In-
service training can also change the attitude and skills of teachers and further increase the
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performance of students. It also can help to change the procedures, approaches and practices
teacher teach, the way student learn and would also help to create an excellent school culture
in schools. According to Frederick & Stephen (2010), during the in-service training, teachers
will schools management skills, evaluation techniques and master wider content areas of their
subjects. For this reason, teachers and educational experts should increase their effort in
fostering and implementing in-service training in schools so as to improve the effectiveness
of development in schools. In-service training have undegone considerable change in the
recent years. As a practice, “result-driven in service training is concerned with changing
behaviour and/or attitudes of teachers, administrators and staff members rather than being
concerned with the number of participants in such programs”.(Ronald,2004:169). It is literally
impossible today for any individual to take on a job or enter a profession and remain in it
without any changes. Therefore “in-service training is not only desirable but also ab activity to
which each school system must commit human and fiscal resources if it is to maintain a
skilled and knowledgeable staff”.(Ronald, 2004:170)
The importance of in-service training should be looked in various perspectives. It promotes a
very flexible environment and allow teachers to adapt with the working situation and it is also
one form of motivation for employees or employers and it will continue to increase creativity
in teaching and learning process. It also enable teachers to acquire new understanding and
instructional skills to develop their effectiveness in the classroom. In-service training for
teachers should have a positive effect on teachers in increasing knowledge, communication
with their involvement i n planning school activities and also it increased the staff motivation.
Studies done by Thompson (1992) shows that, after going through in-service training, there
are positive change in teachers attitude, increase self-confidence and also follow up with
teachers readiness in facing any various resistance situation.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 code 829
Q 5. Elaborate the structure of teacher education in Pakistan, also critically analyze its
possible effect of on skills of the further teacher
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Teacher education (TE) or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision
designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills
they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
The professionals who engage in this activity are called teacher educators (or, in some
contexts, teacher trainers).
There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe
these activities. The term ‘teacher training’ (which may give the impression that the activity
involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at
least in the U.S., to ‘teacher education’ (with its connotation of preparing staff for a
professional role as a reflective practitioner).
Teacher Education Programs at Pakistan
Primary School Teachers
Teacher training at the post secondary level takes place in Regional Institutes of Teacher
Education (RITE), and at the Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for a one-year program
known as the Primary Teaching Certificate. In addition, prospective teachers are also prepared
at the private sector institutions affiliated or enlisted with universities of public or private
Secondary School Teachers
Government training institutes of education and different affiliated colleges in private sector
train teachers for the secondary school level. They are awarded a Certificate of Teaching (CT)
for one year study after passing the examination of Higher Secondary School Certificate.
Teacher Education at Universities
The prospective teachers aspiring to teach at the higher secondary school level study for one
year at the Education Colleges for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, after two-year
bachelor’s of Arts or Science (BA/BSc) education. Teachers possessing B.Ed degree are eligible
to teach at the Secondary school level. Masters of Education (M.Ed) is a one year university
education after completion of B.Ed.
Policy Priorities for Teacher Education
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All the National Education Policies of Pakistan have accorded great importance to teacher
education. The 1959 Commission on National Education stressed upon the necessity of
adequate pre service teacher education gave recommendations about functions of teachers
in a university and about selection and promotion of teachers. The Education Policy 1972-80
estimated the teacher producing capacity of then existing 12 teacher training colleges and 55
teacher education institutions in Pakistan, to be four thousand which was much less than the
estimated demand of three hundred thousand additionally required teachers. It
recommended the introduction of Education subject at Secondary, Higher Secondary and
Degree level and students qualifying these subjects were suggested to be taken as primary,
middle and high level teachers. Relaxation of training requirements for women teachers in
special cases was recommended in order to increase the number of women teachers. An
academy for teachers’ and educational Administrators’ training was recommended to be set
up. The outdated nature of the teacher training courses was admitted, and their revision was
recommended, along with this preparation of model standard textbooks for teacher trainees
The National Education Policy 1979 had vividly valued the significant role of teachers in the
effective implementation of the education policies. It was asserted that teacher is the pivot of
the entire educational system. In order to promote pre-service teacher education, all the
Primary Teacher Training Institutions were planned to be upgraded to Colleges of Elementary
Education. An Academy of Higher Education was approved to be established to provide in-
service and pre-service training to the College and University teachers. Another Academy for
Educational Planning and Management was also established to provide opportunities of
training to administrators and supervisors working at different levels of the educational
system. This National Education Policy envisaged that every teacher would be expected to
undergo one in-service course during five-year cycle of his/her service. A system of National
Awards for best teachers was planned to be instituted. Every year ten teachers of various
levels and categories were planned to receive these awards from the President of Pakistan at
national level. Similar awards were planned to be given to selected teachers by the respective
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The Sixth five Year Plan (1983-88), earmarked sixty million rupees for the teacher education
programs to establish additional primary and secondary teacher training institutes and to
enhance the training capacity of the existing primary and secondary teacher training
institutions, and departments of Education at the Universities. This plan was unique in the
sense that it allocated special funds categorically for the teacher education programs. Prior to
this the trend of blanket approval was in practice and the badly needed requisite
improvement in the standard of teachers could not be facilitated. The incremental allocation,
as given in the following table reflected the increased importance accorded to teacher
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 code 829