Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 828 Autumn 2019

aiou solved assignments

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 828 Autumn 2019. Solved Assignments code 828 Higher Education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Higher Education (828) Level: M.A / M. Ed Semester: Autumn 2018 Assignment No. 1

Q 1. Explain the functions of the university with reference to research, advisory,

leadership and centre of excellence.

Answer:

In the last two decades, higher education worldwide has moved from the periphery to the

centre of governmental agendas. Universities are now seen as crucial national assets in

addressing many policy priorities, and as: sources of new knowledge and innovative thinking;

providers of skilled personnel and credible credentials; contributors to innovation; attractors

of international talent and business investment; agents of social justice and mobility;

contributors to social and cultural vitality; and determinants of health and well-being.

Proposition 2 – Notwithstanding their diversity of functions, governments focus on the

presumed direct economic role of universities.

Whereas people in higher education might be sensitive to these diverse functions, the reality

is that in policymaking circles the discourse about universities tends to be dominated by

analyses of how they can best fulfil a direct economic function.

The role of universities in creating economically valuable intellectual resources is reflected in

the following comments, and is in my mind unquestionable.

Michael Porter, of Harvard Business School, commented that: “Skilled human resources and

knowledge resources are two of the most important factors for upgrading national

competitive advantage.” According to André Sapir, of the Breughel Group: “There must be the

radical re-ordering of EU priorities to stimulate growth, by concentrating on consolidating

capital markets, research and development and higher education.”

But I am profoundly uneasy when faced by assertions such as those of the Australian Chief

Scientist, who argued in The Chance to Change that universities had the potential “to play a

central role as dynamos of growth in the innovation process and be huge generators of

wealth creation”.  

In a context where governments are principal funders of universities, it implies that a

university can be like a pump which, when primed with a little public money, will gush forth

the tangible effects of economic prosperity into which that money has been transformed.

It assumes that the function of universities is to provide direct in-out benefits for society’s

economic prosperity. The logic implies that invention in the university, largely in its science

labs, leads to innovation and economic benefit. The oft-quoted example of this from Silicon

Valley and Stanford University is, however, far more subtle and complex than a simple reading

allows – but its success, however fleeting, has created a consensus about the potential of the

university to be the direct driver of the knowledge-based economy.

That is the consensus that prevails today, as European policymakers look to keep their nations

and regions competitive, in face of raging industrial competition from China and India, as well

as all-round economic uncertainty.

A rhetoric of crisis has developed that focuses on the development of powerful research

universities which have become, over the past few years, something of a holy grail for

European research policy. In almost every region and nation, having at least one research

university that performs, as the cliché goes, like MIT, is regarded as a central element in

maintaining economic competitiveness.

What role do such universities have, they ask, in lifting us from the current recession, or

depression as it might become? What shall we do to ensure that our universities are ready to

perform? And by implication, if companies and jobs aren’t being created in sufficient

numbers, where are our universities going wrong? What can we fix to make them deliver the

goods? If they can’t, we’ll create a European Institute of Technology to show them how to do

it. Proposition 3 – It is crucial that the true role of universities in society is understood before

mechanisms to promote change are put in place.

At this point, we need to pause and think what it is that makes the university engine work,

what it can deliver for society and what it cannot. Because while public policy rightly seeks the

engagement of universities in contemporary concerns and objectives of their societies, such

policy needs to be moderated by a better understanding of the fundamental functions of

universities in society.

While the assumption is that there is a direct, linear in-out relationship between economic

outcomes and investment in university research – particularly in science – which has produced

welcome investment, and while many governments are asking “how can we make

investments in universities that will help us out of the recession”, there is a temptation for

universities to promise what we cannot deliver.

We should be careful not to foist on universities tasks which they may be ill-equipped for and

which, if too actively pursued, could damage their ability to deliver what they are uniquely

able to deliver in terms of education and innovation. We need only look at banks to see the

consequences of excessive and ill-conceived diversification. Let us not follow them.

It is my contention that much of the current emphasis of public policy concerning universities

is the result of thinking that is far from capturing their essential reality. It is crucial that the

true role of universities is understood before mechanisms to promote change are put in

place.

Proposition 4 – The university’s concern is ‘useful knowledge’, but not merely with the

immediately applicable – a university is a resource for an unknown future.

I believe that the university is essentially concerned with ‘useful knowledge’, but that useful

knowledge should not be interpreted merely as the immediately applicable. One of the roles

of the university is to prepare the knowledge that an unpredictable future may need.

A university that moulds itself only to present demands is one that is not listening to its

historians. Today’s preoccupations are inevitably myopic, often ephemeral, giving little

thought for tomorrow. History is at its most illuminating when written with the full

consciousness of what people wrongly expected to happen. Even in the domain of

technology, future developments only a few years away have been shrouded from

contemporary eyes. Many, possibly most, have arisen unexpectedly from research with other

objectives, and assessments of technological potential have invariably missed the mark.

Thirty years ago, scientists who studied climate change, and I am one of them, tended to have

long hair and very colourful socks. We were regarded as harmless but irrelevant. But the

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serendipitous investment in their work revealed processes that we now recognise as

threatening the future of human society, and the successors to those scientists are playing a

crucial role in assessing how we need to adapt.

Francis Fukuyama’s 1992 claim of “The End of History” was soon falsified as, within a decade,

history re-invented itself, gearing into fast-forward mode with unanticipated transformations

in economic practice, in social and religious experience and political relationships. We may

now be at a similar juncture. Who would have thought, a mere year ago, that two decades of

global economic growth might be brought to a precipitous halt by sudden collapse of pillars

of the global economy.

The ideas, the thoughts, the technologies, that tomorrow will need or that will forge

tomorrow, are hidden from us. Universities in their creative, free-thinking mode, and their

students who acquire these habits, are vital resources for that future and an insurance against

it. The policies being increasingly pressed upon universities, however, implicitly assume a

knowable future or a static societal or economic frame..

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Q 2. Critically discuss the provision of higher education in Pakistan with reference to

Pakistan Education conference and education policy 1998 – 2010?

Answer:

According to the constitution of 1973, article 25

1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.

2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.

3. Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for

the protection of women and children.

For the normal and non-lawyer persons there is no relation in this article and its sub-clause

with “EP” but for law fraternity it has impact that might be left on whole state policy.

Especially where according to law and constitution we donot discriminate among students

and institution on the basis of sex, gender, and cast.

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Justice “Muhammad Nassem chuhdry” in his famous commentary of constitution of 1973

stated that:

“Educational institution Allegation of discrimination in making of answer books by specified

papers to appear in court on fixed date of hearing along with answer book of all other

examinees marked by them .Validity leave to appeal was granted to examine whether high

court was right in summoning examines as well as the answer books to find out if they had

been corrected making.” #1996-schr-676

“Reasonable classification has always been considered permissible ,provided that such

classification is based on reasonable and rational categorization .such classification must not

be arbitrary or artificial, it must be evenly applicable to all persons or goods similarly situated

or placed” (justice m.naseem chuhdry 1973 const /p-89)

And the other article of constitution that cast shadow over educational policy is Article-31,

with article 31, we have one other article that is 227 that also stress on Islamic sharia

applicability over the whole system of state. So in the process of making E-policy ,publishing

E-policy, propagating E-policy, while preparing for curriculum ,we drive not only light and

guide ness from constitution generally and “objective Especially” but also we take guide ness

from Islamic sharia .

According to the constitution “No law will be made by legislature that is contradictory and

against the Islamic ideologies” so this article clearly makes link with educational policy of

state.

Pakistan is a federal Islamic cum parliamentary state by the faith of country law and

Regulation, even though researcher such As “Dr.poly dada” said that Pakistan is not an Islamic

state but it’s a state of Muslims”. But majority believes that it’s an Islamic state.

This is the point that left lot of flaw and gap while making and implementing state

Educational policy.

Pakistani educational system has converted and splitted in class education such like. Upper

class school, upper middle school, lower middle school, lower private schools and

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maddarsahs based system run by wafaq-ul madaris and tanzeem-ul-madarees.and

government yellow wall schools.

And higher education is also seems devided in same pattern, till yet 3 major educational

policies, reformation and, recommendation has been made that are coming below.

1. Policy presented by justice S.M.Shareef on the 26 August of 1959.

2. the Educational policy and reformation that was made by the Z.A.bhutto made commission

on the 15, March of 1972.

3. The educational policy made for the period of 1998 till 2010 .

Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010

Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education

Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to

the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them

as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing

Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of

education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII

while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be

offered.

Literacy and Non-Formal Education

Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education

through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to

55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and

income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic

educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted

to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing

disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.

Elementary Education

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About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03.

Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and

Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner.

Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for

introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary

education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the

teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising

teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the

existing examination and assessment system.

Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII).

Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the

elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of

minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.

Secondary Education

One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a

career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls,

desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum

for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced.

The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical

and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of

matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple

textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.

Teacher Education

To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers,

teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other

techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by

introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels

i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and

methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal

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means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working

teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall

be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher

educators shall be created.

Technical and Vocational Education

To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing

trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development

goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of

employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static,

supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be

made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for

accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence,

communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be

reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the

relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g.

telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food

preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand

in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for

Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.

Higher Education

Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the

year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher

education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given

autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with

any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award

of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at

higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and

laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in

collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be

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annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students

from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to

eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.

A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to

the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure

public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal

and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at

their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and

Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing

EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the

need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and

Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands

of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial

EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System

(NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and

evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on

qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for

developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to

facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for

collecting data from all over the country.

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Q 3. Discuss in detail the system of higher education in USA. How this system is

different from the system of higher education in Pakistan.

Answer:

Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following

secondary education. Higher education, also referred to as post-secondary education, third

stage, third level, or tertiary education occurs most commonly at one of the 4,360 Title IV

degree-granting institutions, either colleges or universities in the country. These may be

public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, or for-profit

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colleges. Higher education in the United States is loosely regulated by a number of third-

party organizations that vary in quality.

High visibility issues include rising tuition and increasing student loan debt, greater use of the

Internet, competency-based education, fraternity hazing, campus sexual assault, cutbacks in

state and local spending, the adjunctification of academic labor, and student poverty and

hunger.

According to the National Student Clearinghouse, US college enrollment has declined since a

peak in 2010-11 and is projected to continue declining or be stagnant for the next two

decades. This decline, partially attributable to falling birth rates and fewer foreign students,

amounts to 2.6 million fewer students than in 2010–11.

Strong research and funding helped American universities dominate global rankings in the

early 21st century, making them particularly attractive to international students, professors

and researchers. Other countries, however, are now offering incentives to take away

researchers as funding is threatened. As a result, the US dominance of international tables has

lessened.

The United States higher education system has also been blighted by fly-by-night schools,

diploma mills, visa mills, and predatory for-profit colleges.

According to Pew Research Center and Gallup poll surveys conducted in 2017, public opinion

about US colleges has been declining, especially among Republicans and the white working

class.] The higher education industry has been criticized for being unnecessarily expensive,

providing a difficult-to-measure service which is seen as vital but in which providers are paid

for inputs instead of outputs, and which is beset with federal regulations which drive up costs,

and with payments not coming from users but from third parties. In 2018, a Pew survey found

that 61 percent of those polled said that US higher education was headed in the wrong

direction.

US education has been unique its emphasis on Liberal Arts education in its higher education

curriculum, but this emphasis has been waning for decades. The US is also unique in its

investment in highly competitive sports, particularly in American football and basketball, with

large sports stadiums and arenas.

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A Comparison between Higher Education in Pakistan and United States

While sitting in a class room in Pakistan, almost every student has a dream to move to United

States or other developed countries their higher education. But the point is this why students

are not satisfied with education system in Pakistan and why they want to move overseas.

As I found an opportunity to study in United States for one semester and I am writing today

about the differences in education of Pakistan and United States that i observed here.

Major Selection:

As far as major selection is considered, it is very flexible, you can change your major at any

stage of your Undergraduate Degree. It is also common here to have two or more than two

majors in a degree. You have choice to study whatever you want, no matter in which subject

or major you were enrolled for the first time. There are no hard and fast rules to switch your

major.

In Pakistan, this situation to have multiple majors is not common. No doubt, in many

universities Pakistani students has choice to choose their majors after two years of study in

their four years Bachelors degree. In Pakistan students can study their Master’s degree in a

different subject rather than their First major. Conclusion is this that all these options to

switch major are not easy to avail sometimes but it exists.

Class Rooms:

It would not be wrong if I say that class room culture in American Universities is almost totally

different from that in Pakistan in both aspects, Behaviors of Students/Teachers and resources

availability.

An American teacher has more resources available in class room than that are available to

Pakistani teacher. Almost class rooms of every university are smart class rooms, Teachers can

record their lectures that are easily available to students later. Lecture recording is not

common in Pakistan but still class rooms in Pakistani universities are equipped with

multimedia systems.

Behavior of teachers with their students is friendlier than in Pakistan.

Financial Situation of An American Student:

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When I compare the Financial situations of American and Pakistani university students. I

found it very worse for American students and I realized that my country is blessed in this

regard. A Pakistani student who has never traveled to United States, its hard for him/her to

even imagine how expensive is education in USA.

Most of the students has thousands of dollars loan when they complete their education.

During their student life they also have to work hard to manage their finances.

In Pakistan, more option of financial assistance are available to students. And best part is that

students have not to return this money after completing their education.

Quality Education:

When we talk about the quality of education in Pakistan and Unites states. It is reality that

overall Pakistan is far away from developed countries in this comparison. During a

comparison, different points came to mind from curriculum development to teaching styles

and behaviors of students.

If I compare the behavior of students in Pakistan and United states.US students are more

keen to learn new things, they do not stick to just their course work. While in Pakistan this

trend is not common, one of the tragedy in Pakistan is that students do not read text books

but only Power point presentations that is different from United States.

As far as teaching style is concerned, In US class rooms, teachers engage student in different

Interactive and problem solving activities, use of work sheets and to discuss real life scenario

is common. Lectures are not boring and easy to understand in US colleges and Universities.

Community Service in US Universities:

Volunteer work and community service in US universities is very common. Students have a

belief that to serve back community helps them to groom their personality and it gives

satisfaction. Unfortunately, this trend is not too common in Pakistan.

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Q 4 Compare the two main philosophies of higher education. Which philosophy

according to you is more suitable to Pakistani Higher education system and why?

Answer:

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The gift of sharing knowledge and experiences has been one of the greatest keys to human

survival and success for millennia. From parent to child, from scholar to neophyte, from

craftsman to apprentice, what began in the household became the shared responsibility of

the local community. But in this Age of the Internet, where all of human understanding is but

a Google-search away, a precise understanding of the role and/or function of formal

education is less well defined and therefore under siege.

Having taught in a wide variety of educational institutions for almost twenty-years and

participated in my own educational process for the whole of my own life, I recognize the

complexity of trying to encapsulate a working philosophy of education and particularly higher

education. Based on my experiences working with second-language elementary and middle

school learners in low SES communities in combination with the last 14-years working as an

online student and then educator has afforded me an understanding of what is needed to

address the learning needs of today’s students. I believe that the process can be distilled into

four essential categories:

1. Curriculum

2. Teaching Staff

3. Learning Environment

4. Learning Community/Cadre

Whether we’re talking about a traditional face-to-face third-grade classroom in urban South-

Central Los Angeles or a fully online doctoral program being run by a prestigious university in

the Midwest, the quality of the program or learning experience will be based on the strength

of all four elements.

One can learn a lot about an institution’s or individual’s philosophy of education based on the

which of the four elements is either given priority or is the sole focus of the program. It’s been

my observation that many traditional institutions tend put the biggest emphasis on the

quality of the curriculum, protecting that content as if it were their exclusive domain. Thus the

belief is essentially that the educational process is data transferal from one generation to the

next. In this model getting an education is having access to this curriculum and the business

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model is that one must pay tuition to have access to this curriculum. If the institution is aware

of the competitive market it must work within, then the quality of the teaching staff and

bucolic setting of its campus will also be promoted. But at its core it’s about the curriculum.

Online education, of course, complicates things, but for many, the bucolic campus is simply

replaced with a user-friendly website, period. A good website, like a comfortable campus for

face-to-face students, is important. But just having a good learning environment is not

enough.

As a face-to-face classroom instructor for the first 13-years of my teaching career, I

understood the importance of working with the classroom dynamic and using it to the benefit

of the learning process. Thus, I naturally tended to break the classroom down into small

heterogeneous working groups, making sure that there was at least one strong-willed female

per group, one high-achiever, and mixed learning styles spread amongst the groups. It was

simply more efficient for me to work with students as groups and then let them delegate the

learning task. The assignment may have been turned in individually, but the learning task was

done as a group. It wasn’t that all of my students were limited in the attention I made

available to them but that management was more delegated and there was a sense that “we”

were working toward a common learning goal. Working with Latino students, I saw this as a

strength and means to manage the room by working with them as groups. But I did this to

make my job easier, not really realizing that I was empowering my students’ learning

experiences by not only permitting them to work together, but by requiring it.

When I began my online learning experience at Pepperdine University in 2001 I was

introduced to the work of Dr. Etienne Wenger, who popularized the idea of Communities of

Practice and Dr. Frank Smith, whose The Book of Learning and Forgetting, discussed the

sociological component of education and learning. The stereotype of online learning tends to

be of some kind of isolated impersonal correspondence learning that isn’t even the least bit

as dynamic or life-changing as face-to-face on-campus learning. How can it be, if one never

sees another human face, except for pre-recorded video-lectures shot from across a huge

hall, and any interaction is via email messages with 24-hour or more lags between message

and response? But Pepperdine did something different and required all students to

participate in a week-long tech-camp the July before beginning our programs so that we

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would become familiar with each other’s personality and begin to form working relationships

and friendships with our classmates. Then when we went back to our homes spread out

across the world and began our class sessions we could fill in the personalities behind the

text-based communication. But we did more than just fill in the personality-gaps in our

Internet-based communication. After all we were a group of 25 who were studying and using

educational technology, so we fully employed the technologies, such as Instant Message and

discussion groups to break the Class Session/Study/Project/Class Session cycle, and formed

our own small groups to work together and to interact with whenever we wanted. Compared

to my large-lecture-hall-solo-learning experiences that I tended to have when I studied for

my teaching credential in the mid-1990s, my online learning experiences were personal, and

powerful and changed what I believed could be accomplished in education.

Dr. Frank Smith raised concerns that the increased use of technology in education was a step

in the wrong direction, making the learning process even more impersonal, isolated and one-

size-fits-all (The Book of Learning and Forgetting, p.73). Given how many institutions have

implemented online learning as a webpage and recorded lectures I can see how this fear is

justified. However, my experiences with Pepperdine and the last six-years teaching online

have proven to me that it isn’t technology that one should fear, but decision-makers who

believe that education can be a pre-packaged product. The difficulties being faced by

institutions turning to MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course) lends itself to the problems of

thinking that education is simple access to good curriculum. As an online student and online

educator I know that without harnessing the power of a small group of individuals working

towards a common goal one does not have a healthy educational process. Determining how

to support this process, that includes all four categories, will be the challenge facing all

educational institutions and especially higher education where much of the research behind

the curriculum is available online without the “benefit” of a college degree program.

Best for Pakistani Higher Education

Existentialism as an Educational Philosophy Just as its namesake sprang from a strong

rejection of traditional philosophy, educational existentialism sprang from a strong rejection

of the traditional, essentialist approach to education. Existentialism rejects the existence of

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any source of objective, authoritative truth about metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics.

Instead, individuals are responsible for determining for themselves what is “true” or “false,”

“right” or “wrong,” “beautiful” or “ugly.” For the existentialist, there exists no universal form of

human nature; each of us has the free will to develop as we see fit. In the existentialist

classroom, subject matter takes second place to helping the students understand and

appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their

thoughts, feelings, and actions. The teacher’s role is to help students define their own essence

by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which

they may freely choose their own preferred way. Since feeling is not divorced from reason in

decision making, the existentialist demands the education of the whole person, not just the

mind. Although many existentialist educators provide some curricular structure, existentialism,

more than other educational philosophies, affords students great latitude in their choice of

subject matter. In an existentialist curriculum, students are given a wide variety of options

from which to choose. To the extent that the staff, rather than the students, influence the

curriculum, the humanities are commonly given tremendous emphasis. They are explored as a

means of providing students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own

creativity and self-expression. For example, rather than emphasizing historical events,

existentialists focus upon the actions of historical individuals, each of whom provides possible

models for the students’ own behavior. In contrast to the humanities, math and the natural

sciences may be deemphasized, presumably because their subject matter would be

considered “cold,” “dry,” “objective,” and therefore less fruitful to self-awareness. Moreover,

vocational education is regarded more as a means of teaching students about themselves

and their potential than of earning a livelihood. In teaching art, existentialism encourages

individual creativity and imagination more than copying and imitating established models.

Existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self-directed, and

includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student

openly and honestly.

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Q 5. Present a critique on role of various organization in growth and development of

higher education in Pakistan?

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Answer:

The universities of today are increasingly perceived as ‘strategic actors’ in the creation of

knowledge economies, amidst a greater realisation of a relationship between universities,

industry, and government. There has been a marked shift in the role of universities from the

traditional ‘teaching and research’ model towards that of universities being knowledge

transfer champions in Pakistan.

Over the last decade a significant development took place in this regard. In 2010 the Higher

Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan provided funding to establish the Offices of

Research Innovation and Commercialization (ORIC). This funding is available for all public and

private universities of Pakistan, with additional financial support from the World Bank. The

HEC also provides an additional 15% funding for ORICs that are involved in successful bids for

research projects funded by the National Research Program for Universities (NRPU) thus

providing legacy funding within each project.

To date, ORICs have been established across 44 public and private universities in Pakistan, a

massive expansion from the nine that were initially founded in 2010.

Research, being a forte of any large university, needs to be facilitated and managed. The role

of ORICs thus becomes essential in advising and facilitating researchers. Indeed, ORICs were

mandated to act as a focal point in facilitating and coordinating all research activities within a

university, ranging from the dissemination of information regarding the call for research

proposals, to development of research proposals and the commercialisation of research

products.

The vision behind setting up ORICs was to diversify, augment and manage the university’s

research programmes; link research activities directly to the socioeconomic priorities of the

country, and aid in commercialization of research. More specifically, ORICs are mandated to:

1. Support the university’s strategic research directions and policies

2. Increase and diversifying external research funding

3. Improve integration of research and education at all levels of the university

4. Improve translation of research into the public benefit

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5. Strengthen university-industry relationships

6. Promote entrepreneurship, technology-transfer and commercialisation activities that

energize and support the local and national economy

7. Establish Business Incubation Centers for fostering growth of new companies

8. Promote and enhance cross-cutting multi-disciplinary research initiatives

With the establishment of ORICs, a daunting task for the HEC was the capacity building of

ORIC personal for their mandated role. To this end, the HEC organized relevant national and

international training programs for ORIC personal. One of such was a training course

‘Managing Research’ held in Thailand and Australia in collaboration with Asian Institute of

Technology (AIT) wherein a delegation of managers from ORICs of twenty one different

Pakistani universities visited Commercialization and Technology Transfer Offices of leading

universities of Thailand and Australia to gain insights as to how research is managed and

commercialized in those contexts. An ORIC forum was then formed by the members of the

ORICs at different universities, providing a platform for sharing experiences and raising

relevant issues of mutual concern. The forum served as a viable platform for IPO-Pakistan, for

raising awareness among universities about patents and their role in technology transfer.

It is commonly perceived that education is the most powerful weapon in alleviating poverty,

elevating economic growth, producing skilled human resource, creating a healthy and

enlightened social environment and making self-sufficient nations. Poverty and education are

paradoxically related to each other: if one is improved, the other is decreased.

In a socially, economically, religiously and culturally diverse state like Pakistan, higher

education institutions and universities, imparting education and conducting cutting edge

research, are the central mechanisms that can raise the declining social and economic

infrastructure of the country. Since the 2000s, there has been rapid growth in these

institutions and universities across Pakistan as is evident from the sharp rise in their numbers

from just 32 in 2001 to 160 at present.

Pakistan, despite rapid growth in the education sector during the past decade, suffers from

severe challenges in its educational development. These challenges include lack of access to

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higher education for the majority of its youth, results oriented standards of pedagogical

techniques, brain drain of qualified human resource and lack of adaptability to changing

paradigms of academic research. Out of a population of 190 million, only five percent of them

have access to university level education. It is worth mentioning that, by the end of 2022,

Pakistan needs 36 million new jobs if the economy grows up to six percent annually.

Therefore, it is the premier duty of all national universities to produce graduates who fulfill

the criteria of the national, social and economic needs of the country. In this regard, the role

of career counseling and placement offices at the university level becomes very important.

In the 21st century, the paradigm of universities has shifted from traditional aspects of

teaching and learning towards building communities, economies and patterns of leadership.

Education, either basic or higher, plays a key role in the development of human capital that

subsequently brings about the establishment of sound economies and harmonious

communities. There is an immediate need to initiate radical educational reforms so that these

challenges can be addressed proactively. The following is an exercise in this regard.

To begin with, the ministry of education, ministry of finance, planning commission, standing

committees on basic and technical education and the higher education commission of

Pakistan should assist these universities, both public and private, in establishing on-campus

university-community partnership centres. These centres should work on the pattern of think

tanks and should devise mechanisms to address dominant social problems, prepare modules

and schemes for the outreach of educational facilities and bridging linkages with

communities for sharing of knowledge. Secondly, since Pakistan is a traditional society with

different demographical characteristics, whereby more than 30 percent of the population lives

below the poverty line, and more than 600,000 young graduates are adding to

unemployment every year, these higher learning institutions and universities should develop

terms of reference (ToRs) to provide financial assistance to talented individuals who otherwise

cannot afford university education.

Thirdly, to streamline and ensure effective utilisation of public funds allocated for

development of higher education in Pakistan by the concerned commissions and universities,

the concerned ministries and planning commissions should primarily focus on building grass-

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root level education in primary schools, especially in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Fourth, universities should focus on creating an entrepreneurial culture among their

graduates. They should produce job creators rather than producing job seekers. This can be

attained through the establishment of effective business incubation centres, encouraging

partnerships between industry and academia and placing career counselling offices that

should work on intellectual and professional development of the graduates during the course

of their studies in order to prepare them today for the challenges of tomorrow.

Fifth, education never means to earn; it means to spend. The best way to spend is spending

on education and research that later on addresses the social, political, environmental and

economic problems of Pakistan. Universities can play a vital role in this regard through

fostering reciprocal partnerships with other educational organisations and community

development centres to identify real life problems. Community development participation

should be made mandatory for teachers and students at the university level. If the prestigious

Australian Endeavour Award can assign 35 percent of its total evaluation marks towards the

contribution of individual applicants towards community services than why can students at

our universities in Pakistan not be prepared on similar lines? Moreover, since Pakistan has

always been a victim of natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes, it will be beneficial

if various emergency training programmes and courses related to disaster management are

incorporated in the curriculum.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 828

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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