Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 683

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 683 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 683 Teacher Audiology and Audiometry 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Audiology and Audiometry (683)

Level: M.A / M.Ed in Special Education

Semester: Autumn, 2018

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1      Define ear mould. Discuss its function and types. Draw diagrams of each type of ear mould?

Answer:

Earmolds are the plastic part of your BTE hearing instrument which connect the ear canal to the hearing aid and literally place the sound in your ear. Depending on the type and degree of hearing loss, and the anatomy of the ear, the earmold can be canal size (tiny), half-shell size (medium) or even a ”full shell” size (large). There are more than ten different, common styles of earmolds, which are available in a variety of colors and types of plastic depending upon your personal preference, the shape and texture of your ear, and your specific hearing instrument. Non-hearing aid users may use earmolds, too. Custom earmolds are a great way to protect your hearing from loud sounds at work or at play. Musicians, stock car racers and even some professional football teams use earmolds with an acoustical chamber which blocks most noise while still allowing the wearer to understand speech. Some swimmers use specialized ear molds designed to keep water out of their ear canal.

The importance of a good fit

Much like eye glass frames must be fit to your face, earmolds must be fit to your ear. It’s important for them to be tight enough to prevent sound from leaking out and creating feedback but not so tight they cause pain. That’s why a hearing healthcare professional will make a cast of your ear, known as an ear impression, to make sure they get the right fit.

Common problems

Even though earmolds are made from an actual impression of your own ear, they may need a bit of adjusting. Some of the common problems hearing aid users can experience include:

Your own voice sounds muffled. Because the ear canal is blocked while wearing hearing aids, users often complain their voices sound muffled, much like during a bad cold.  This is known as the occlusion effect and can be managed with earmold modifications or hearing aid circuit changes.

Your own voice sounds too loud. When a hearing aid user complains their own voice sounds too loud, the earmold may need a larger vent.

Feedback: If the vent in the earmold is too large or in the wrong place, sound can leak through the vent and cause feedback.

Whistling. sometimes the shape of your jaw can affect how the earmold fits. If your earmold has a tendency to move every time you talk or chew, your hearing aid may produce an annoying whistling sound. Your hearing healthcare professional can address this problem by attaching a small handle called a “canal lock” which will hold the ear mold more securely in place preventing feedback.

As you can see, the earmold is an important part of your hearing instrument. You can do your part to make sure it provides the best possible sound environment by communicating with your hearing healthcare professional whenever you encounter problems or discomfort. In many instances, earmolds sit within the ear canal and are hidden from the view of normal people. At other times, earmolds are positioned in the ear canal or the concha bowl. When the earmolds match the color of your skin, they are hard to spot.  Should you request a customized earmold, your hearing care provider will take an impression of the ear canal and the outer part of the ear using a silicone-like substance. The impression is then sent to a lab where it is transformed into a replica of the structure of the ear.  

Types of Earmolds 

1.     Dome-style Molds : Dome-style and soft earmolds are often combined with behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing devices and are placed in the ear canal. A BTE aid, which is worn behind the user’s ear, transmits audio to the earmold by way of a flexible and thin tube. 

2.     Canal Earmolds: Canal earmolds are similar to earmolds with dome-fashioned designs. These molds are made from the ear canal impressions and are designed to look inconspicuous. They also offer a customized fit and good audio retention for the wearer. The patient needs to have a fairly long ear canal for the mold to fit precisely inside. No part of the mold extends inside the concha bowl. Instead, the piece is completely fitted within the ear canal. 

3.     Full-shell Earmolds: Full-shell earmolds are designed to supply optimum hearing retention. They are sculpted to look natural and are really popular among hearing aid patients. They prevent annoying feedback and are recommended for moderate to severe loss of hearing. 

4.     Skeleton Earmolds: Skeleton earmolds are designed with cosmetic enhancement in mind. The molds, which feature a back ring, supply maximum comfort. A rim of material is used to hold the mold within the concha and create an effective seal. In addition, skeleton earmolds are made for people suffering from mild to severe hearing loss. 

5.     Semi-skeleton Earmolds: Semi-skeleton earmolds are just like skeleton earmolds except the former do not feature a back ring. These kinds of earmolds are often recommended for individuals with limited dexterity. The comfortable molds can be used by anyone who has a hearing loss that is mild to severe. 

6.     Half-shell Earmolds: Earmolds that are called half-shell molds are sculpted like full-shell molds; however, the material that is used in half-shell earmolds is cut and designed to cover the concha bowl’s bottom half. Patients who choose this mold need to have adequate ear retention. Moreover, individuals suffering from mild hearing loss often opt for these kinds of molds. 

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 683

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Q.2      Discuss the basic factors contributing in acoustic feedback. How a teacher or educational audiologist minimize or control these factors.

Answer:

Acoustic feedback it that annoying loud continuous tone you get when the sound system is not set up or operated properly. Acoustic feedback can normally be reduced or eliminated if you understand and follow the basic principles and practices in this article.

What causes Acoustic Feedback?

Acoustic feedback is caused when all the right factors are lined up poorly. Acoustic feedback is basically the result of the sound level coming from the loudspeaker being picked up by the microphone, and being amplified. Then this amplified signal is again picked up by the microphone and gets amplified again. This acoustic feedback cycle continues to increase the signal level of the offending sound until it gets loud enough for everyone to stare at the sound person expecting it to be fixed.

Acoustic feedback is normally at a specific frequency. The frequency of the acoustic feedback will be frequency that is the loudest. That is, the frequency (or frequencies) that is amplified most by the microphone, amplifier, speakers and room acoustics.

Factors affecting Acoustic Feedback

The following are the main factors affecting acoustic feedback and what you can do to reduce it:

Microphone and speaker placement

Microphone proximity relative to the loudspeakers is very important. The closer a microphone is to the loudspeaker, the easier it is to have acoustic feedback. If the microphone is placed directly in front of the speaker, then the likelihood of acoustic feedback increases greatly. The greater the separation between the microphone and the speaker, the less the likelihood of acoustic feedback.

For this reason, most sound systems are set up with the speakers to the side and/or in front of the stage, and pointing away from the stage area. The microphones are placed on the stage, behind the speakers, and facing away from the speakers. The easiest and cheapest way to reduce the likelihood of acoustic feedback is to increase the separation between the speakers and the microphones.

Microphone gain

The greater the gain of the microphone channel, the greater the likelihood acoustic feedback will occur. Often the gain needs to be turned up because the person speaking is speaking too soft or is too far away from the microphone. Reducing the gain (volume or level of the microphone on the mixer) will reduce the likelihood of acoustic feedback.

This may mean placing the microphone closer to the person talking and or asking them to speak closer to the microphone. The person speaking may also need to speak louder into the microphone to avoid having to have so much microphone gain that acoustic feedback is induced.

Turning off all microphones which are not being used will decrease the overall system gain, therefore also reducing the likelihood of feedback. This may allow the microphone being used to have slightly increased gain before causing feedback.

Room Acoustics

The more reverberant a room is, the more likely sound will bounce around the room and be picked up by the microphone. If the room has sound absorbing materials on the wall and/or ceiling (or you are outside), then the likelihood of the sound bouncing off the walls back into the microphone causing acoustic feedback is reduced. This is not normally easily or cheaply achieved, so recognising and reducing the main frequencies bouncing back is required – this is a job for EQ.

Mixer and system EQ

A sound system should be set up to produce a near even sound level over the entire frequency spectrum. Such a system setup will reduce the sound level at frequencies that are amplified more by the speakers/room/system combination. It will also increase the sound level of those frequencies that are absorbed or attenuated (reduced) by the speakers/room/system combination. This system setup needs to be done every time speakers are moved or changed, or whenever a substantial change is made to the sound system.

This system set up could be called “balancing the frequencies” of the system, but is normally referred to as equalising the system. That is, it equalises the overall frequency response to make the loud frequencies less and the quiet frequencies more. Equalising is normally referred to as EQ for short. If a near even sound level is delivered over the entire frequency spectrum, then there will be less chance of any particular frequency being bounced around to cause acoustic feedback – the sound will also be more natural than before the system was equalised (EQ’d).

This topic of Equalising or EQ, is a large topic and is the subject of another article. Suffice to say if the system doesn’t have proper EQ, it is more likely to produce feedback that a system that is EQ’d correctly.

The tone controls on a mixer are also considered as EQ. Although designed more to EQ the sound of each channel, if incorrectly set, can cause acoustic feedback. This is likely to be the case if the system hasn’t been EQ’d, and the operator doesn’t know what the EQ controls (like bass, mid and treble knobs) do. If any of the channel tone controls are set to boost, then this will cause that frequency to be amplified more. This can increase the likelihood of acoustic feedback at that frequency. Consequentially, if there is some low level acoustic feedback at a particular frequency, it may be EQ’d out by reducing the gain of the appropriate tone control.

Summary: Acoustic feedback is simple, and it is complex. There are a number of factors (as listed above) to be considered when setting up a sound system to reduce the likelihood of acoustic feedback. All these factors need to be addressed correctly not to have feedback. Adhering to the basic principles outlined above will help you reduce the likelihood of acoustic feedback, and give you a better sound.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 683 Autumn 2018

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Q.3      You are teacher of deaf, there are number of voices made classroom noise level higher how and what measures you would taken to improve the acoustic condition with in the classroom.

Answer:

Pupils access an essential part of their learning by hearing and retaining what the teacher says and through conversations that take place in the class. It therefore follows that the poorer the listening environment, the less pupils are likely to learn and retain information. Parents of deaf children consistently report their concerns about poor acoustics to the National Deaf Children’s Society. In a survey on barriers to learning in 2008, over a third – 34% – said they had concerns about the acoustics in their child’s school building.

The key benefits of improving the listening environment are:

a) Improved learning for all children

Recent research has demonstrated that there is a strong link between attainment and good acoustics for all pupils. Children can spend more than half the school day just listening, so good listening conditions are essential in ensuring everyone can access and be fully included in school life. Research studies in a wide range of education settings have shown that tasks involving language, such as reading and word problems in mathematics, and tasks with high cognitive processing demands involving attention, problem solving and memory are particularly difficult to complete in noisy environments. For example, one study of 142 schools in England showed that there was a direct correlation between the level of classroom noise and pupils’ Key Stage 2 Maths results.

It should also be noted that a large number of children experience temporary hearing loss, for example glue ear, at a younger age when listening to develop language is critical. It has been estimated that 80% of children will have had at least one episode of glue ear by the age of 10 years.

b) Improved learning for pupils with additional learning needs

There is increasing evidence that poor classroom acoustics can create a negative learning environment for many students, especially those with hearing impairments, learning difficulties7 , or where English is an additional language.

c) Improved behavior

A report by Alan Steer, Learning Behaviour, noted that the surroundings in which children work and learn have a major impact on behaviour. He stated that: “Architects and contractors should pay special attention to acoustics and lighting in classrooms to support pupil participation in lessons.”

d) Reduced teacher absence

Research shows that teachers have more throat problems than other professional groups. This is not helped by having to frequently project their voices over classroom noise in poor listening environments. 80% of teachers reported vocal strain and throat problems, 86% reported that classroom noise caused them problems, 49% of teachers had to strain their voices to be heard, and teachers were 32% more likely to have voice problems compared with other professions, and more likely to be away from work.

e) It ensures listening technology is effective

Poor acoustics in school classrooms can be very challenging for deaf children because hearing aids and cochlear implants cannot cut out background noise. They amplify all noises in a classroom, not just the teacher’s voice, meaning that a deaf child may miss out on a lot of the words spoken by their teacher. Many schools invest in Soundfield systems but this type of system does not make up for poor acoustics, and its effectiveness is highly dependent on the acoustic quality of the room in which it is located.

Maintenance programmes and refurbishments

Ongoing refurbishments are a chance to improve the acoustic conditions of your school and they can also be incorporated into the regular maintenance programme to improve standards over time. When making refurbishments, the following measures can be taken to improve listening conditions. An acoustic consultant or acoustical engineer14 can provide advice on each of these steps.

a) Internal doors: Doors can reduce the transfer of sound between spaces, with solid doors being more effective than lighter doors with thin glazed panels. Adding acoustic seals can be the easiest way to get the most out of the doors for minimum cost. Lighter doors can be improved by adding plywood facings if the hinges are strong enough to support the weight.

b) External doors: It is difficult to provide high level sound insulation with a single door, and harder still with double doors. Two sets of doors with a lobby in between are most effective. If a single door is all that is between the teaching space and the outside environment then it should be at least 44mm thick with good sound insulation qualities, along with good sealing around the door and glazing over 6mm thickness typically.

c) Walls: Acoustically absorbent wall finishes can improve reverberation times, and creative use of decorative fabric wall hangings can also help.

d) Windows: The sound insulation of external windows is determined by the frame, the sealing and the thickness of the glazing.

e) Flooring: The vertical transfer of noise from footfall can be an issue in multistorey schools particularly with hard floor finishes. Carpets are not always practical but there are other solutions such as acoustic vinyl flooring or vinyl flooring on acoustic resilient matting. Another possibility may be installing a floor on top of an existing floor which has this solution integrated within it.

f) Ceilings: Many classrooms often already have ceiling grids with standard sized tiles that can be practically or fully replaced with more acoustically absorptive tiles. This may be a cost-effective way of reducing the reverberation, in combination with hung acoustic clouds or materials if that solution is not an option.

g) Open plan classrooms: These can be challenging spaces to get to work, but a significant improvement can be made by creating local snug areas with all items of furniture such as bookcases and cupboards. This should help as long as a high level of acoustic absorption is provided to prevent noise build-up within the space. Carpeted floors and acoustically treated ceilings can also help. Full height double partitions with a significant cavity of air in between can also make a significant improvement.

h) Stairs and circulation areas: Noise from corridors, stairs and other circulation areas can create problems in the surrounding areas. Carpets help but can be difficult to clean – other more resilient floor material can be used, such as cork and acoustic vinyl. The noise from corridors can be improved by acoustically treated ceilings and high level wall finishes.

i) Kitchens: Good quality, well insulated, roller shutters can help eliminate noise from the kitchens and minimise disruption to teaching activities in the hall. The fitting of doors in front of the shutter can also do much to improve sound insulation and create a buffer zone.

j) External noise: Traffic noise can be reduced for ground floor classes by using noise barriers on the boundary of the building. The barrier will need to be at least a continuous wooden fence with a mass of 10kg /sq m and high enough to break line of sight with the road. Landscaping mounds or bunds use spoil to create barriers to roads, or reduce heights of barriers, but if they are to have any effect they need to extend the full length of the site so that noise does not spill around the edges. Trees and hedges on their own will not stop noise.

Aiou Solved Assignments code 683 Autumn 2018

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Q.4      Discuss the function of basic health unit in the identification and screening of HIC. What measure should be taken by the Govt to train the BHU staff for identification and screening of HIC?

Answer:

Hearing loss (HL) is a highly prevalent social problem worldwide. According to data of the World Health Organization, there are approximately 32 million children in the world with disabling HL. In Brazil, it is estimated that two to seven children per thousand births present hearing disorders. This is a worrisome fact, given that it is through hearing that the child acquires and develops oral language, so that HL can have serious negative effects on the development and quality of life of children.

In order to address this problem, the National Policy on Hearing Health Care was instituted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the order no. 2.073/2004. After that, the order no. 587/2004 defined the distribution of the state network for actions in basic health care of medium and high complexities. With this initiative, services aimed at establishing a network of care and support to hearing health were implemented throughout the country.

In 2010, a general hearing screening system was instituted with the publication of the federal law no. 12.303/2010, which made the otoacoustic emission test mandatory and free in all hospitals and maternities in Brazil. In 2012, with the purpose of reorganizing and reinforcing actions aimed at individuals with disabilities, the “Viver sem Limites” Plan (decree no. 7.612/2011) established a new configuration for the Health Care Network for People with Disabilities within the Brazilian National Health Care System (SUS), with special emphasis on the creation of Specialized Rehabilitation Centers (CER), which began to integrate the care for people with disabilities.

The responsibility of health care for people with disabilities is distributed at the different levels of health care and performed by a multidisciplinary team. With regards to hearing impairment, the earlier the condition is identified and the intervention is conducted, the most adequately the communicative performance will occur. Its delayed identification not only impairs the individual’s prognosis, but also generates high costs for the health system. In the scope of Primary Health Care (PHC), the actions of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) play an important role in assisting with the early identification of HL, considering that it is one of the main accesses to the SUS.

It is the responsibility of the team of professionals working in the FHS, formed by family doctors, nurses, nursing technicians, and community health agents (ACS), among other functions, to closely monitor child growth and development milestones, monitor children exposed to risk indicators for HL, and seek partnerships with other specialists to facilitate child and family care.

The team can count on the multiprofessional assistance of the Support Center in Family Health (NASF), which contributes to a greater range and efficiency of PHC. The inclusion of speech-language pathologists in the NASF teams may allow better assistance to hearing health.

The sharing and monitoring of cases by these teams allows the review of referral practice based on referral and counter-referral processes, strengthening the family health team (FHT) as the coordinator of care.

Considering the high rates of hearing loss; the consequences of this disorder for the development of children; the importance of early care; and understanding the FHS as the access to the SUS closest to the community, the present study aimed to analyze the reports of the FHT regarding the suspicion and identification of child hearing loss.

Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 683 Autumn 2018

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Q.5      What are the responsibilities of schools and teachers in the educational rehabilitation of HIC? Support your answer with references and examples.

Answer:

The Educational Audiology Association (EAA) has developed a checklist, Supporting Students who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Shared and Suggested Roles of Educational Audiologists, Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing and Speech-Language Pathologists, to assist schools in meeting the language and communication requirements for their students. Input from teachers of the deaf/hard of hearing and speech-language pathologists has been included throughout the development of this tool. This checklist describes supports to be considered for each student who is deaf or hard of hearing as well as those with other auditory learning needs. The four sections are described as student assurances: Audiological and Equipment Needs, Communication: Speech, Language, Auditory and Visual Needs, Academic Needs and Program Management Needs. Each category contains activities and expected outcomes that should be addressed by the student’s team of educational professionals, including educational audiologists (Ed. Aud), speech-language pathologists (SLP), and teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing (TODHH). Regulatory evidence is noted for each activity. EAA is soliciting input from school teams of educational audiologists, teachers of the deaf and speechlanguage pathologists on the utility of this checklist. We are interested in (1) how effectively this tool addresses the discussion and distribution of responsibilities, (2) activities that you feel are specific to scope of practice for each discipline, (3) missing activities that should be included within each assurance category, (4) any activities that you feel are inappropriate for this population, and (5) specific situations in which this checklist would be helpful to students and staff (e.g. IEP meetings, 504 meetings, preplanning, etc.).

Educational audiologists, teachers of the deaf and speech-language pathologists are critical partners on the school education team. Together, they address the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing and promote language and communication access that is essential for participation and learning in today’s educational environment. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) all contain regulations pertinent to the services and accommodations contained in this guidance document.

A lack or loss of hearing can affect a child’s learning progress, particularly in the understanding and production of spoken language. While many theories have emerged over the years as to which approach is most effective, experts agree that the teaching method should adhere to the individual student’s capabilities, needs and personality. The most common educational approaches include:

  • Bilingual-Bicultural: In this approach, American Sign Language is the only method used in the classroom. Traditional English is taught through exposure to printed words on paper.
  • Auditory/Oral: This teaching approach does not use sign language, but instead teaches the English Language through residual hearing and speech.
  • Total Communication: This method combines auditory and visual communication for instruction. A combination of sign systems can be used, including American Sign Language, signed English, speech and sign language used simultaneously, cued speech and/or other communication methods.

The classroom environment itself can also determine the success of a deaf student’s learning abilities, and some options for deaf education include:

  • Day schools
  • Early intervention and preschool programs
  • Residential schools for the deaf
  • Self-contained classrooms
  • Mainstreaming and inclusion in general education settings
  • Home school environment

The environment and basic methods selected for students with a hearing loss should be chosen based on the student’s personality and individual needs, but each factor should incorporate the student’s capabilities to reach the highest level of success. Modern techniques for students with a hearing loss include:

  • Proper Classroom Considerations: Students with hearing loss require a modified classroom, which should incorporate well-designed acoustics (for maximum sound production), little distractive noise, and proper lighting for visuals. Each student should have a clear view of all visuals as well as the instructor.
  • Use of an Interpreter: Many classrooms with deaf students who sign incorporate an interpreter for easier translation of material. Deaf students, who have grown up with sign language, should have sign language included in their daily educational life.
  • Assistive Technical Capabilities: Years of research and development have provided educators with wonderful tools for maximizing auditory abilities for those students with some degree of hearing including:
    • FM Systems which can project sound from an instructor’s microphone
    • C-Print which is a speech-to-text computer system
    • A speech synthesizer which converts a typed word into speech format
    • Personal amplification systems

Many opportunities exist for deaf education training and certification, and an educator’s responsibility is to be prepared for his or her students’ individual needs. For teachers of students with hearing loss, the right adjustments to the classroom environment coupled with advanced teaching methods can mean the difference between a student’s success and failure.

There are few better ways to make a positive impact on the future than by becoming a teacher. Students with a hearing loss benefit from the dedication of teachers, and you can begin your journey into deaf education at Saint Joseph’s University by earning your master’s degree in deaf education online. For more than 160 years, Saint Joseph’s University has motivated students to excel in their chosen careers, and your success story can start today.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 683

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