AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 5645 Autumn 2019

Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 Autumn 2019 asignments 1 and 2 Resource Sharing and Networking-I code 5645 spring 2019. aiou old and solved aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 5645 Autumn 2019

Course: Resource Sharing and Networking-I (5645)
Level: MLIS
Semester: Spring, 2019
Q1: Define resource sharing. What are the pre-requisites for resource sharing among libraries.

?A term used to describe organized attempt by libraries and Information Centres to share materials and services cooperatively so as to provide one another with resources that might otherwise not be available to an individual institution. It represents an attempt to expand the availability of specialized, expensive, or just plain not-owned resources beyond the bounds of a single institution.?
Supplementing your local collection through resource sharing is a smart way to ensure your library has the resources to satisfy the needs of your users. Marshall Breeding?s newÿLibrary Technology Reportÿexplores technologies and strategies for sharing resources, helping you streamline workflows and improve resource-sharing services by covering key strategies like interlibrary loan, consortial borrowing, document delivery, and shared collections. You?ll also learn about such trends and services as:

OCLC WorldCat Resource Sharing, and other systems that facilitate cooperative, reciprocal lending

System-to-system communications that allow integrated systems to interact with resource-sharing environments

Technical components that reliably automate patron requests, routing to suppliers with tools for tracking, reporting, and staff intervention as needed

Specialized applications that simplify document delivery, such as Ariel, Odyssey, or OCLC?s Article Exchange

How the NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol (NCIP) can enable borrowing among consortial libraries using separate integrated library systemsÿ. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,

The Orbis Cascade Alliance consortium, examined using a case study
In computing, a shared resource, or network share, is a computer resource made available from one host to other hosts on a computer network. It is a device or piece of information on a computer that can be remotely accessed from another computer, typically via a local area network or an enterprise intranet, transparently as if it were a resource in the local machine. Network sharing is made possible by inter-process communication over the network.
Some examples of shareable resources are computer programs, data, storage devices, and printers. E.g. shared file access (also known as disk sharing and folder sharing), shared printer access (printer sharing), shared scanner access, etc. The shared resource is called a shared disk (also known as mounted disk), shared drive volume, shared folder, shared file, shared document, shared printer or shared scanner.
The term file sharing traditionally means shared file access, especially in the context of operating systems and LAN and Intranet services, for example in Microsoft Windows documentation. Though, as BitTorrent and similar applications became available in the early 2000s, the term file sharing increasingly has become associated with peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet.
Importance and objectives of library resource sharing:
In the library world,ÿresource sharingÿmeans that you are collaborating with one or more libraries to maximize access to a larger array of resources by sharing the collections of the cooperating libraries or pooling funding to purchase shared digital resources. In this day of shrinking resource dollars, most libraries participate in some type of resource sharing, even when they may not be aware of it.
Resource sharing provides the cooperating libraries with an opportunity to access materials from other libraries, which should result in a cost savings.
Example. If academic library A has a very strong Latin American history collection and academic library B has a very strong Russian history collection, the two libraries could form a partnership so the researchers at each campus would have priority access to the materials at the other campus and academic library A would not have to use monies to buy Russian history materials.
Public libraries X, Y, and Z can also get together and negotiate a cost reduction for access to digital resources which turns into a win-win situation for the libraries that individually pay less than they would if they negotiated on their own. Vendors also like the arrangement because they now have the commitment of three libraries that are often in proximity for service support. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,
Sharing Collections
So, how would you go about sharing collections?
First, you would need to decide if you have something worth sharing and whether you are willing to share it. Obviously, this isn’t the time to consider ways to cut costs on best sellers, but you can look at your collections to see what you have that you wouldn’t often inconvenience your own patrons to have checked out to others.
Example. the Hancock County Public Library in Greenfield, Indiana may have an extraordinary collection of the works of hometown author, James Whitcomb Riley, and Indianapolis Public Library could have a fabulous collection of local author, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Could some type of collection sharing arrangement be made? Should it?
There are a number of institutional variables to consider. One is the type of library. Because the missions of public libraries are often not compatible with school, academic, or special libraries, it may not work to have comprehensive agreements to the full collections of each; therefore, it is best to seek a library with a similar mission. It is also good to consider location to support efficient transfer of materials. A small library shouldn’t take advantage of a large library unless there is an additional carrot extended for access to the more extensive collection. Libraries that share resources should have some degree of equity in what they have to offer to the collaborating libraries.
Although there often isn’t a formal arrangement, public libraries often cooperate with school libraries to supplement items needed in the curriculum (e.g., for various assignments). Sometimes school librarians give the public library staff a heads up when a major school assignment is coming up so the public library can take steps to prepare for the onslaught of children (or their parents) coming for information on the same topic.
In the age of information explosion, no library however big or rich, able to satisfy all the needs of its users due to tremendous number document as well as information published every moment?s. The demands and needs of library users also changes from time to time, so the library get trouble to meet their users needs. To solve the problems of information explosion, the concept of resource sharing has been developed.
Resource Sharing is nothing but sharing of library resources with other participating libraries who need it. It is a type of library cooperation, where every participating libraries share their unused and sometime their valuable library resource?s with other library.
According to Chatterjee[1] ?it will not merely mean mutual sharing of information sources available in different libraries, it will mean utilizing the information sources of one library for generating services by another library?.The goal of resource sharing is to maximize the availability of materials and services at the minimum expense. Library resource comprise man power, materials, functions, methods and services.
Goal of Resource Sharing in Library:
The effectiveness of library services largely depends on the ability of libraries to provide quick delivery of documents or books requested by library users within a minimum time and cost.The goals of resource sharing include:

Facilitating users to have better access to library collection and services.

Reduction in all round cost.

Exchange of library resourcesÿ and information to benefit users.

Enabling the users to be more aware regarding the resources not available in their own library.

Advocated support creative use of library information resources.

Create positive effect on library budget in term of cost or more services at lesser cost than can be undertaken individually.

Avoidance of unnecessary duplication of information resources and their processing and maintenance costs.

Provision of greater access to information resources to a wider category of users.

Development of specialised areas of collection building, each library concentrating on areas of its own concern.
Areas of Resource Sharing in Library:
Some common areas of resource sharing in Library and Information centres are:

Inter-library loan.

Cooperative acquisition.

Specialised purchasing program.

Centralized processing of library collection.

Shared cataloguing.

Sharing of bibliographical data.

Cooperative microfilming of library materials.

Preparation and maintenance of union catalogue and union list of serials.

Exchange of publications.

Exchange of library expertise and personnel.
Requirements for Resource Sharing in Library:
The process of resource sharing largely involves on two major factors. One is the availability of resources in library and the other is the sufficient numbers of library willing to join with resource sharing activities. The following are the some of basic requirements for effective resource sharing:

There should be a communication link or system between the cooperative libraries.

Most of all the libraries are willing to join with this resource sharing activities.

Necessaryÿ technology and equipments should need to be available in the library.

Standardised library software, hardware and database for sharing of library resources.

ÿOperating policies on the type of information and archives, which users can access.

There should need an agreement, upon which the whole resource sharing activities may run.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 5645

Q2: Discuss different types of resource sharing with special reference to university libraries?
The bilateral exchange model, the pooling model, the dual service model and the service center model are the four types of resource sharing models in vogue today.

In the bilateral exchange model, materials are exchanged between two participating libraries. In practice, where such an exchange is found, the exchange rate is usually calculated upon a proportional basis, according to some agreed-upon value (e.g. one of one, two for one).

The second model is a multilateral development of the first, and can be called, for convenience, the poling model. In this model, more than two libraries contribute to the draw from, a pool of materials.

The third is called dual-service model. It is one in which two or more participating libraries take advantage of the facilities of one of the participants to produce a common output-for instance, a union list. The term ?dual-service? is proposed both to distinguish this model from the next, and to emphasize the fact that all participants, including the facilitator, contribute to the common output.

The last model is known as Service Center. The model is one in which a number of libraries employ the services of a facilitating participants to input the process materials for individual purpose rather than to the end of a common output. Hence, it is called the service-center model.
While the facilitator may be merely a service bureau, and not otherwise employ its own facilities, the model holds under the pricing conditions which will be stipulated for this type of co-operation.
The time has arrived, when the concept of resource sharing would envelope all basic library functions. Right from acquisition to storage and issue of material, co-operative action is feasible and has a useful role to play. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,
Joint action should be practiced in acquisition and utilization of information resources. Ownership and use should be on a joint basis. Subscription to journals and other serials can be co-ordinated, so that duplication may be avoided as far as possible. Duplicate holdings should be freely exchanged between the libraries.
Catalogues can be prepared co-operatively, so as to produce union catalogues of books, serials, etc. Co-operation is necessary in the realms of abstracting. Current Awareness Service and Selective Dissemination of information service also.
Inter library loan should be a regular exercise between the participating libraries. There should be an information highway between the member libraries. Reference and referral services should be part of a resource sharing programme. Document delivery and full text delivery through electronic media and other means would from part of a resource sharing program. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 5645

Q.3 Explain at least seven common areas of resource sharing in libraries.

Resource sharing is an important concept of library collection development. It has played an important role in the formation of consortia in library management. It has replaced the earlier traditional concept of space, limited budget, and highest cost and as an economic means. An independent library cannot satisfy the need of users. So this problem has been overcome by the use of resource sharing. Resource sharing of the library involves co-operative acquisition which includes access to the catalogue, in a process and on order information of the participating libraries, an interlibrary loan which comprises determining the location of the required resources by verifying its availability and physical transfer and common storage for the material used. The services and procedure of resource sharing include bibliographic access to holding catalogues for cataloguing and classification. Sufficient speed is required to the users for resource sharing technique so that the client receives the desired resource before the need is evaporated. Cost for the local collection should be less or at least equal to the cost of purchasing the same materials.
The resource sharing will be successful when several key requirements will be made successfully. Appropriate communication technology and delivery system are the key requirements. There should also be a mutual understanding (in respect of acquisition policy, sharing of resources, loan period, bibliographic control, renewal etc) among the participating libraries. It should be governed by a strong management or other government mechanisms. Successful resource sharing involved the use of modern technology and a less amount of behavior modification.
Internet plays an important role in resource sharing which requires less effort and required less resource for proprietary networking solution. All the libraries which are digitized should have a high-speed internet connection so that good user interface can be provided to the web browser which will enable integration and will be able to access the shared resources.
The World Wide Web and the internet have given a strong policy for consortia based sharing of resources, electronic journals, and bibliographic databases. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,
Factors of Resource Sharing:
The factors of resource sharing includes-
? The growth of knowledge in various subjects
? The high-speed growth of literature and publication: The traditional library in the second half of the 20th century it was very difficult to manage the publication which includes about three million documents published every year. The documents include conference papers, articles, books, technical reports etc. Which are to be double after every eight to ten years.
? Increasing trend of newly developed subjects and specialization.
? Fund limitation: The cost of books and other reading materials are increasing every year but the budget of the University library is limited. So resource sharing is adopted by the University libraries.
? Increasing the cost of publications: The cost of publication is increasing rapidly. The average price of foreign books has raised to $143.09 in 1989 from $41.34 in 1976.
? Increasing the number of members which includes students, faculty members and research scholars of the Universities.
? The wider scope of academic learning and other information resources.
? The information needs of the users are recurring or repetitive in nature.
Resource sharing is necessary for acquiring information about a particular subject at low cost among the University libraries. It should play a pivotal role so that resource sharing becomes the focal point of co-operation.
Areas of Resource Sharing:
Resources that could be shared are:
i. Materials-Books, periodicals, audio-visual aids, floppies, CDs etc.
ii. Experience and skill library manpower.
iii. Infrastructure ? It includes hardware and software for computer and networking.
Forms of Resource Sharing:
There are various forms of resource sharing for the benefit of libraries in general as well for the users. The forms are:
i. Cooperative acquisition
ii. Cooperative processing
iii. Cooperative storage &
iv. Interlibrary loan.
University libraries procure books, periodicals and other materials from the publishers and booksellers situated in and outside the country. In the acquisition work selection, placing orders, giving reminders, passing the bills and a few other activities are included. All these activities can be reduced greatly through the cooperative acquisition of documents. Moreover, it may bring down cost, earn a large discount and save time and clerical labors of the staff members.
The procurement of the foreign periodicals poses so many problems such as exchange of foreign currency, postal problem etc. Such types of problems can be solved by cooperative acquisition.
Interlibrary loan is the most common and an old form of resource sharing. In this, a library gets a book or a document from another library on loan for a certain period of time. The transaction takes place only between the libraries. Aiou Solved Assignments code 5645 ,

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 5645

Q4: Discuss resource sharing consortium and emphasize its advantages for academic libraries in Pakistan.

In today?s climate of rapid societal and technological change, coupled with economic consortium constraints, participation in a library consortium is essential for individual library to provide better and greater variety of information services. Therefore, cooperative strategy has become crucial part of library policies. However, before it is possible to implement a cooperative strategy, every organization joining a consortium should have a clearly articulated business theory which sum up the assumptions that constitutes the core values of the organization (Steve, Paul and Ken, 2003). Academic Librarians and consortium staff members involved in planning for, administering and delivering reference services are living in an interesting time (Peters, Thomas A, 2002). Delivery of a wide range of services to our members? patrons is one of the main objectives of consortium. How those services are provided and how to ensure the best use of them is sometimes left to individual member institutions. Yet, there are instances where consortia are asked to lead a project that will collocate those resources and provide a clear uniform path (Jackson, Mary E and Preece, Barbara G, 2002). Scientific and research based information has a significant contribution for rapid promotion of research, education and development of various other sectors of the economy. It saves a lot of human effort, financial input, as well as application of physical and logistic resources otherwise needed to reinvent the wheel every time. It provides vital technical support to keep going on all the scientific endeavors. Success in exploration of new means of resource sharing can help overcome the financial constraints faced by most of our libraries and information centers. In this age of Information Technology, we can go for new concepts and ideas, which would ultimately open new vistas of knowledge to our scientists, researchers, policy makers, planners, faculty members and students. The ongoing process of digitization of libraries would ultimately reduce our dependence on libraries in the form of physical presence during particular timings and the users will be able to search and visit the library with the help of login and password at a nominal cost (Tanvir, 2005).
The concept of consortia is based on the principle of cooperative arrangement among group or institutions. A library consortium?provides a way for its participating member institutions to conduct business in a competitive manner. The basic premise of consortia is that its members can collectively achieve more than what they can achieve as individual institutions. Thus a consortium is ?an agreement, combination, or group formed to undertake an enterprise beyond the resources of any one member?, and it ?usually involves horizontal collaboration among direct competitors? (Aldrich, Bolton and Sasaki, 1998, p264). The library cooperation or networking is not a new phenomenon in library environment, it exists through ages. There have been on record instances of Library cooperation among monastery Libraries in the 13th century. There had been Resource sharing agreements among the universities of Laud, Abo and Greifswald in 18th century. Later example of Library cooperation included the preparation of union catalogues, bibliographies, and lists. Thereafter in the 20th century the compilation and publication of union catalogues, of different types increased in number in most countries. Driven by prevailing circumstances, sharing of resources is the only option left for information managers. Earlier this concept was limited to the acquisition and sharing of resources, inter-library loan, but the advent of information technology and networking technologies have changed the concept of resource sharing and have opened new vistas of resource sharing not only faster and cheaper but also opened a floodgate of resources available in different parts of the world.
Cooperation and sharing of resources have always had an important role in libraries, particularly since the development of modern systematized libraries. Many of our basic practices, cataloguing, and classification methods were developed to bring a uniform and common order to our collections of information. Cooperation is deeply ingrained in library culture. Libraries and librarians participate in an astonishing array of organizations at all levels of practice. We share resources of many kinds not only library materials but also metadata, computer resources, best practices, and expertise in a rapidly growing variety of alliances and groupings. Our cooperative networks are formal and informal; local, state, and regional; and increasingly national and international. Resource sharing is nothing but sharing of library resources by certain participating libraries among themselves based on the principles of cooperation. This is applicable in the matter of use of documents, work force, facilities, services, building space or equipment. In such a cooperation venture, it becomes possible for a user in any of the participating libraries to make use of the resources of not only his own library but also of those other participating libraries. Thus, through resource sharing, libraries can improve the total collection of reading material, consolidate their technological capabilities, improve their information dissemination tools, and extend their library and information services to a larger user community (Mahesh V Mudhol and Vasanth N, 2005). It is no surprise that consortia are fast becoming a common approach to problem solving in order to seek joint solutions. Partnerships maximize funding opportunities and streamline information resources by linking technology. Costs of electronic journals and subscription databases continue to escalate, and the tangle of funding applications for small groups is a piecemeal solution at best. The ?best source? is no longer static, as the mutability of information evolution makes nothing absolute or permanent. Partnerships improve productivity (shared workload) and expand funding opportunities (Borek et al., 2006).

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 5645 Autumn 2019

Q.5 Write comprehensive note on the following:
a) Resource sharing systems
In the present era of Information technology, the information needs of the users have been increased so enormously that no single library on its own can meet their information needs. This has necessitated the need for effective linkages and cooperation between libraries and information centers for sharing of available resources and information through networking. The consortia for library can be considered as a major step towards library cooperation in sharing electronic resources. The consortium should take lead role in the development of a national strategy for information provision for research in higher education.
Library resource sharing and networking
The term resource applies to a thing, person or action to which one resorts to in times of need and sharing indicates allotting, apportioning or contributing something that is owned, to benefit others. Resource sharing, therefore, refers to reciprocity, implying a partnership where each member has something useful to contribute to others and which each is willing and able to make available when needed Resource sharing is an empty concept, but for the approach permitting resource sharing to work is that which
Entails having resources to share
Having a willingness to share them, and
Having a plan for accomplishing resource sharing
Resource Sharing is an integral part of modern library services. In the developed countries, no library services can be thought without sharing of resources. In the past, RS was limited to the interlibrary loan system. In the modern age, with the development of science and technology and innovations of techniques and devices, resource sharing has become easier and fruitful due to the availability of databases, information network, and online sharing facilities. Thus, the resource sharing system helps one library to access to resources of other libraries.
When resource sharing is agreed upon by participating institutions, then the following aspects must be planned:
Identify and locate major collections, sources and materials
Assemble, publish and distribute collective information for all participating bodies
Workout the basis for sharing, reference service, lending service, copying service, access to materials, delivery service, and lists of holdings
Establish means of sharing ideas, development and problems in the form of a newsletter
Plan for new developments in the knowledge of what others are doing
Developing a National Information Policy
The following are the most important benefits of resource sharing to participating institutions:
Easy access to materials
Enables co-operating institutions to extend limited resources
Allow greater staff specialization
Improve services to users
Avoids unnecessary duplication
Reduces the number of places which will need to go for services
Improves working relationships between cooperating libraries, and
Resource sharing refers to a joint use of resources available on a system or a network by user or peripherals. In the language of information management, when we talk about resource sharing we simply mean collective use of information of all types by various end users from a control coordinating unit or from within a network component at a reduced cost with easy accessibility.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization “dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world’s information and reducing information costs”.[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016). OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.
OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, and library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio. The group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, and hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system. Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, and increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world’s information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide.
OCLC provides bibliographic, abstract and full-text information to anyone.
OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat?the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. The Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search, bibliographic, and bookselling sites;[9] Open WorldCat later morphed into In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was later phased out.
The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; it was replaced by the Classify Service.
Until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users. This around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries.
Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog; the company printed its last catalog cards on October 1, 2015.
The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth. The main purpose of this network is to facilitate researchers / students in sharing data and to coordinate with each other though video conferencing. The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth.
The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth. The main purpose of this network is to facilitate researchers / students in sharing data and to coordinate with each other though video conferencing. The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth.
The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth. The main purpose of this network is to facilitate researchers / students in sharing data and to coordinate with each other though video conferencing. The Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) connects universities and research institutes through high-speed Internet bandwidth.
d) Rational of resource showing.

  1. Everything Is Not On the InternetÿThe Internet consists of a small percentage of what?s published. Search engines such as Google, AltaVista, FireFox and Yahoo access are limited. ALA reports that only 8% of all journals and even fewer books are on the Internet. ÿThe most reliable scholarly information is available in books and journals. ÿPreliminary steps to find the appropriate search terms should start with print indexes and subject headings volumes.ÿÿ
  2. The Internet Is Not Organized
    There is not a system that catalogs and organizes all resources on the Internet.ÿÿ A search on the Internet is similar to searching an unclassified catalog. ÿWhen you use any of the search engines, you?re searching only part of the Internet.ÿ Searches are not always relevant to your topic and can cause a lot of wasted time, frustration and confusion
  3. The Internet Doesn?t Have Quality Control
    Quality control isn?t easy to achieve on the Internet. ÿOpen Source information on the Internet is quite common and easy to get misinformed information. ÿAnyone with access to the Internet can publish a Website.
  4. Sources on the Internet are Harder to Identify
    Information on the Internet is hard to tell who?s telling you what and where is the location of the information. When you use information in your paper from the Internet, it?s important to print it out and cite your sources. ÿÿInformation taken from the Web can change overnight. ÿInformation taken from the library or databases in the library gives the exact location.ÿ One must give full documentation when using information from a site.ÿ See the Academic Integrity Statement underÿAcademic and Classroom Conductÿfor Tennessee State University?s response to plagiarism and academic dishonesty.

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