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AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 1431 Autumn 2018

Aiou solved assignments code 1431 autumn 2018. solved assignment 1 & 2 introduction to environment 2019 code 1431. past & old papers, assignments marks are aslo given.

Aiou Solved Assignments Code 1431

Course: Basics OF ICT
Code: 1431
Question No. 1:-
Define the term computer. Also describe different types as well as applications of the computer.
How information and communication technologies may prove to be useful in an educational system. Explain it in detail with the help of suitable examples Ans: a) COMPUTER
Computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

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A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
)>. Different Types of Computer
Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap:
Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor.
Workstation: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and, in general, a higher-quality monitor.
Minicomputer: A multi-user computer capable of supporting up to hundreds of users simultaneously.
Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.
Supercomputer and Mainframe
Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is Cray Research.
Mainframe was a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or “main frame” of a room-filling Stone Age batch machine. After the emergence of smaller “minicomputer” designs in the early 1970s, the traditional big iron machines were described as “mainframe computers” and eventually just as mainframes. Nowadays a Mainframe is a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines.
Minicomputer
It is a midsize computer. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from up to 200 users simultaneously.
Workstation
It is a type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, at large amount of RAM, built-in network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called a diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like personal computers, most workstations are single-user computers. However, workstations are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.
N.B.: In networking, workstation refers to any computer connected to a local-area network. It could be a workstation or a personal computer.
Personal computer:
It can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. In price, personal computers range anywhere from a few hundred pounds to over five thousand pounds. All are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is for playing games and recently for surfing the Internet.
Today, the world of personal computers is basically divided between Apple Macintoshes and PCs. The principal characteristics of personal computers are that they are single-user systems and are based on microprocessors. However, although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, it is common to link them together to form a network. In terms of power, there is great variety. At the high end, the distinction between personal computers and workstations has faded. High-end models of the Macintosh and PC offer the same computing power and graphics capability as low-end workstations by Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, and DEC.
Types of Personal Computer
Actual personal computers can be generally classified by size and chassis / case. The chassis or case is the metal frame that serves as the structural support for electronic components. Every computer system requires at least one chassis to house the circuit boards and wiring. The chassis also contains slots for expansion boards. If you want to insert more boards than there are slots, you will need an expansion chassis, which provides additional slots.
Tower model: The term refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. This is in contrast to desktop models, in which these components are housed in a more compact box. The main advantage of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints, which makes installation of additional storage devices easier.
Desktop model: A computer designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall. Because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices.
Notebook computer: (An extremely lightweight personal computer) Notebook computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase. Aside from size, the principal difference between a notebook computer and a personal computer is the display screen. Notebook computers use a variety of techniques, known as flat-panel technologies, to produce a lightweight and non-bulky display screen.
Laptop computer: (A small, portable computer). It is small enough that it can sit on your lap. Nowadays, laptop computers are more frequently called notebook computers.
Application of Computer
Following list demonstrates various applications of computers in today’s arena.
Business
A computer has high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility which made it an integrated part in all business organizations. Computer is used in business organizations for:
Payroll calculations
Budgeting
Sales analysis
Financial forecasting
Managing employees database
Maintenance of stocks etc.
Banking
Today banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Banks provide following facilities:
Banks provide online accounting facility, which includes current balances, deposits, overdrafts, interest charges, shares, and trustee records.
ATM machines are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks.
Insurance
Insurance companies are keeping all records up-to-date with the help of computers. The insurance companies, finance houses and stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns. Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing
procedure to continue with policies
starting date of the policies
next due installment of a policy
maturity date
interests due
survival benefits
bonus
Education
The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the education system.
The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).
CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.
The computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students.
There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students.
It is used to prepare a database about performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis.
Marketing
In marketing, uses of computer are following:
Advertising – With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products.
At Home Shopping – Home shopping has been made possible through use of computerized catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers.
Health Care
Computers have become important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, Ultrasounds and CT Scans etc., are also done by computerized machines.
Some major fields of health care in which computers are used are:
Diagnostic System – Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness.
Lab-diagnostic System – All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer.
Patient Monitoring System – These are used to check patient’s signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG etc.
Pharma Information System – Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drug’s side effects etc.
Surgery: Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.
Engineering Design
Computers are widely used in engineering purpose.
One of major areas is CAD (Computer aided design). That provides creation and modification of images. Some fields are:
Structural Engineering – Requires stress and strain analysis for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, Airplanes etc.
Industrial Engineering – Computers deal with design, implementation and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials and equipments.
Architectural Engineering – Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.
Military
Computers are largely used in defense. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc. Military also employs computerized control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are:
Missile Control
Military Communication
Military Operation and Planning
Smart Weapons
Communication
Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant for. Some main areas in this category are:
E-mail
Chatting
Usenet
FTP
Telnet
Video-conferencing
Government
Computers play an important role in government. Some major fields in this category are:
Budgets
Sales tax department
Income tax department
Male/Female ratio
Computerization of voters lists
Computerization of driving licensing system
Computerization of PAN card
Weather forecasting
b) How information and communication technologies may prove to be useful in an
educational system. Explain it in detail with the help of suitable examples
Educational ICT tools can be divided into 3 categories: Input source, Output source and Others. See the following graph :

INPUT SOURCE OUTPUT SOURCE OTHERS

Visualiser/ Document Camera
Student

response system Application Software Display: Monitor,TV..etc. Digital Recorder C tech

Worldwide research has shown that ICT can lead to improved student learning and better teaching methods. A report made by the National Institute of Multimedia Education in Japan, proved that an increase in student exposure to educational ICT through curriculum integration has a significant and positive impact on student achievement, especially in terms of “Knowledge • Comprehension”
“Practical skill” and “Presentation skill” in subject areas such as mathematics, science, and social study.
However, you can see that there are many education technology solutions provided in the world which may cause confusion among educators about how to choose the right ICT solution. Let’s have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of ICT tools for education and discover what kind of education ICT solution is suitable for your school needs.
3 MAIN ADVANTAGES OF ICT TOOLS FOR EDUCATION

  1. Through ICT, images can easily be used in teaching and improving the retentive memory of students.
    2- Through ICT, teachers can easily explain complex instructions and ensure students’ comprehension.
  2. Through ICT, teachers are able to create interactive classes and make the lessons more enjoyable, which could improve student attendance and concentration.

3 MAIN DISADVANTAGES OF ICT TOOLS FOR EDUCATION

Setting up the devices can be very troublesome.
Too expensive to afford
Hard for teachers to use with a lack of experience using ICT tools.

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AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 1431


Question No.2:-
What is the difference between memory and hard disk? Explain in detail
Write a short note on “Data Scanning Devices”
Answer: a) What is the difference between memory and hard disk? Explain in detail
Memory and disk space are two of the most widely-confused terms in the computing world. To understand how your computer works, you must first know the difference between memory and disk space.
The hard disk, sometimes called the “hard drive” (which is actually the mechanism that holds the hard disk), is a spindle of magnetic discs that can hold several gigabytes of data. Therefore, disk space refers to how much space you have available on your hard disk for storing files. When you save a document or install a new program, it gets stored on your hard disk. The more files you download, install, or save on your hard disk, the fuller it become.
Memory, on the other hand, is not the same as disk space! Memory refers to the random access memory (RAM) inside your computer. RAM consists of small chips also known as memory modules. Your computer uses memory (RAM) to store actively running programs on the computer, including the operating system. For example, the operating system’s interface and other processes get loaded into memory when the computer boots up. When you open a program like Microsoft Word, it gets loaded into the computer’s memory as well. When you quit the program, the memory is freed up for use by other programs.
RAM can be accessed hundreds of times faster than a hard drive, which is why active programs are loaded into RAM. Only small amounts of data from hard disk does need to be loaded into the system memory at one time, computers typically have much more hard disk space than memory. For example, a 2012 computer may come with a 2 TB hard drive, and only 16 GB of RAM.
If your computer informs you that you don’t have enough disk space to install a program, you need delete files from your hard disk that you don’t need or buy an additional hard drive. If your computer says there is not enough memory to run a certain program, you will need to upgrade your memory by buying more RAM. Knowing the difference between these two computer components can save you both time and money.
b) Write a short note on “Data Scanning Devices”
ans: Optical Recognition System provide another means of minimizing keyed input by capturing data at the source. These systems enable the computer to “red” data by scanning printed text for recognizable patterns.
The banking industry developed one of the earliest scanning systems in the 1950’s for processing cheque. The Magnetic link Character Recognition (MICR) system is still used throughout the banking industry. The bank, branch, account number and cheque number are encoded on the cheque before it is sent to the customer. After the customer has used the cheque and it comes back to the bank to the bank, all that needs to be entered manually is the amount. MICRO has not been adopted by other industries because the character set has only fourteen symbols. Bar Code Reader:
Of all the scanning devices, you are probably most familiar with BAR CODE READES. Many retail and grocery stores use some from of bar code reader to determine the item being sold and to retrieve the item price from a computer system. The code reader may be a handled unit or it may be embedded in a countertop. The bar code reader reads the Universal Product Code(UPC), a pattern of bars printed on merchandise. The UPS has gained the use of the code because the system was used to check their accuracy and speed. Today, bar codes are used to update inventory and ensure correct pricing. Federal Express employees can usually tell a customer within a matter of minutes the location of any package.
Optical Mark Reader:
By taking exams, you are familiar with Mark Sense Character Recognition systems. Every time you take a test with a “fill in the bubble” Scranton from and use a #2 lead pencil, you are creating input suitable for and OPTICAL MARK READER (ORMO. A #2 lead pencil works best because of the number of magnetic particles in that weight lead. The OMR sense the magnetized marks, enabling the reader to determine which responses are marked.
Optical Scanners:
Can scan typed documents, pictures, graphics or even handwriting into a computer. Photographs
scanned into a microcomputer appear clearly on the screen and can be displayed whenever desired. The copy that the computer stores never yellows with age. Early scanners could recognize only text printed in a special OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION(OCR) typeface. A scanner converts the image that it sees into numeric digits before storing it in the computer. This conversion process in known as designs Depending on the volume and type of material to be scanned, you can use drum scanner, flatbed scanner, sheeted scanner and even small handheld scanners. The small, hadheld scanner sheeted scanners(priced at about $150) are used most frequently with micro microcomputer; however, only 5 per cent of all microcomputer systems are equipped with scanners. Manufacturers responded to user reluctance to use scanners by releasing in 1995 a number of new, small paper scanners priced between $500 and $700.) most of these new devices sit between the keyboard and the monitor and can interface with a fax machine, send e-mail, and store documents on disk for archive purposes.
Digitizer:
Digitizer is used to create drawing and pictures using a digitizer tablet by a process called digitizing. Digitizing is a process by which graphic representations are converted into digitizer consist of 3 main parts — a flat surface called tablet, a small hand held mouse-like device called puck and a special pen like device called stylus. The puck is used to input existing drawings into the computer. The stylus is used to trace exiting drawing placed on the tablet. The user makes contact to the tablet with stylus. As the stylus is connected to the tablet by a write, the traced image is stored in RAM and displayed on the monitor.
Electronic Card Reader:
Before discussing electronic card reader, let we discuss electronic credit cards. Electronic credit card make it possible to charge online payments to one’s credit card account. It is card details can be encrypted by using the SSL. Protocol in the buyer’s computer, which is available in standard browsers. The number of input devices are common in association with ash transactions. The most common are ATMs and POS terminals.
ATM:
Automatic Taller Machine are interactive input/output devices the enable people to make bank transactions from remote locations. ATMs utilize screen input as well as magnetic card readers.
POS:
Point of Sale: terminals are computerized cash registers that also often incorporate touch screen technology and bar-code scanners. These devices allow the input of numerous data such as item sold, price, method of payment, name or Zip code of the buyer, and so on. Some inputs are automated; others may be entered by the operators.
Vision Input System:
Are the latest input devices that can recognize the vision/image which appears in the range of its lens. It seems to be vary useful and are becoming popular in different Got. Departments like licensing, passport department and other authorities where personal identification is required.

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AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Basics Of ICT Autumn 2018

Question No.3-
Discuss the purpose of Point & Draw devices? Also describes the concept of electronically card reader” in your own words
Answer: PURPOSE OF POINT AND DRAW DEVICE
A point-and-draw device of a computer includes: a X-axis and Y-axis driving gear system respectively mounted in a housing and generally orienting perpendicularly with each other, and a driving plate for driving the two gear systems slid ably held in the housing having an actuating portion protruding upwardly from the driving plate through a top window formed in an upper cover of the housing, whereby upon coordinative moving of the driving plate to move the X-axis or Y-axis driving gear system, a movement pulse signal can be electronically sensed for encoding the pulse signals into the computer to be decoded and read for moving a cursor on a CRT screen of the computer corresponding to the movement of the driving plate in the housing for an effective, reliable and ergonomic manipulation of the point-and-draw device.
The most common input devices are by far the keyboard and the mouse, which is a point-anddraw device. Most of our interaction with a computer is performed using one of these or a combination of the two. However, there are many kinds of input devices that serve special needs. There are several kinds of point-and-draw devices. The most notable is the mouse. Others include the following:
Joystick
Trackball
Mouse pen
Digitizer tablet and pen
Track points
Track pads
Other input devices include, but are not limited to:
Scanners
Speech recognition
Digital cameras
Various hand-held Data Entry Devices
Because of the speed with which computers work, humans are really the weak link. (Remember that atypical home PC can do millions of instructions per second.) We, as humans, are slow and prone to make mistakes when entering data. For this reason, many industries are pushing source-data automation, which is getting data into the computer with no or very little human interaction.
Concept of electronically card reader
Card readers are hardware devices that let one write and read data on a memory card (such as a multimedia card). Some card readers have multiple slots for different cards while some have only one card slot.
The function of a memory card reader is to read data from a memory card. When a memory card is placed into a card reader, it shows on the PC as a mounted disk. The content of the memory card can then be accessed by double-clicking the card’s icon. The card icon can be seen on “My Computer” on Window PCs
A device that can decode the information contained in a credit or debit card’s magnetic strip or microchip. Card readers allow customers to access their bank accounts through ATM machines and allow consumers to make purchases using credit and debit cards. The card’s magnetic strip or microchip contains information including the cardholder’s name, account number, card expiration date and card validation code. The card reader decodes this information, and it is transmitted to a payment processor. The payment processor then verifies that sufficient funds are available to complete the transaction, and the merchant completes the sale.
Before there were card readers, merchants used manual devices at the point of sale to take a physical imprint of the embossed customer name and account number from the front of the credit card. These devices, colloquially called “knuckle busters” because users would often scrape their knuckles on the device while using them, became widespread in the 1950s when credit card use became more common. These manual devices cannot read or transmit data stored on credit cards; merchants have to transmit the information from the carbon copies to the payment processor long after the transaction is complete. Today, some merchants keep manual imprinters on hand as a back-up option for accepting credit cards when electronic payment systems are down.
Traditionally, electronic card readers have been integrated with stationary payment systems the point-of-sale terminals we envision when we think of using a credit card to pay at the store. Thanks to modern technology, credit card readers are now small and portable. They are also easily and inexpensively available to almost anyone who wants to accept credit card payments. All it takes is a small device that plugs in to a smartphone or tablet. The card reader itself is sometimes free, and the payment processor that issues the reader makes money by collecting a small percentage of each credit card transaction, such as 2.75%.
Usually, a photo folder may automatically open when one inserts a card reader since most cards frequently contain pictures from digital cameras. This enables an easy medium of importing pictures into one’s photo album on the computer. If one does not desire to transfer photos, one can simply close the program, and the card can still be accessed on the computer.
Once the user is ready to remove the card reader, he should ensure he uses the “eject” command on the computer to do it. This will help avoid data on the card from getting damaged.

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AIOU Solved Assignments Basics Of ICT


Question No.4:-
Write down the advantages and disadvantages of “Information and Communication Technology”
Write down the importance of ICT in daily life use
Answer: a) Write down the advantages and disadvantages of “Information and
Communication Technology”
Information and and Communication Technology stands for “Information and Communication Technologies.” ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.
In the past few decades, information and communication technologies have provided society with a vast array of new communication capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VoIP), and video-conferencing. Social networking websites like Face book allow users from all over the world to remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis.
Modern information and communication technologies have created a “global village,” in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affect society.
ADVANTAGES
ICT refers to the devices used to communicate between computers. Information communication technology (ICT) has greatly impacted and enhanced global socialization and interactions.

In fact information technology has taken over nearly every aspect of our daily lives from commerce (buying and selling) to leisure and even culture. Today, mobile phones, desktop computers, hand held devices, emails and the use of Internet has become a central part of our culture and society. These technologies play a vital role in our day to day operations.
ICT has made global social and cultural interaction very easy. We now live in an interdependent global society, where people can interact and communicate swiftly and efficiently. News and information can now be transmitted in minutes. Individuals can easily stay in contact with members of their families who reside in other countries or make new friends across the world.

Examples of information and communication technology (ICT) tools used for these purposes are emails, instant messaging (IM), Chat rooms and social networking websites, such as Face book and Twitter, Skype, iPhones, cellular phones and similar applications.
ICT made a major contribution towards the elimination of language barriers – people speaking different languages can connect and socialize or trade in real time via the Internet. This is made possible with the use of language translators.
There are many advantages of the new ICT technology:
Processing of data is much faster on a computer.
Example: Calculating an annual budget on a spreadsheet is instantaneous, doing the calculations by hand would take some time.
Repetitive processing can be better done using computerized machinery.
Example: Humans get tired, lose concentration and generally fed up if they have to repeat the same task over and over again. Robotic machinery will perform the same task repeatedly with consistent quality and never need a break, or software programs can be written to process all the records in a database.
Searching for data is much faster.
Example: Finding a patient’s record in a doctor’s surgery can be done in seconds on a computerized database system, whereas it would take a receptionist some minutes to locate a folder in a paper filing system.
Data storage capacity is almost limitless in a computer system.
Example: Large quantities of data can be stored on hard discs or media such as CDs or DVDs instead of needing enormous quantities of paper and many large filing cabinets. e. g. In a national driving license database.
Data communications are fast and accurate. Data transmitted over a network will arrive at its destination anywhere in the world in just a few seconds.
Example: A computer user can place an order for an item on an Internet website and it will

be received immediately – posting an order in the mail would take a day or two to arrive.
Data can be output on a computer in a variety of different formats.
Example: Annual sales figures for a retail business can be printed as a spreadsheet, displayed as a graph, or as a multimedia presentation involving text, sound, graphics and animations.
In as much as the advantages of IT are numerous, it is important to mention some of its major disadvantages to the society.
A significant disadvantage is that older generations find it difficult to catch up with the ever changing and numerous technologies available today. Fear of change, resistance to change and inability to catch up with rapid technology evolution are areas to note.
The issue of digital divide cannot be ignored. In the world today, there are people in the society who are not in the position to take advantage of available technology. This may be due to poverty or geographical location. For example, access to technology can be said to be limited in many developing countries and these may result in lesser opportunities for economical and social development.
DISADVANTAGES
Due to poor internet server, risk of having hackers accessing ones files and shopping online at times is not very secure for a customer. Another disadvantage is that some generations may have difficulties using some software.
The increased efficiency and automation brought about by ICT can also cause job losses, especially in manual roles and the manufacturing sector.
If your computer gets a virus then it could cause you to lose all your data which could be important.
In modern world is very important aspect it has their problem among of them are loose of information which is very risk
Body Language
Communication through voice chat or instant messaging does not take body language into account. Non-verbal cues are a vital part of the way humans communicate; with researcher Albert Mehrabian calculating that 55 percent of the message pertaining to feelings and attitudes portrayed by people is in facial expression alone. As such, there is an increased chance that your message will be misunderstood if you are not engaged in face-to-face dialog with the person you are talking to.
Security Issues
ICT provides a range of ways for fraudsters to gain access to your personal details, which could result in you or your business losing money and reputation. Technologies such as online banking mean that with the right security information a third party could impersonate you and gain access to your finances remotely. This is in stark contrast to the pre-ICT era, when frauds would have needed to convince another person (for example, a bank teller or phone operator) that they were you in order to access your money.
b) Write down the importance of ICT in daily life use
Information and communications technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy. Information and technology has helped a lot in the field of jobs. IT industry introduced some unique and rare jobs which wasn’t very popular even in late 1980. This field has appeared as a solution to increase the number of employments and reduce the number of unemployment in our society. IT industry created a lot of job facilities for people who have skills in IT. It has created jobs like- Web developer, IT network administrator, computer game designer, IT technicians etc. IT industry also helped many people to become successful self-employer. For example-Steve Jobs who was the founder of Apple Inc. along with Ronald Wayne. Bill Gates who is the founder of “Microsoft.” Mark Zuckerberg the founder of famous social networking site “Facebook.” This is also helpful because they have also employed people in their own company which is also part of IT industry.
It has not only created jobs for many people, but it has also taken away many jobs in the society. For example- now a days people like to buy their products online which has led to reduction in floor jobs. For example- Comet has gone into administration because it can’t cope with the online competition from different online shopping like Amazon and Ebay.
Education-
The technology helped us in our education as well. This has introduced the easiest way of learning and teaching for both students and the teachers. It has also introduced us to know about modern discoveries and also historical things as well. We can use internet every where to different books and also we can watch videos on the internet to get more ideas about the topic that we want to research on. Now a days we use projector in our school and other educational field to discuss the work with the whole class.
We can also get ideas by reading blogs about different things and also discuss each others view about some topics that is related to the education using blogs. We can also ask question from our teacher using emails while we are at home which could be very important especially before the exam day and we can also research on the internet and we don’t have to look at the books and find the right page. This saves lot of time for the students. We can also take help from our friends to learn in a collaborate environment.
Although there are some advantages of using IT in our education it also has some disadvantages as well. Now a days people relies on the Internet too much that they believe on everything that is written on the web page. It has also taken the jobs from the library as because most of the people rely on the internet library as because they can buy their favourite books on the internet. So libraries are shutting down because people are relying on the Internet library.
Crime and Policing-
IT has introduced a lot of things which prevents people committing crime. CCTV camera, GPRS system, using database for finding criminals’ information are some unique thing which can not be possible without the blessing of IT. In common days police uses GPRS to track someone’s car,mobile phone if it has been stolen. Police uses CCTV camera to detect criminals’ face.

Fingerprint is another especial method with which the police can identify the thieves. This is making our life safer and very easy in many ways. For example- in big super markets like ASDA or Tesco doesn’t need to think about too much if someone tries to still their products, because some products have got chips which can be detected if that product isn’t swiped over the bar code reader.
They can also use CCTV cameras to help them protecting their products.
The main disadvantage created by the technology system is that anyone who knows how to create program, they can hack others device using viruses, Phishing and also Malicious software. They can be very threatening as because they can take your information which can be very confidential for you. I.e. Your bank card. Sometimes people also delete others files to annoy people which can led someone to loose their important work as well.
Retailing
IT has impacted on Retailing and we are greatly enjoying the benefit of using IT on Retailing. We are using IT on Retailing which helps us to buy anything 24/7 everyday. We can use this facility to choose whatever we want at any time we want. We can choose range of items on the internet and we don’t even have to go to a place to choose whatever we want. We can also reserve the items on the internet. We can pay for the items on the internet with a safe internet payment option which is paypal. We can also choose products from different countries on the internet and buy them using the advantage of IT. IT also helped companies to make more money and spend less on their business. The company does not need to hire more staffs for the company.
Although it has some advantage on Retailing but there are some disadvantage as well. It can sometimes become very discouraging for small shops as they can’t compete with big supermarkets like Tesco which has both online shopping and normal shopping facility for the consumers. So they have to close their shops. Sometimes the customers can’t get their necessary staffs when they needed because of the late delivery.
Health
When we get sick,we don’t want to go to anywhere instead of staying at home. But we had to move on from that point and we had to forcefully take ourselves to the doctors. Taking appointment, talking to the receptionist, describing the problem we have and then then waiting for it, increases our illness. This is when IT comes to help us. Now a days we don’t need to go to the doctor and describe our problems, we can use Internet to contact with our doctor. We can use also use IT to do face to face communication with our doctor even though we are at home. We can also frequently ask question to our doctors and they can also answer us using E-mails. We doesn’t have to even take appointment to contact with our doctors and we can contact with our doctor whenever we want. We can also use this facility to learn about our disease and how to cure ourselves. We can search on the internet to research about the disease and the medicine we have to use to get better. It is also very helpful for those students who are studying to become doctors and also who like to know more about different kind of medicines.
IT provides us with lot of advantages. But it also has some disadvantages. If someone uses computer for long time then they can get headache, it can also cause neck pain, can make them nothing apart from sitting in front of the computer. Some teenagers also puts too much time on their games instead of studying or taking part in different physical activities. Some people also gets stretch if they get bullied on the internet, which may stop them to go outside and they sometimes feel scared to talk to anybody.
Business
Communication is a very important technique which is used to make a business very famous. In earlier days, people used to communicate in a different way. They had to go to everyone’s house to promote their products which could take a long time to promote their product. They sometimes used to take long journey so that they can deal with someone and they can expand their business. Since technology has arrived,people still using the technique which is communication but they have changed the method of promoting their products or dealing with someone who is far from oneanother. Instead of going to everyone’s house separately, people are making advertisement, which not involves one area or a country but the whole world and we can also use IT to communicate someone who too far from each other. We can use e-mailing method to know more about our customers. They can also frequently ask us some questions related to our business.

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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 1431 Autumn 2018

Question No.5:-
Write a note on the following topics:
)>. Types of monitors
)>. Social Networking Websites
Answer-
Types of monitors )>. CRT or Cathode Ray Tube Monitor
CRT stands for cathode-ray tube and is a technology has been around for a long time

LCD or Flat Panel Monitor
LCD stands for liquid crystal display and although it may seem like this is a new technology it has been used in digital watches for years. The technology works by passing an electric current through liquid crystal which is contained between two sheets of polarizing material.

There are 2 types of color LCD’s, passive matrix and active matrix also known as TFT (thin

film transistor). Passive matrix LCD’s are the less expensive of the two types.
LED and OLED – Light Emitting Diode or Organic LED works without a backlight.

Types of OLED are PMOLED and AMOLED Passive and Active Matrix Organic Light

Emitting Diode
Plasma Display — is a type of flat panel display that utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gas.

Projectors — Use for presentation the 3 types of projectors are (CRT, LCD and DLP) Digital Light Processing
46o
)>.
)>. Monitor Specs
Monitor supports Pixels and RGB color support
(Red, Green and Blue)

Resolution and Refresh Rates
The resolution is the number of dots displayed on the entire screen. The higher the resolution the smaller everything on the screen will be. This can be a benefit for running multiple applications at the same time but can also be a burden for someone with poor eyesight. Common resolution supports include 640 * 480, 800 * 600 and 1,024*768 and so forth.
)>. The refresh rate of a monitor is the frequency at which the screen is redrawn. The higher the number the more often the screen is redrawn and the less flicker will occur. Common Refresh rate are 60 to 80Hertz
Refresh rates for CRT’s will also vary but the minimum refresh rate should be at least 70Hz. Anything below 70Hz and people can start to notice the screen flicker as it is redrawn which can cause eye strain.
)>. Screen Size
The screen size is measured diagonally from corner to corner
Most Monitor can display 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 27 and 32 inches
Viewing Angle
LCD/LED/OLED/Plasma – The viewing angle indicates at what angle the monitor can be viewed vertically and horizontally and still be seen.
)>. CRT – CRT monitor can be viewed at almost any angle
)>. Contrast Ratio
The contrast ratio determines how rich colors will appear on-screen, the higher the ratio the better. Contrast ratios range from 200:1 up to 1000:1
Brightness
LCD/LED/OLED – The brightness states how bright the LCD display will be and ranges from 200 cd/ m 2 to 350 cd/m 2. For the most part, all LCD monitors exhibit sufficient brightness for any type of use.
Dot pitch
This is the space between image pixels on the screen measured in millimeters
LCD – The less space between dots the better and sharper the image will be so the lower the number stated for this spec the better. Dot pitch ranges between .28mm to .24mm in all model categories.
)>. CRT – The less space between dots the better and sharper the image will be so the lower the number stated for this spec the better. Dot pitch ranges between .28mm to .24mm in all model categories.
Multiple Monitor or Dual View Monitor is a Windows feature that allows you to duplicate or extend the desktop across to multiple displays and monitors.

Monitor Troubleshooting
Greenish Tint (Bad Monitor or Bent Pins) Dead Pixels Black Border around monitors
No Displays Note never work on monitors very dangerous
Custom PC Configurations
Audio/Video Editing Workstation (Special video card, large fast hard drives and dual monitors)
Graphics Art PCs (Photoshop)
Music Recording PCs (LogicPro)
Video Recording PCs (Pinnacle)
CAD/CAM Workstation (Powerful CPU, High end video and maximum RAM)
Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing
Virtualization Workstation
Type 1 Native: VMware, Citrix and Hyper V
Type2 Hosted: VMware Server and MS Virtual PC
Thin and Thick Clients (Basic and Desktop Applications)
Home Server PC (Media Streaming, File Sharing, Print Sharing, Gigabit NIC and RAID)Home Theater PC (HTPC) (Surround, Sound, HDMI, TV Tuner)
Gaming PC (Powerful CPU, High end video/GPU, Sound Card and high end cooling)Gaming Consoles: PlayStation, Xbox and Wii
b) SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES
Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online.
Social networking is a way of using your computer to talk to other people, exchange pictures, whatever you want to do. We have some articles on specific networks elsewhere on the Web Wise site, but here are a few basic pointers:
Twitter
This is one of the fastest-growing networks. You follow people you know or in whom you’re interested, they follow you, you exchange brief text-only messages. If you say something interesting, one of your followers might’ve-tweet’ it, which means repeating it and saying who said it. So, some of their followers might start to follow you too, and that’s how you meet new people. Great for asking quick questions.
Face book
Unlike Twitter, you get a page on the web and can use this for longer bits and pieces. You can upload pictures, videos, play games, whatever you want to do. There are Face book applications for reviewing books, reviewing films, areas for private messages and for more open discussions. This can really be your place on the interne if you want it to be.
Linkedln
A bit like a Face book for business. This is a network for contacting and keeping in touch with work colleagues. You may only contact people who are a friend of a friend, or a friend of a friend of a friend, and so forth.
Flickr
There’s less scope for socializing here, but you can upload and share any pictures you want others to see. You can also download and sometimes use pictures on websites, as many people put them up with few copyright restrictions.
Google+
It’s still early days for Google’s competitor to Facebook and Twitter, but the company is such a behemoth that it’s not a good idea to count them out. Google+ lets you put all your acquaintances in separate “circles”, so you can post something to your best friends that you might not want sent to your work colleagues.


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About Tanveer

Muhammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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2 comments

  1. Habib Ur Rehman Khan

    Assignment No. 2 nai hy?

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