Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8625 Autumn 2018

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8625 Autumn 2018. Solved Assignments code 8625 Higher education 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course Higher Education (8625)    

Level B.ed (1.5Year)

Semeser Autumn 2018         

Assignment no 02

 Q. 1 Discuss in detail the system of higher Education in  Malayisa .Alos Describe the role of their higher education in the socio economic development.

Higher Education in Malaysia

A Snapshot of Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia
The higher education sector is responsible for the operation of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia and is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). The education sector has always enjoyed the highest national development budget which symbolizes the commitment of the Malaysian government towards education.

Malaysia’s HEIs (i.e. public universities, private higher educational institutions, polytechnics and community colleges) housed more than a million students in 2011, of which about 93,000 were international students from more than 100 countries. In contrast, there were about 89,686 Malaysian students (27,003 receiving sponsorship and 62,683 self-funded) who were studying overseas in 2011.

With a multi-ethnic population of about 28.3 million, Malaysia had 20 public universities, 53 private universities and six foreign university branch campuses; 403 active private colleges, 30 polytechnics and 73 public community colleges in 2011. These HEIs offer a wide range of tertiary qualifications at affordable prices.

There are also various HEIs from the UK, the US, Australia, Canada, France, and New Zealand which offer twinning and ‘3+0’ degree programmes through partnerships with Malaysian private higher education institutions. At present, some world-class universities such as RMIT University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland have established their collaboration with the local PHEIs.

Five of the 20 public universities in Malaysia have been assigned research university status with additional funding for R&D and commercialization of research. The remaining 15 public universities have been categorised as either comprehensive or focus universities. In the 2012 New Year’s speech, the Minister of Higher Education announced that five public universities have been given autonomy in administration, human resources, financial and academic management and student intake. They are University Malaya, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. This move is aimed at encouraging excellence among local institutions of higher learning.

The quality of higher education is assured through the Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA) which undertakes the implementation of the Malaysian Qualifications Framework. MQA is also responsible for quality assurance and the accreditation of courses and other related functions, covering both public and private higher educational institutions.

The provision of higher education is well regulated. Below are some of the legislation:

  1. The Education Act 1996 (Act 550)
  2. The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act, 1996 (amended 2009)
  3. The National Council of Higher Education Act, 1996
  4. Malaysian Qualifications Agency Act 2007 (replacing the previous namely National Accreditation Board Act 1996 which has been repealed)
  5. The Universities and University Colleges (Amendment) Act, 1996 (amended 2009)
  6. The National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act, 1997 (Amendment 2000)

Both the Universities and University Colleges Act and the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act are currently under review.

The internationalisation of the higher education sector is a high priority for MOHE. Efforts have been made to improve the world ranking of Malaysian universities; to have 150,000 international students by 2015; to create more ‘Malaysian Chairs’ at universities abroad; and to collaborate and cooperate with world-renowned universities on research and academic matters.

The government will continue to create a friendly environment and invite more world-class foreign university branch campuses or faculties to be set up in Malaysia. Currently, there are six foreign universities with branch campuses in Malaysia.

Malaysia’s first rating system, SETARA (Rating System for Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia) was implemented in 2009 to measure the performance of undergraduate teaching and learning in universities and university colleges in Malaysia. The SETARA result was measured using a six-tier category with Tier 6 identified as Outstanding and Tier 1 as Weak.

Subsequently, another rating system was introduced in 2011. My QUEST (Malaysian Quality Evaluation System for Private Colleges) was used to evaluate private colleges in Malaysia in terms of the quality of students, programmes, graduates, resources and governance. The MyQUEST rating categorised an institution as either excellent, good, or weak. The institutions would also receive a rating based on their level of achievement which ranged from 1 star (poor) to 6 stars (excellent).

These two rating systems serve as a reliable reference for students and parents in their selection of institutions and programmes of study offered by various HEIs.

Governing Authority for Higher Education – MOHE

The higher education sector is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). The establishment of this ministry on 27 March 2004 was a result of the re-structuring of the Ministry of Education and marked an important part of history in Malaysia, particularly in the development and expansion of the higher education sector. The establishment of MOHE is in line with the vision of the government in making Malaysia a centre of educational excellence and internationalising Malaysian education.

Functions of MOHE
Some of MOHE’s key functions include:

  • Determining policies and the direction of the higher education sector in order to build an excellent and outstanding nation that is rich in knowledge, culture and civilisation
  • Acting as a catalyst to develop the sector that enables the nation to compete in the era of globalisation
  • Dealing with the challenges of the present global economic scene, in line with the government’s aspiration to produce adequate human resource with knowledge and high moral values (National Higher Education Strategic Plan and Vision 2020).

Structure of MOHE 
MOHE comprises four departments / sectors:

  • The Department of Higher Education
  • The Department of Polytechnic Education
  • The Department Community College Education
  • The Management Sector
  • The Development Sector

The Department of Higher Education
The Department of Higher Education or popularly known as Jabatan Pengajian Tinggi was restructured and established on 27 March 2004 in line with the creation of the Ministry of Higher Education. The first restructuring exercise of this department was under the Ministry of Education on

The Department of Higher Education is supported by several sectors, divisions and an administrative unit that is responsible for the development of both public and private higher education in Malaysia. It also ensures that the universities and colleges are of international standing. This Department is also involved in the marketing of Malaysian higher education internationally as well as being in charge of international students’ welfare.

Department of Polytechnic Education
The formation of the Department of Polytechnic Education was a result of a restructuring exercise by the Department of Polytechnic and Community College Education (DPCCE) on 16 September 2009.

The Department of Polytechnic Education has been entrusted to produce a generation of well-educated, skilled, creative, innovative, progressive and critical thinking youths who are highly employable.

Department of Community College Education
The re-organisation of the Department of Polytechnic and Community College of the Ministry of Higher Education in 2009 has given rise to the birth of the Department of Community College Education (or better known as JPKK). Its mission is to increase the socio-economic status of all levels of Malaysians through better access to education. This will be carried out through training programmes and the use of a life-long learning approach.

Management Sector 
This is the corporate and management services sector. It consists of the Information Technology Division, Human Resource Management Division, Human Development and Training Division as well as the Finance Division. Overall, this sector handles the administration, corporate image and other management functions of the ministry.

Development Sector
The Development Sector consists of the International Division, Planning and Research Division and Scholarship Division. Its many functions include preparing physical development plans that cover the five-year Malaysia Plan, facilities of public higher educational institutions as well as polytechnics and community colleges. It also handles the finances for managing and developing public higher educational institutions besides making monthly or quarterly and half-yearly reports.

Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8625 Autumn 2018

Q.2 Attending university adds value to aperson,s potentional productive contribution to the economy comment on the statement .also explain the way used for financing higher education.

Universities boost economic growth

The value of human capital

In our analysis, we focus on the period since 1950 when university growth took off. University expansion accelerated in a number of countries around the world; a trend partially driven by the view that higher education is essential for economic and social progress. Many might take this view for granted today, but before World War II, fears among national elites of the wider population becoming “over-educated” were widespread.

Boosting growth

Over and above their role as producers of human capital, universities help growth in a number of other ways. They boost innovation in their surrounding region (such as Silicon Valley), they help institutions develop (for example, as platforms for democratic dialogue), and their very presence has a direct economic effect, as they are big purchasers of goods and services from the regions they are located in.

Our analysis of data at the regional level (such as individual states in the US) showed that increases in university numbers significantly raised future GDP per capita: doubling the number of universities in a region raises its future GDP per capita by about 4%. We found that this relationship cannot simply be explained by “reverse causality” – i.e. that faster growing regions simply open up more universities.

Universities also increase output in neighbouring areas within the same country, with stronger effects for geographically closer regions. Doubling the universities in one region increases that region’s income by 4% and country-wide income by 0.5%.

Universities bring spillover effects like Silicon Valley. shutterstock.com

Policymakers are not only interested in the potential benefits of universities, but also in the costs of building and maintaining them. In the UK we estimate that if one university were added to each of its ten regions this would lead to about 0.7% higher national income (£11.3 billion based on 2010 figures). This is higher than the likely annual cost, which, based on average university expenditure, is more like £1.6 billion. The large margin between benefits and costs suggests university expansion is beneficial.

More than mechanical

A cynic might claim that universities affect growth in a mechanical way: more people move to the region and consume more there – housing, food and beer spring to mind. But our results show it’s not a simple matter of population growth boosting economic growth. Even if universities bring with them a great deal of public money for spending in the local area, we found that this is not the main way that they boost growth in a region.

The university effect does seem to be related to increasing the supply of skilled graduates who raise productivity in the firms they work in. We also find that universities boost innovation (as measured by an increase in patenting).Over a longer time frame, we find that higher university presence in a region is also associated with pro-democracy views among the people there. And this is not just among students or graduates, which suggests that there could be some kind of knock-on effect associated with universities through the diffusion of ideas into their surrounding areas.

The benefits of universities to the economy therefore seem to significantly outweigh the costs. That’s been our finding in the UK, which adds to a lot of international data since the 1950s which shows that universities matter for growth. Assuming that any new universities have the same qualities as those we already have, policies to encourage entry to the sector would be good for growth. UK universities have thrived in recent decades in a climate of openness to international students, academics and collaboration all of which will have contributed to the economy through skilled employees and innovations. It is important that whatever Brexit deal we end up with preserves these key strengths.

Training 

A successful economy has a workforce capable of operating industries at a level where it holds a competitive advantage over the economies of other countries. To achieve this, nations may try incentivizing training through tax breaks and write-offs, providing facilities to train workers, or a variety of other means designed to create a more skilled workforce. While it is unlikely an economy will hold a competitive advantage in all industries, it can focus on a number of industries in which skilled professionals are more readily trained. (For related reading, see: On-the-Job Training vs. a College Education.)

Differences in training levels have been cited as a significant factor separating developed and developing countries. Although other factors are certainly in play, such as geography and available resources, having better-trained workers creates spillovers and externalities. For example, similar businesses may cluster in the same geographic region because of an availability of skilled workers (e.g. Silicon Valley).

For Employers

Employers want workers who are productive and require less management. Employers must consider many factors when deciding whether or not to pay for employee training.

  • Will the training program increase the productivity of the workers?
  • Will the increase in productivity warrant the cost of paying for all or part of the training program?
  • If the employer pays for training, will the employee leave the company for a competitor after the training program is complete? (For related reading, see: How Smart Companies Are Keeping Employees Engaged.)
  • Will the newly trained worker be able to command a higher wage? Will the worker see an increase in his or her bargaining power?

While employers should be wary about newly trained workers leaving, many employers require workers to continue with the firm for a certain amount of time in exchange for the company paying for training.

Businesses may also face employees who are unwilling to accept training. This can happen in industries dominated by unions since increased job security could make it more difficult to hire trained professionals or fire less-trained employees. 

High school students contemplating obtaining a university degree – as well as the long term unemployed who feel the need to retrain themselves in a different profession – are typically faced with the challenge of financing the increasingly steep cost of higher education that usually exceeds whatever limited financial resources they currently have available to them.

Although quality undergraduate and graduate school tuition fees can easily run into the tens of thousands of dollars per year – not to mention schooling accommodation and materials costs -numerous programs and methods for financing an education fortunately exist to help the aspiring student obtain the education they desire or require.

Some of the more common ways of financing an education include the following:

Need Based Educational Grants

Applicants who can demonstrate a substantial financial need can often obtain an educational grant from the financial aid office of their targeted university or training facility. Some educational grants are also available from other sources, depending on your qualifications. The main advantage of grants is that they generally do not have to be repaid, although qualifying can be challenging, especially if you have significant income or assets.

Merit Based Scholarships

Exceptional high school students are often awarded merit based educational financial aid in the form of scholarships that do not have to be repaid. Qualifying for such scholarships can depend on a student’s high school performance or on their scores on commonly accepted scholastic aptitude tests, such as the SAT Reasoning Test or the ACT.

Work-Study Employment Plans

Some students may wish to apply to their educational establishment to see if employment opportunities are available for them to earn money to put toward educational expenses while they study. The U.S. Federal Government currently offers a 60 percent wage subsidy to employers of students engaged in work-study programs.

Internships and Apprenticeships

On the job training opportunities are often available in the form of internship for white collar jobs and apprenticeships for blue collar jobs. These educational programs are typically run half time during the school year to accommodate the need to attend classes, and full time during the summer. Although usually low paying, they allow students to obtain valuable hands-on experience in their chosen field and may even result in a job offer from the company they participated in the program with. Private Loans

Private educational loans can be obtained by soliciting them from your friends and family, as well as from various other private sources. Such loans can usually be arranged at either fixed or variable interest rates, and they typically require a financially sound co-signer and a credit check if the lender is not familiar or comfortable with your credit history.

Stafford Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans

These educational loans are guaranteed by the U.S. Federal Government via its Department of Education and can be used to pay tuition and other educational expenses. The subsidized Stafford Loans require financial need to be demonstrated and do not accrue interest while you are in school, while the unsubsidized Stafford Loans are not based on financial need and accrue interest as soon as the loan is disbursed. Both types have a fixed interest rate, and payments are not required while you remain in school.

Direct PLUS Loans

The U.S. Federal Government funds Direct PLUS Loans for educational purposes that currently carry a fixed interest rate of 7.9 percent and have more relaxed credit requirements. The loan amount that a qualifying student can obtain is up to the attendance cost, less any other financial aid received that year.

Be sure to check with your prospective school’s financial aid office to see what options are available and whether they can provide you with further assistance in finding the educational financing option that is right for you.

Aiou Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2018 code 8625

Q.3 Why assessment is ipmortant in the higher education ? also discuss the role of teacher in assessment.

Importance of Assessment in Education

The Importance of Assessment

I’m sure you know the feeling of anticipation when you are about to take a quiz or test. Did you take detailed class notes and study enough? And you surely have been assigned with various essays. Did you give yourself enough time to research, write, and revise your essay in order to meet the requirements?

Exams and essays along with speeches and projects are forms of assessment. Assessment is a critical step in the learning process. It determines whether or not the course’s learning objectives have been met. A learning objective is what students should know or be able to do by the time a lesson is completed. Assessment affects many facets of education, including student grades, placement, and advancement as well as curriculum, instructional needs, and school funding.

The Effects of Assessment

Let’s look at a couple of the main effects of assessment:

Student Learning

Assessment is a key component of learning because it helps students learn. When students are able to see how they are doing in a class, they are able to determine whether or not they understand course material. Assessment can also help motivate students. If students know they are doing poorly, they may begin to work harder.

Imagine this situation:

Johnny is a chemistry student. He just took his first exam in his class. He earned a 56%; he needs a 79% to pass the class. The low exam score lets Johnny know that he missed something important he should have learned. Perhaps, he did not understand the material, or maybe he did not study long enough. Whatever the case, the assessment results let Johnny know that he did not successfully learn the material and that he must try something new in order to earn a better score.

Teaching

Just as assessment helps students, assessment helps teachers. Frequent assessment allows teachers to see if their teaching has been effective. Assessment also allows teachers to ensure students learn what they need to know in order to meet the course’s learning objectives.

Imagine this situation:

Assessment of thinking

A better aim for higher education assessment is to attempt to get at students’ thinking processes. It is possible to get some sense of how students arrived at an answer by asking them to provide a written response rather than allow them to pick (possibly at random or via semi-educated guess) from a set of pre-defined options. The same logic is at play here as when students are asked to show their working as part of a maths problem.

No matter how much students are asked to write, one thing remains consistent: the best that assessors can do is hope students are thinking about issues and concepts in appropriate ways. It is not possible to measure thinking, so no matter what method is used, some element of judgement by the assessor is required.

Moving away from multiple-choice questions therefore does not necessarily mean that it is easier to tell what students are thinking.

Assessment for learning

A more recent notion is the idea that assessment can be for learning rather than just conducting assessment of learning. As discussed elsewhere, the testing effect provides strong evidence for the enhancement of learning through exams. This is based on the same principle as flash cards – that we put what we think we know and remember through some sort of test to assist with encoding it into long-term memory.

Broadly, the notion that learning is enhanced through the testing of knowledge makes intuitive sense in practice settings and is supported by laboratory-based research. Much of the evidence for the testing effect has been gathered through the use of multiple-choice questions so it would appear that this format could be good for learning.

Assessment of student becoming

When considering the purpose of a university education at the most fundamental level, it isn’t just about remembering or thinking. The ultimate aim of university education as it has been historically conceived is a process of becoming.

Students come to university so that they can become lawyers, architects, historians and scholars with all the associated cognitive skills. While this process of becoming is at the core of the purpose of university education, it is nonetheless difficult to assess. The very definition of becoming is about subjective experience and not an objective reality that can be easily quantified in some way.

5 roles that a teacher must fill

Here are five roles that a teacher often has to fill in order to be the best educator they can be.

1. Resource

One of the top roles a teacher must fill is that of a resource specialists. There will be many people who will come to the teacher seeking information. Even if the person is only seeking a source of information, the teacher is the one who must know how to find what the student is looking for. Once the teacher has given the information to the student or coworker, he or she will often have to instruct the student on how to use the information.

2. Support

Students are the ones who need support when learning a new skill or piece of information. A teacher must act as the support person when the student needs this help. Support can come in many forms such as a coach, leader and even a counselor. In professional circles, a teacher may even have to support other teachers leading a particular subject matter.

3. Mentor

One of the biggest roles a teacher may have is that of a mentor. Students look up to teachers and may pattern their own behavior and work ethic to match the instructor. An older teacher can even be a mentor to a younger teacher who is just starting out in the profession.

4. Helping hand

A leader in a school is a person who takes on extra tasks such as leading the PTA meetings and even helping set up a gym for a big event. Teachers who are active in the school will often have more jobs than just the one they were hired to perform. Often, the goals of the teacher will match the direction that the school is taking.

5. Learner

One last important role a teacher must fill is that of a learner. Anyone who has been involved in a profession long enough knows that there is always something new to learn. A learner is a person who is always growing in life and will never claim that they know it all. A teacher will be challenged everyday with a new task that will help them grow into a better person.

A teacher is a person who will have to fill many roles. They are people with educational leadership skills and they must continue to grow and develop as professionals. Anyone seeking to be a teacher should take advantage of any chance they get to grow as a person and as a teacher.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 8625

Q.4 Critically discuss the role of emerging techonologies in higher education.

Emerging technologies in higher education and the workplace: an assessment

The digital revolution poses a double challenge to higher education: in the methods and practices of learning and of teaching, and in the very substance of what is taught in view of the disruption that emerging technologies are bringing to the labor market. Countless questions arise today in the minds of university administrators and faculty, and in societal debates at large: What should a college education contribute to students at a time when most observers of evolving labor trends and education experts agree to predict that the future of work will make the very idea of a life-long career obsolete and replace it with life-long learning? How will college education remain relevant? How will colleges and universities survive in an increasingly competitive, increasingly global environment?

These are some of the questions that Dr. Corinne Mellul’s report seeks to investigate, through a focus on both the context and the loci in which this revolution is playing out. Part One explores the global framework that has made these questions relevant by examining the commoditization of higher education. Part Two provides an overview of the penetration of digital technology and AI on and off campuses to date and seeks to assess developing trends in the transformation of higher education. Part Three focuses on the labor market to gauge the impact of emerging technologies on labor markets to date, review developing trends and attempt to determine what skills will be in demand tomorrow.​

In providing an overview of and some reflections on the disruptions to come in higher education, the author of this report means to explore the subject through a social science lens, with a view to informing and encouraging fruitful debate among the managing teams of universities that are members of the International Federation of Catholic Universities, and, hopefully, also among those that are not.

Emerging technologies in education inspire countless conferences, workshops, white papers, and think pieces every year. They pledge to revolutionize the way students and teachers work and interact. At times, they aim to eliminate some elements of education altogether, including the need for physical proximity to the classroom, costly textbooks, or even the presence of a human teacher. Much like the promises made by the apps on our phones, these educational technologies try to make learning more efficient, engaging, relevant, and entertaining. These possibilities attract both students and the universities that enroll them.

Innovative technologies used in higher education

According to a joint study by Eduventures and Quality Matters, the most compelling technologies for institutions of higher learning are those they perceive to be the most innovative.

  • Adaptive Learning allows students to follow unique learning paths based on their interests and experiences.
  • Learning analytics allows teachers and administrators to track student behavior and make targeted improvements to courses.
  • Simulations, game-based learning activities, and Virtual or Augmented Reality promise to capture students’ imaginations.
  • Competency-Based Education offers a new way of measuring outcomes based not on hours behind a desk or in front of a screen, but rather on a student’s objective demonstration of competency in a given area.
  • Open Educational Resources pledge to make learning more affordable, accessible, and flexible by replacing textbooks with materials available for free to anyone with an internet connection.

These emerging technologies (which have become mainstays at some universities) paint an exciting picture of the future of education. A gap persists, however, between technologies that interest university administrators and those they choose to prioritize.

Why many universities focus on familiar tools vs. the future of technology

While Augmented Reality and Adaptive Learning are among the most talked about technologies, universities’ time and attention are generally more focused on tools that are familiar: audio and video conferencing, anti-plagiarism software, and lecture-capturing software remain the most implemented tools in academia. If you’ve ever had a learning experience online, you’ve likely encountered one or more of them.

These technologies are familiar in our personal lives as well. Most of us have used a video chat application on our phones or have learned from a YouTube video. Given the ubiquity of these types of tools, the question is, then, why are so many universities prioritizing tried-and-tested tools over the seemingly revolutionary solutions available today.

Many of the answers are typical to academia: change is hard, budgets are tight, or leadership cannot agree on the best tools. These problems exist without even taking into account the sheer velocity with which new technologies rise, gain popularity, and then disappear.

The reason for this gap is not organizational inefficiency or “analysis paralysis,” but rather it stems from the fundamental mission of colleges and universities: to produce the best learning experience possible for the students they serve. Sometimes emergent technology can serve that goal, while at other times it can impede it. These tools should be examined in the appropriate context — the classroom. Otherwise, they run the risk of premature implementation, which can lead to confusion, resistance, and a preoccupation with the technology itself, which may distract teachers from engaging with students in learning.

The need for careful analysis

Becoming more involved with a technological tool alone vs. focusing on the purpose it serves can have undesirable consequences. “The danger of fetishizing machines,” Jesse Stommel writes in An Urgency of Teachers, “is that we become subject to them. But turning away in the face of the digital will lead to much the same fate. Rather we need to handle our technologies roughly — to think critically about our tools, how we use them, and who has access to them.” If we are to benefit from what technological tools have to offer, we must scrutinize them; they do not all keep their promises.

The attempt to revolutionize our lives with productivity apps is often thwarted by our failure to input the right information consistently. Anyone who has ever used a digital boarding pass knows the anxiety of watching the battery indicator diminish while hours remain before boarding begins. Tools are only helpful if they are properly implemented. Otherwise, they can leave us disorganized or, worse yet, stranded.

The present and future of education brims with an exceedingly complex array of technological solutions, so educators need a critical mindset and to focus on building meaningful educational experiences. Only then can they select the right tools and figure out the best way to facilitate learning.

When learning dictates use

At Concordia University-Portland, Sena Wilmoth, Director of Academic Affairs, CU Online, puts learning at the center of her work. Through her development of the university’s courses, she has demonstrated that even the most familiar technology — a threaded discussion board — can be as wondrous as the glow from a new phone screen if approached with an inventive spirit and a pedagogical eye.

In her discussion boards, Professor Wilmoth encourages students to introduce themselves with video clips and respond to one another using an unlimited number of tools and media, including podcasts and presentations. To prevent discussion boards from feeling like a rote activity, Professor Wilmoth gives guidelines for both initial posts and for student responses. She provides suggestions to encourage substantive and compelling conversations, rather than the perfunctory exchanges typical in online education.

Her approach is working. In an introductory course in the MEd in Curriculum & Instruction, 22 students generated 298 responses in just one week. The majority of them were voluntarily posted, even after students had satisfied the assignment’s requirements. “While numbers do not give the full picture,” Professor Wilmoth says, “I believe it is safe to say that the students are responsive, connecting, and building a learning community. It’s all very exciting to watch.”

Professor Wilmoth’s thoughtful application of a simple tool is an example of how a fixation on creating the best learning experience, and the judicious use of both familiar and emerging technologies, will allow universities to continue growing alongside the ever-expanding market of educational tools while focusing on what really matters: learning.

Patrick Garrett York is an editor at Object Lessons, creating space for designers and subject matter experts to collaborate constructively in the creation of online learning experiences. He has an MFA in Creative Writing and Writing for the Performing Arts from the University of California, Riverside and has worked as a writer, editor, instructor, and mentor.

Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8625

Q.5 Elucidate the problem being faced by higher education in Pakistan. Also suggest some viable steps to improve the situation.

Higher Education means education after school and college. There are numerous best universities in Pakistan that offer higher level education ever year but despite all of this we are way behind from the world as concerned to education. 63 years of independence has been past but we are not able to find the right way of giving quality education. One of the major problem of higher education in Pakistan is our political leaders that are not well educated. Education system in Pakistan is not good as it should be in this latest technology of world therefore it is the reason plenty of Pakistani students are getting education in foreign developed countries. After the creation of Higher Education Commission in Pakistan the standard of education developed as compare to the past. Higher Education Commission which is also known as HEC is playing vital role for the development of higher education. There are many factors responsible for problems of higher education in Pakistan and some foremost problems are discussed below:-

ACADEMIC PROBLEMS:

All know very well that resources regarding education are not enough in Pakistan but the problem is that we are not taking benefits of available resources in other words resources are not being utilized properly due to lack of unskilled, dishonest and less educated administration. The education in Pakistan has been distributed into different level and equality. Education is different for poor ones and different for richer ones. There is no proper monitoring system in Pakistan to control the education system numerous educational institutions and universities opened now but the standard of education is not good at all.

Management Problems:
One of the major responsible factor of problems of higher education in Pakistan is management. Management has been biggest problem of Pakistan since independence. Even our political leaders are less educated so they have no idea how to manage the systems. Unskilled and inexperience staff is being recruited by avoiding the merit so how can an inexperience and unskilled man can run system properly.

EDUCATION FUNDING:

In developed countries most of the part of financial budget is spent on education but it doesn’t happen in Pakistan. Ever year the field of education is being avoided there is no enough finance to insist the education system and Pakistan is not receiving foreign aid for improvement of education.

EMPLOYMENT:

Employment is also the leading issue of Pakistan which causes problems for higher education. Students join business and due to non-availability of job opportunities leaving their study incomplete as they think they don’t have scope and good earning places in multinational and government companies.

INEXPERT TEACHERS:

The teachers and lecturers teaching colleges and universities are educated but they don’t have experience and skills at the start of their professional career. It is little bit easy to get job in educational institutions in Pakistan therefore every educated youngster would love to join teaching field despite lack of interest and experience.

POVERTY PROBLEMS:

Pakistan is not the countries of living rich peoples, the poverty rate is Pakistan is very high so it is also the cause and one of the biggest problem of higher education in Pakistan because after the matriculation of intermediate education parents force their children to earn livelihood alongwith education and student cannot pay attention to study and finally they leave to study for earnings.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS:

There is no moral training is being given to the staff and students in higher education department and as well as in institutions. People in Pakistan are promoting western culture thus the culture of Pakistan and Islam is going to be finished.

SOLUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN:

First of all it is the responsibility of government of Pakistan to think something out of box for development of higher education. Education needs proper guidance and financial assistance. Government should open trainee institutions in which training will be given to the teachers and professors.  A good part of financial budget should be spent on education because it is education that makes country develop. Education should be the same for every taste of people. These were all the major problems of Higher Education in Pakistan and even we cannot compare our educational system to undeveloped countries due to fewer standards. If we want the solution of higher educational problems in Pakistan will have to do some something ourselves.

1 Fill teacher gaps
on current trends, some countries will not even be able to meet their primary school teacher needs by 2030. The challenge is even greater for other levels of education. Thus, countries need to activate policies that begin to address the vast shortfall.

At this primary school in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, there are 174 learners in one class. Many children don’t turn up to school because the learning conditions are so poor.

2 Attract the best candidates to teaching
it is important for all children to have teachers with at least a good secondary-level qualification. Therefore, governments should invest in improving access to quality secondary education to enlarge the pool of good teacher candidates. Policy-makers need to focus their attention on hiring and training teachers from under-represented groups, such as ethnic minorities.

3 Train teachers to meet the needs of all children
all teachers need to receive training to enable them to meet the learning needs of all children. Before teachers enter the classroom, they should undergo good quality pre-service teacher education programmes and they need ongoing training so as to develop and strengthen their teaching skills and adapt to changes such as new curriculum. Teachers should be trained to teach multiple grades and ages in one classroom, in multi-lingual classrooms, and to understand how teachers’ attitudes to gender differences can affect learning outcomes.

4 Prepare teacher educators and mentors to support teachers
to ensure that teachers have the best training to improve learning for all children, it is important for those who train teachers to have knowledge and experience of real classroom teaching challenges and how to tackle them. Policy-makers should thus make sure teacher educators are trained and have adequate exposure to the classroom learning requirements facing those teaching in difficult circumstances. To enable newly qualified teachers to translate teaching knowledge into activities that improve learning for all children, policy-makers should provide for trained mentors to help them achieve this transition.

5 Get teachers to where they are needed most
Governments need to ensure that the best teachers are not only recruited and trained, but also deployed to the areas where they are most needed. Adequate compensation, bonus pay, good housing and support in the form of professional development opportunities should be used to encourage trained teachers to accept positions in rural or disadvantaged areas.  Local recruitment can also ensure that quality teachers reach children in remote areas.

Aiou Solved Assignments Autumn 2018 code 8625

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