Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2019 code 8626

aiou solved assignments

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8626 Autumn 2019. Solved Assignments code 8626 Teacher Education in Pakistan 2019. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course Teacher Education in Pakistan (8626)      

Level B.Ed (1.5Year)

Semester autumn 2018         

Assignment no 01

Q.1 Compare the amiss and objective of teacher education given as national 2009 and 1998.Justify the change regarding improvement in teacher education program.

Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010

Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education

Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deena Madras and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Naira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered. 

Literacy and Non-Formal Education 

Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.


Elementary Education 

About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system.

Secondary Education 
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.


Teacher Education

to increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/SC education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created. 

Technical and Vocational Education 

to develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments.

 Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.

Higher Education 

Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D. programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned. 

Information Technology 

Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc 

Library and Documentation Services 

School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.

Private Sector in Education 

Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations

Innovative Programes 

the National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities. 

Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation 

a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels.

Improvement in teacher education program.

1. Teaching Strategies to Find Out What Motivates Students

That sounds quite simple, just find out what motivates students, then they will want to participate in class. Basically, it is that simple. Take the time in the beginning of the school year to really learn about each and every one of your students. If you are a middle school or high school teacher, then you may think this sounds crazy, but it’s really not that hard. You can start will a simple interest survey, or take a class poll. This way you can quickly find out what all students have in common. For example, let’s say the majority of your class loves to use iPads. Then, you know that it will be easy to get your students actively involved in a lesson if you have access to an iPad. Find out what motivates them, and use it to your advantage.

2. Teach with Technology

Technology is a great tool to use to get your students intrigued in a lesson and want to participate in it. With all of the new educational technology that is out there today, it would be a shame not to incorporate it into your lessons. Your students are the ones that are the most up to date with the recent gadgets that are on the market. Use their expertise to your advantage, and incorporate lessons and activities that utilize the iPad or a tablet. Studies show that students report learning is more fun through technology. If you don’t have access to a tablet, then a computer will work just as well. Any piece of technology will capture your students’ attention and motive them to want to participate in class.

3. Try Some New Teaching Strategies

There are a wide variety of teaching strategies that you can try that can help get your students to actively participate in class more often. Here are a few:

  • Cooperative Learning Strategy – Using cooperative learning techniques such as think-pair-share, jigsaw, or round robin, forces students to activity participate in class discussions because each student is accountable for one piece of a group task. In order to complete the task, the student has to participate in it.
  • Inquiry Teaching Strategy – Students are given a problem or question that is designed to intrigue them. Then, they must hypothesize possible solutions to the problem. Through a lot of research and questioning, students must find a solution. During this time students are working in small groups and actively participating together throughout the whole task.
  •  Inductive Teaching Strategy – Students are given a concept, then they are encouraged to make an observation and discuss this observation with the class. Students’ individual observations can be compared to those of their classmates, to come up with the point of the main concept that was presented.

4. Effectively Communicate with Visual Aids

Most students need something to focus their eyes on (besides the teacher) when they are trying to learn a new concept. When you are teaching students a new strategy or concept, did you ever notice your students’ eyes wandering, or their hands busy scribbling in their notebooks? It’s hard to get students to listen and actively participate when there is not a visual aid to focus on. When you use a teaching aid, it will not only help you get your point across, but it will also help your students to focus on what they are learning, and in turn get them to participate. Try using a Smart board or an overhead projector. These two visual aids are great because students can come up and take part in the lesson.

5. Change Your Regular Daily Routine

While a daily routine is good for students to follow, it can also become so monotonous that students will not want to participate. If students have to do the same morning work day in and day out, and you expect them to correct their papers by switching with their neighbor, there will come a time that they will just get bored of it. Mix it up and change your regular morning habit by giving students a different task to complete in the morning. Instead of having them switch their papers with their neighbor, have them take turns picking a stick to see what other classmates they can switch with. By turning their regular classroom routine upside-down, you are keeping students on their toes. This excitement will motivate them and get them to want to participate more often.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8626 Autumn 2018

Q.2 a) highlight the responsibilities of Muslim as teacher, provide an example from holy prophet PBUH.

Teaching is an important, respected and well-regarded profession in every society and community. People from all walks of life find it professionally and personally a well-rewarding career. It is an exciting and challenging career too. Islam itself is a school and its Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the loving teacher and tutor whose teachings and sayings still guide, inspire and instruct the whole humanity. As a teacher, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) not only taught us the principles of our Faith, but guided us how the minor foundations and the most complex questions of Islam and its related teachings applies to our daily lives. He was the passerby of this worldly life but his entire life is an example to the humanity in this life and enlightenment in the life after the death.

Muhammad (PBUH) as a teacher in the Quran:

Allah, the Exalted mentioned in His Book the supplication of Ibrahim (AS) for the benefit of the humankind and it was perfected by sending a Messenger from his offspring. This accepted supplication, from Ibrahim (AS), confirms that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent as a perfect teacher to all Jinn’s and mankind.

Allah says:

“Our Lord, and send among them a messenger from themselves who will recite to them your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify them. Indeed, you are the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (Al-Banaras 2:129).

And He says:

“Certainly did Allah confer

favor upon the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error.” (Al-‘Imran 3:164).

The above-mentioned two verses indicate that Allah sent Prophet (PBUH) to do four things, which are the basic duties of the teacher:

  • Recite the Verse of the Holy Quran.
  • Teach the Quran.
  • Teach the Wisdom (the Sunnah and the legal ways of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH).
  • And to purify his followers.

 Examples from Sunnah:

It is narrated from Jabir ibn Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Allah did not send me to make things hard for people in the hope that they would make mistakes, rather He sent me to teach (as a teacher) and make things easy.” (Muslim 1478).

Mu’awiyah ibn Al-Hakam (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

“By Allah I have never seen a better teacher or better teaching before or since; he (the Prophet PBUH) did not rebuke me, hit me or revile me.” (Muslim 537).

In another narration he (May Allah Be Pleased with him) said:

 “And I have never seen any teacher gentler than the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).” (Abu Dawud 931).

There are countless verses in Holy Quran and numerous narrations in the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) that confirms that the Prophet (PBUH) was the best and the greatest teacher of humankind. It is the duty of a Messenger to educate his followers and teach them in the best way. The companions of the Prophet (PBUH) also testified that he (PBUH) fulfilled this duty in a manner that suite him. May Allah’s Peace and Blessings Be upon Him.

In Islam, there is only one teacher who has laid out the groundwork for the spiritual education of mankind.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was an illiterate man. God chose him to be the Final Messenger and perfect teacher to Muslims.

Prophet Muhammad was charged with reciting and conveying the message of the Quran to all of mankind. However, he was no ordinary teacher. In fact, he set the ideal standard of education over a thousand years ago and the effects are still being felt today.

There are innumerable ways in which Prophet Muhammad was, and still is, the greatest teacher to have ever lived. Here are just a few!

No Student Left Behind

In classrooms all over the world, it is a common practice for teachers to separate the strong students from the weak. The latter of which are delegated to less challenging classes that do nothing to nurture the mind, while the “smarter” students are given every opportunity to excel.

Prophet Muhammad made no distinction between students based on intelligence level, or any other classification that separates us in society. He also never sought to exclude or expel anyone from the religion of Islam. But rather delivered a message that was all-inclusive to the whole of mankind. The Prophet Muhammad said:

b)  Disscus the usability of teaching method recommended  by Muslim scholars in the current  teaching learning environment.

Educational Epistemology

Learning

Ghazali believes that human’s soul is acceptable for education, for there is basically knowledge and wisdom in such a soul. These two items have been given to the soul from the very beginning of creation and one should try to actualize them, as one should try to dig a well and then extract water.

Knowledge is obtained from two different ways: first) divine revelation and inspiration. God’s or divine revelation belongs to God’s prophets which finished with the prophet of Islam, and inspiration belongs to the saints and still continues and does not end. Second) usual and current instruction and learning in schools. For this this particular kind of learning to happen, some principles should be observed:

1. Cultivation and reinforcement of moral aspect, before instruction,

2. Consideration of individual differences and aptitudes,

3. graduality and sequence in instruction and learning.

4. rewarding and punishment.

5. Encouragement and motivation,

6. having a master (teacher), and presence in classroom (instruction),

7. Practice, action, and repetition,

8. involvement in schooling

Ghazali invites people to an open attitude to different sciences and showing an open face to them, whatever their subjects might be, because knowledge, irrespective of its subject is noble.

It is necessary that differences among ideas to be accepted. Diversity of ideas and views in a single subject is not a reason for invalidation of that subject. There are two reasons for this opinion of Ghazali: first) there are many kinds of potential sciences that have not been yet actualized, and humans can achieve them. Second) discovering of one new science causes deepness in one’s faith and firmness in Islam.

If religious sciences cause cognition of God and His Attributes, natural sciences reveal and expose the Acts of the exalted God in being. Thus, Ghazali invites teachers to inform their students of the value of all science in order that the students, observing graduality and sequence, to study other sciences after learning each branch of science. Ghazali is of the opinion that it is up to the wise of a society to study and investigate the new or foreign subject and make it suitable for their own society adorned with values.

According to this viewpoint, scientific and cultural interaction and exchange are carried out among the wise, because Ghazali believes that it is dangerous for the beginners in knowledge to go to an environment which is against their own beliefs and values (Kilani, Translation, Criticism and additions by Rafiie, 2007).

Ghazali believes that education can bring humans from what they are to what they should be. Education, as life, is the natural right of everyone. Man has been created for worship and servitude of God, and education is not only the perquisite of worship of God, but it is also a kind of worship. Ghazali considers education both as an individual necessity and as a social necessity for it is in the light of which, that culture and thought remain, and it is also a means for transmission from a generation to another.

Therefore, what culture and thought man has is from education without which man worth nothing and he is the product of his own education. Imam Ali, in a very educational warning says to the educators to educate their children for today. The delicate point of this wise statement is that the development of a child should at least be in harmony with the natural development of culture and civilization and positive transformations of humans’ life.

Some parents have no view from life except that which they themselves wish. Then, they educate their children as they themselves have desired or as they had been educated. While according to the saying of Imam Ali, Parents should think beyond their own time. It is not only the student that needs to be educated, but it is even the educator that needs to be educated, and he or she needs to educate someone else (the student), and this need is satisfied through education of another person (the student), and this is one of the reasons of affection of the great teachers to their noble students (Rafiei, 2002).

Ibn Sina has mentioned the necessity of this fact that student’s interests should be known and discovered and they should be much cared for to be educated to become moderate persons. To do this one should not let sever anger or grief overcome him. They should be kept away from what they hate. Moral modification causes body and spirit health.

Ibn Sina also wants that education to be a means for entering in the production and participation in the economic activities of society. Thus Ibn Sina deems it necessary that the boy after learning the Qur’an and the principles of the Arabic language, to be led to one of crafts and occupations which is consistent to his nature (Ali & Reza; translation, Criticism and additions by Rafiee, 2005).

Teaching and instruction methods should bring the students to the educational goals. Therefore, to reach the goals envisioned by Sa’di, there is emphasis on such activities as question and answer, and improved lecture methods. He also suggested some points in teaching, instruction, and learning that can improve students’ education.

The importance of questioning and asking from Sa’di’s viewpoint is revealed when he says, “They asked Imam Mursheed Muhammad Ben Muhammad Ghazali, (on whom be the mercy of God!) by what means he had attained such a degree of knowledge. He replied, ‘In this manner, whatever I did not know, I was not ashamed to enquire about…’”

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8626 Autumn 2018

Q.3   a) Discuss the scope of teacher education in the lightof 18th amendment in the consituton of Pakistan.

Higher Education and the 18th Amendment

The meeting was also briefed about matters pertaining to higher education and other similar bodies in the post-18th Amendment scenario. As per the official statement, the CCI noted that as per the constitution, formulation of standards in institutions for higher education and research, scientific and technical institution is the responsibility of the federal government. It was agreed that both the federal and provincial governments would undertake monitoring, evaluation and accreditation of such institutes. The CCI also directed the Federal Ministry of Education to work on a proposal in consultation with all stakeholders for the establishment of a national level testing body for unified assessment standards across the country.

Prior to 18th Constitutional Amendment (2010) education under the entry No. 38 “Curriculum, Syllabus, Planning, Policy, Centers of Excellence and Standards of Education” was in the concurrent legislative list and it remained as a joint function of federal and provincial governments. Federal government regulated higher education through Federal HEC for which HEC Ordinance 2002 was enacted. With the passage of the 18th Constitutional Amendment, education was shifted to the legislative and executive jurisdiction of the provinces. Meanwhile, a new entry at No.12 of Federal Legislative-II was inserted into the constitution i.e. “Standards in Institutions for Higher Education and research, scientific and technical Institutions.” which falls under the purview and domain of Council of Common Interests (CCI) as joint/shared responsibility of both the federal and provincial governments.

The working group on higher education reforms, comprising of senior academicians, higher education experts and elected office bearers of Federation of All Pakistan Universities Academic Staff Association (FAPUASA) also demanded that as per decision of Lahore High Court and Entry 12 of Federal Legislative List Part II, standards in higher education should be formulated and reviewed in consultation with the concerned stakeholders especially provincial governments and elected representatives of university faculty. The provincial governments should undertake the financial responsibility of provincial universities through respective autonomous bodies led by senior academicians i.e. provincial Higher Education Commissions (PHECs) which have already been established by two large provinces.

In Pakistan, out of total 187 recognized public and private sector universities, less than 20% i.e. 35 higher education institutes are federally charted remaining more than 80% are under the legislative and administrative control of provincial governments. As a federal country having central and provincial governments, Pakistan also needs to learn from other federations’ experiences. As per the QS ranking 2016, among the top five countries with strongest higher education systems in the world, four countries are federations with the effective role of federating units in higher education sector. According to study titled “Post-Secondary Education in 12 Federations” conducted by the Forum of Federation, a Canada-based institute, in most of the federal countries (10 out of 12), primary responsibility for governing, funding of public sector HEIs and approval of new academic programs lie with federating units.

Without empowering provinces in higher education sector as per 18th Constitutional Amendment, desired results of improving higher education could not be achieved. All the provincial nominees in Federal HEC should be directly nominated by the provincial governments/provincial HECs in order to ensure genuine representation of the provinces in formulation of standards. Following Punjab and Sindh, the remaining two provinces should also establish autonomous higher education bodies led by higher education experts and academicians to cater the growing needs of the provinces in higher education sector.

 The appointment of leadership in higher education sector should be ensured through transparent and merit based mechanism by independent search committee comprising of relevant experts and senior academicians. The funding in higher education should be transferred to the provincial governments which should also add more financial provincial resources to promote culture of quality teaching and research at the universities. The federal quota policy should be implemented in all the key appointments at federal HEC even the appointment of HEC chief should also be rotated among the provinces on tenure basis.

b) Compare the capacity of the provinces in implication of teacher education program and maintain the quality.

Concept of Teacher Education

Teacher education is a discipline and sub sector of education with its distinct pre service and in service forms. It equips prospective and in service teachers with information, knowledge and pedagogical skills to help reform their attitudes and behaviour to the profession of education. The key objective is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) to students and to build their character and personalities. In other words teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the school and classroom. (Wikipedia, 09) [2] According to Sheikh M.A (1998), teacher education encompasses acquiring all that knowledge, skills and abilities which are relevant to the life of a “teacher as a teacher” It reshapes the attitudes, remodels the habits, and develops the personalities of teachers.

Need for Teacher Education

Teachers’ general education and professional training both require utmost care and attention, as whatever is acquired by them is transferred to their students with high multiple effects. The present has witnessed and is still experiencing a rapidly but positively changing scenario of processes and procedures of teacher training. New innovative methods are continuously being added to the already practiced traditional pedagogical techniques. Acquainting with these developments to the point of mastery is needed for the promotion and maintenance of good teaching learning standards. Good quality teacher education about these key elements paves the way of the development of the education system in the long run.

Teachers are the layers of the foundations of future citizens, hence need to be educated with futuristic perspective, so that they can develop the personalities of their students, not only as per present requirements but also for the years to come, accommodating the new trends from the global outlook. This is very important as teacher is one of the key agents of change in all communities and a service provider as per needs of the future. Changes are taking place not only at national but also at international level. With every passing day distances are shrinking and communities are coming closer to each other affecting each other’s practices of life.

Purpose of Teacher Education

The purpose of teacher education primarily is to equip prospective teachers not only with suitable aptitudes for teaching but also with appropriate skills and abilities required to make them effective and efficient professionals. Through different theoretical and practical activities, they are helped to understand not only the philosophical, psychological, and sociological basis of teaching, but also the relationship of education with the society and its values through teaching and learning processes.

The process of formal teacher education can help the prospective teachers minimize the troubles and save the students from the wastages of hit and trial. Appropriately rendered teacher education, provides ample opportunities to would be teachers to understand the nature of teaching; to envisage responsibilities of a teacher; to discover that to be a teacher is much more than learning by heart the philosophies and theories of learning; and to comprehend the practical implications of the pedagogical strategies. It is learnt that the profession of teaching is in fact facilitating the acquisition and retention of knowledge, values, skills and right attitudes for successful life that can initiate and promote positive changes in the society.

Phases of Teacher Education

Arrant, J. S. (1990)[3], observed that since the dawn of the twenty first century teacher education in developed countries remained divided into three phases:

1) Initial Teacher Education

2) Induction

3) Continuing Teacher Education

1) Initial teacher training / education

This education pertains to the training that is undertaken before formally starting the teaching profession. It is a pre-service course done before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher. It is usually provided in education colleges and education departments of universities where the student teachers are introduced to the knowledge and skills needed to be professional teachers. The students are formally taught the important components of this profession including aims of education, history of education, perspectives of education, modern approaches to learning, assessment and evaluation of learning and basics of curriculum development, educational psychology, philosophy and pedagogy. It also provides firsthand experience of the practical aspects of the teaching profession. It usually takes a year or so and culminates into a certificate or a degree.

2) Induction

This informal phase begins when a student teacher changes from being a part time, visiting student teacher to a full time adequately responsible professional. Basically induction refers to the process of providing on the job guidance and support to the teachers during the first few months of teaching or the first year of the professional career. In countries like UK, during induction the teacher is on probation, and receives guidance and supervision formally by the teacher-tutor, and informally from all other colleagues & head teacher. The work load during this phase of education is reduced in order to provide time and opportunity for guidance, reflection and grooming. This is a transitional phase from being a student to being a full time teacher.

3) Teachers’ continuous professional development

It is an in-service process for professional refinement of practicing teachers. It is a lifelong process in which efforts are made to improve and polish up the potentials of the teachers. It includes professional trainings like workshops, short courses and seminars. This is usually formally arranged by good schools or can be self-directed through reading of professional books, discussions with colleagues, benefiting from on line courses, or attending training workshops, conferences, and symposiums.

With the passage of time, all institutions have started to value in service training of teachers more and more; and are regularly arranging training programs of different durations for their teachers. These trainings are sometimes general in nature for the improvement of the overall teaching methodologies, and sometimes focused on improving specific subject-teaching skills, enabling teachers master innovative concepts recently incorporated in the existing curriculum. Such in service trainings are usually taken up in anticipation for the expected promotions.

Usefulness of Comparing Teacher Education Systems

. All people engaged in the field of education have much to learn from the policies and educational practices of other lands. Apparently the educational system of a country grows out of the historical background, economic and social conditions, geographical features and political systems and no country is in a position to totally adopt the educational patterns of another country as such. But lessons can be learnt, and successful

.

The knowledge about the successes and failures of other systems can be very awakening and beneficial in comprehending one’s own educational problems. The backwardness or advancement of one’s own system can be ascertained only through analytical comparison, particularly with those of the economically and educationally advanced countries.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn 2018 code 8626

Q.4 Describe the nature, scope and the significance of Induction training of teacher also highlight the models of indication training.

Induction training

What is the definition of induction training? Induction training is a term professionals in the Human Resources field use for employee training. It is a form of introduction that allows employees and new hires “learn the ropes” of their new job or position and get started easily.

In the past, most people expected to stay on the same job for all their lives and retire from it. So they had all the time in the world to “learn on the job”.

In today’s modern workforce, employees change jobs many times over the course of the years, and a proper training could not only have them up and running faster, but also help them feel like they have mastered their jobs and increase talent retention. For seasonal hires, like the hospitality industry, manufacturing and sales, it’s even more paramount that the new hires get a fast-track training to help them get started quickly, and avoid errors.

Now you know the meaning of induction training, let’s talk about how to improve induction training, alternatives and how our LMS can help.

How to improve induction training

Induction training can be improved by creating a systematic training experience using a Learning Management System (LMS). In an LMS, the training takes place online, with online courses and exams. Your users can take the training using the company’s devices or their own. The training materials can easily be updated and shared, saving a lot of time and company money.

Alternatives to induction training

The alternative to induction training would be having your trainees “learn on the job” which could take a long time and cost the company a lot more money. It goes without saying that training on the job for seasonal workers takes up a lot of otherwise useful company time. Utilizing induction training can speed the process up, get your new hires motivated and full of energy on their new job.

Advantages of proper induction training to the new employee

  1. Makes the new employee feel respected and valued: Good induction training gives a warm welcome to the employee and focuses on clarifying all his doubts about the organization and his job. It ensures that the new employee feels comfortable in the organization. It also makes him feel that he is welcomed, respected, and valued. This motivates the new employee greatly.
  2. Provides the necessary information: A comprehensive induction training program helps the new employee get all the necessary information about the company and clarifies the organization’s expectations on him. This helps him understand the culture, work norms, policies and procedures of the organization, and thus enables him to quickly adapt to the work environment.
  3. Helps in establishing good communication: Induction training helps the new employee in establishing good communication with the organization. As part of the induction training program, the new employee is introduced to his direct supervisor, other employees, leads, and directors of the organization. This makes him more comfortable when he has to communicate with them later.

Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8626

Q.5 Discuss the effect of national professional standard on teacher Education program in Pakistan. Suggest measures to meet the standards set by higher education commission of Pakistan.

Effect of national professional standard on teacher Education program in Pakistan. The very backbone of any nation, whether developed or developing, its education system, can be a valuable tool for providing insight into the level and extent of progress and development in the country. And the teacher happens to be one of the core elements of the education system.

The education, experience, job satisfaction, security and incentives are key factors effecting the performance of teachers. As far as job satisfaction, security and incentives are concerned, these are somewhat related with the monetary affairs and budgetary plans of the government. Education and experience, on the other hand, is something that can be worked upon. That’s where the various teacher training courses and degree programmes come in.

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Let us now take a brief look at what these standards are with special reference to our local setting. Firstly, the teacher must possess subject-matter knowledge. He or she should be able to apply it efficiently and effectively in whatever setting/situation he comes up with. Following the traditional syllabi the potential teachers are heavily burdened with theoretical subject-matter knowledge and since there is a lack of practical work so they are unable to apply the acquired knowledge in varying situations.

The second standard is human growth and development something which is highly important in the teaching-learning process. The teacher should not only be well acquainted with the basic concepts of educational psychology, developmental phases and their requirements, principles of development, development factors, individual differences The third standard is regarding knowledge of Islamic ethical values/social life skills. The teacher should be well-versed with these and be able to educate the pupils about the ethical values and life skills. But in the absence of practical work, life skills are somewhat extinct among teachers and there is a huge contradiction between the teacher’s words and actions which in turn affects the students’ attitude and behaviour.

The next standard is related to the use of proper instructional planning and strategies. The teacher must not only know the importance of planning the lesson, pedagogy and strategies. He or she should also be well-acquainted with all the teaching aids that can help in achieving the objectives of a lesson. But in practice the situation is quite discouraging as even after completion of their teaching training, the teachers are unaware of the use of overhead projectors (OHPs) and multimedia projectors. The fifth is the assessment standard which means that the teacher should know the significance of assessment and different assessment techniques and methods. He or she should not show favouritism while assessing any of the students but the fact of the matter is quite contradictory to the standard.

Accreditation and Quality Assurance

His present quality of higher education in Pakistan is very low as measured by teacher qualifications, publications, participation in international conferences, teaching and learning, or significant research findings. Considering faculty qualifications alone, just 25 percent of the current teaching body at Pakistan’s universities holds a Ph.D. Therefore, it is no surprise that the HEC has put quality improvement and relevance at the top of its agenda. An overall aim of the MTDF is to: “establish and implement stringent quality criteria developed against international standards to assess the performance on both the programme and institutional levels.”

Faculty Development and the Promotion of Excellence in Learning and Research

As noted above, just 25 percent of Pakistan’s lecturers currently hold doctorates, while just 290 were produced in academic year 2002-03. This means that if quality standards are to be improved, it is critical that university faculty be better qualified and exposed to better research opportunities. Therefore, primary among the new initiatives outlined by the MTDF are a range of faculty-development programs that include increased research support at the masters and Ph.D. levels; the creation of new programs to enroll more students in Ph.D.

International Scholarship Programs

More than 800 Pakistani students are currently on scholarships for graduate programs abroad in engineering or the sciences — up from about 20 in 2002. These include masters and doctoral programs at leading international universities that are either fully funded by the Pakistan government and focus on the sciences and engineering; or that are collaboratively funded with private donors and foreign governments (donor preferences are kept in mind in these cases).

Pakistani students have been traveling abroad to prestigious universities in the West for decades; however, these opportunities have generally been available only to the privileged few with the necessary financial resources. Now the picture is changing and in addition to the 800 students mentioned above, funding has recently been approved for 2,000 more.

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About Tanveer

Muhammad Hammad Tanveer graduated from the Virtual University Of Pakistan with a B.S. in Software Engineering and is now a writer for Pcbeducation.com and Education News Daily. His background in EDUCATION TUTORING brings a critical eye to his reviews and features, helping students make the best decisions for their studies.

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