AIOU Solved Assignments code 625 Autumn & Spring 2021 Assignment 1& 2 Course: Teaching Strategies (846) Spring 2021. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Teaching Strategies (846) Semester
Autumn & Spring 2021
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 846 Autumn & Spring 2021
Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students’ needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate.
Lecture. For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms. Nearly 80% of all U.S. college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students. Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information.
Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.
The following recommendations can help make the lecture approach more effective (Cashin, 1990):
- Fit the lecture to the audience
- Focus your topic – remember you cannot cover everything in one lecture
- Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture
- Organize your points for clarity
- Select appropriate examples or illustrations
- Present more than one side of an issue and be sensitive to other perspectives
- Repeat points when necessary
- Be aware of your audience – notice their feedback
Case Method. Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios. Course content cases can come from a variety of sources. Many faculty have transformed current events or problems reported through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences that illuminate the complexity of finding solutions to critical social problems. The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives.
Discussion. There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion. For example, some faculty begin a lesson with a whole group discussion to refresh students� memories about the assigned reading(s). Other faculty find it helpful to have students list critical points or emerging issues, or generate a set of questions stemming from the assigned reading(s). These strategies can also be used to help focus large and small group discussions. Obviously, a successful class discussion involves planning on the part of the instructor and preparation on the part of the students. Instructors should communicate this commitment to the students on the first day of class by clearly articulating course expectations. Just as the instructor carefully plans the learning experience, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up for class on time, ready to learn.
Active Learning. Meyers and Jones (1993) define active learning as learning environments that allow �students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, and other activities — all of which require students to apply what they are learning� (p. xi). Many studies show that learning is enhanced when students become actively involved in the learning process. Instructional strategies that engage students in the learning process stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness of other perspectives. Although there are times when lecturing is the most appropriate method for disseminating information, current thinking in college teaching and learning suggests that the use of a variety of instructional strategies can positively enhance student learning. Obviously, teaching strategies should be carefully matched to the teaching objectives of a particular lesson. For more information about teaching strategies, see the list of college teaching references in Appendix N. Assessing or grading students’ contributions in active learning environments is somewhat problematic. It is extremely important that the course syllabus explicitly outlines the evaluation criteria for each assignment whether individual or group. Students need and want to know what is expected of them. For more information about grading, see the Evaluating Student Work section contained in this Guide.
Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term ‘Collaborative Learning’ is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning communities, stimulating student/faculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges (Bruffee, 1993). Both approaches stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning process. When integrating cooperative or collaborative learning strategies into a course, careful planning and preparation are essential. Understanding how to form groups, ensure positive interdependence, maintain individual accountability, resolve group conflict, develop appropriate assignments and grading criteria, and manage active learning environments are critical to the achievement of a successful cooperative learning experience. Before you begin, you may want to consult several helpful resources which are contained in Appendix N. In addition, the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning can provide faculty with supplementary information and helpful techniques for using cooperative learning or collaborative learning in college classrooms.
Integrating Technology. Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part of a student’s education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable for enhancing and extending the learning experience for faculty and students. Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings. Others use listserves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts. Currently, our students come to us with varying degrees of computer literacy. Faculty who use technology regularly often find it necessary to provide some basic skill level instruction during the first week of class. In the future, we expect that need to decline. For help in integrating technology into a course curriculum contact the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning or the Instructional Development Office (IDO) at 703-993-3141. In addition, watch for information throughout the year about workshops and faculty conversations on the integration of technology, teaching and learning.
Distance Learning. Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside of a structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc. Distance learning or distance education as a teaching pedagogy, however, is an important topic of discussion on college campuses today. Distance learning is defined as ‘any form of teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not in the same place at the same time’ (Gilbert, 1995). Obviously, information technology has broadened our concept of the learning environment. It has made it possible for learning experiences to be extended beyond the confines of the traditional classroom. Distance learning technologies take many forms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion, and the creation of virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components of distance learning such as email, listserves, and interactive software have also been useful additions to the educational setting.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 846 Autumn & Spring 2021
Element of a model of teaching represent its structure, process and teaching aids of the instruction. A model of teaching consists of syntax, social system, principle of reaction and support system. The detailed descriptions are as follows.
It is the steps or phases of the model being presented before the class. It illustrates the logical and sequential order of the teacher student activities of the instruction procedure. It describes the complete programme of action of the model.
Social system of a model explains its nature of learning environment. It describes the role and relationship of the teacher and students through the phases as well as designing the lesson. As each and every model is unique, the role of teacher and students in every model may vary according to the respective learning theory of the model is built. It also varies in phases to phases.
Principle of Reaction
This is the extension of social system. It deals with the rules of reaction to the students responses in the classroom interaction. The reaction of the teacher must be in accordance with the theory of which model has been built. The teacher reaction is desired when the students’ responses/ behavior are untouched with expected level responses and for giving reinforcement. It depends the family of the model is presented.
It includes all instructional aides used in a model of teaching. Eg. Books, Encyclopedia, Video clips, slides, News paper, Tab, Expert, Films, Specimen etc.
Effect of models of Teaching
Models of teaching have a very positive effect on students’ behavior. Bruce Joyce classified the effect as Instructional effect and Nurturant Effect. Instructional effects are the direct effect of an instruction on students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Nurturant effects are the indirect effect other than the teacher intends to achieve through the model. It is the additional achievement gained by the students through the unique nature classroom interaction. Examples are the development of problem solving ability, analytical thinking, critical thinking, social skill, tolerance etc.
FAMILIES OF MODELS OF TEACHING
Joyce & Weil (2014) categorized the models of teaching in to four families. The classification has been made in accordance with the theoretical basis and fundamental aim of the teaching model. The four families explained below in detail.
THE INFORMATION PROCESSING FAMILY
Models in the information processing family focus on the cognitive activity of child. It includes scientific inquiry for collecting original information, organizing and properly storing of the information. Some models provide the learners with information and concept, some emphasis concept formation and hypothesis testing and still other generate creative thinking. Joyce & Weil (2014) listed eight models in Information Processing Model.
THE SOCIAL FAMILY
The focus of the social model family is to build synergy (collective energy) in the classroom for addressing ongoing problems of personal, social, national as well as international importance. Social models help the students to develop Self directed problem solving ability, sense of belongingness towards the society and make them responsible citizens of the country.
THE PERSONAL FAMILY
The personal models begin from the perspective of the selfhood of the individual. Individual consciousness and development of unique personality is the chief focus of this family. The models in personal family attempt to make them understand their self and thereby students can shape their future. The cluster of personal models pays great attention to the individual perspective and seeks to encourage productive interdependence, increasing people’s self awareness and sense of responsibility for their own destinies.
THE BEHAVIOURAL SYSTEM FAMILY
Modification of behavior is the main focus of this family. The stance taken is that human beings are self correcting communication systems that modify behavior in response to the information about how successfully tasks are navigated. The role of predetermined objectives, observable behavior, clearly defined task and methods, feedback and reinforcement are the foundations of models in behavior family.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 846 Autumn & Spring 2021
Through teaching the teacher brings a desirable change in the learner. Both the concepts teaching and learning are interrelated to each other. Development of all-round personality of the learner is the final goal of teaching and learning. During teaching an interaction takes place between an experienced person (teacher) and an inexperienced person (student). Here the main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.
Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved. These three levels are
- Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
- Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
- Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level
I’ll be doing a separate article on these levels of teaching but for now, in this article, we will have the gist of all these three levels of teachings along with their advantages and disadvantages.
Memory level of teaching
It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental ability that exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,
- the thinking ability does not play any role.
- students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.
- the teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.[Bigge, Morris L(1967)]
- the role of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.
- The study material is organized and pre-planned. The teacher presents the study material in a sequential order.
- Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.
Merits of memory level teaching
- Useful for children at lower classes. This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.
- The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.
- The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e. when student’s intelligence and thinking is required.
- Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching. It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.
Demerits of memory level teaching
- This does not contribute to the development of the student’s capabilities.
- Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real life situations as it does not develops the talents of students.
- The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.
- Intelligence does not carry any importance in this type of teaching and it lacks motivation
Reflective level of teaching
This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.
Reflective level of teaching is considered to be the highest level at which teaching is carried out.
- It is highly thoughtful and useful.
- A student can attain this level only after going through memory level and understanding level.
- Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life.
- At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem.
- At this level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.
- The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
- The role of the students is quite active.
- reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.
Merits of reflective level teaching
- The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is leaner-centered.
- There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflective level teaching.
- At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.
- At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.
Demerits of reflective level teaching
- not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children
- At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and c;rganized knowledge of their study courses.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 846 Autumn & Spring 2021
|Science||Back to MYP Course Index|
MYP sciences aspires to develop scientifically informed, caring and responsible individuals who can think critically and make informed choices about themselves, the environment and society.
The aims of the teaching and study of sciences are to encourage and enable students to:
- develop inquiring minds and curiosity about science and the natural world
- acquire knowledge, conceptual understanding and skills to solve problems and make informed decisions in scientific and other contexts
- develop skills of scientific inquiry to design and carry out scientific investigations and evaluate scientific evidence to draw conclusions
- communicate scientific ideas, arguments and practical experiences accurately in a variety of ways
- think analytically, critically and creatively to solve problems, judge arguments and make decisions in scientific and other contexts
- appreciate the benefits and limitations of science and its application in technological developments
- understand the international nature of science and the interdependence of science, technology and society, including the benefits, limitations and implications imposed by social, economic, political, environmental, cultural and ethical factors
- demonstrate attitudes and develop values of honesty and respect for themselves, others, and their shared environment.
The objectives of sciences listed below are final objectives and they describe what students should be able to do by the end of the course. These objectives have a direct correspondence with the final assessment criteria, A–F (see “Sciences assessment criteria”).
A One world
This objective refers to enabling students to understand the interdependence between science and society. Students should be aware of the global dimension of science, as a universal activity with consequences for our lives and subject to social, economic, political, environmental, cultural and ethical factors.
At the end of the course, and within local and global contexts, students should be able to:
- describe and discuss ways in which science is applied and used to solve local and global problems
- describe and evaluate the benefits and limitations of science and scientific applications as well as their effect on life and society
- discuss how science and technology are interdependent and assist each other in the development of knowledge and technological applications
- discuss how science and its applications interact with social, economic, political, environmental, cultural and ethical factors.
B Communication in science
This objective refers to enabling students to develop their communication skills in science. Students should be able to understand scientific information, such as data, ideas, arguments and investigations, and communicate it using appropriate scientific language in a variety of communication modes and formats as appropriate.
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
- communicate scientific information using a range of scientific language
- communicate scientific information using appropriate modes of communication
- present scientific information in a variety of formats, acknowledging sources as appropriate
- demonstrate honesty when handling data and information, acknowledging sources as appropriate
- use where appropriate a range of information and communication technology applications to access, process and communicate scientific information.
C Knowledge and understanding of science
This objective refers to enabling students to understand the main ideas and concepts of science and to apply them to solve problems in familiar and unfamiliar situations. Students are expected to develop critical and reflective thinking and judge the credibility of scientific information when this is presented to them.
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
- recognize and recall scientific information
- explain and apply scientific information to solve problems in familiar and unfamiliar situations
- analyse scientific information by identifying components, relationships and patterns, both in experimental data and ideas
- discuss and evaluate scientific information from different sources (Internet, newspaper articles, television, scientific texts and publications) and assess its credibility.
D Scientific inquiry
This objective refers to enabling students to develop scientific inquiry skills to design and carry out scientific investigations.
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
- define the problem or research question to be tested by a scientific investigation
- formulate a hypothesis and explain it using logical scientific reasoning
- design scientific investigations that include variables and controls, material/equipment needed, a method to be followed, data to be collected and suggestions for its analysis
- evaluate the method, commenting on its reliability and/or validity
- suggest improvements to the method.
E Processing data
This objective refers to enabling students to record, organize and process data. Students should be able to collect and transform data by numerical calculations into diagrammatic form. Students should be able to analyse and interpret data and explain appropriate conclusions.
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
- collect and record data using appropriate units of measurement
- organize and transform data into numerical and diagrammatic forms, including mathematical calculations and visual representation (tables, graphs and charts)
- present data in a variety of ways using appropriate communication modes and conventions (units of measurement)
- analyse and interpret data by identifying trends, patterns and relationships
- draw conclusions supported by scientific explanations and a reasoned interpretation of the analysis of the data.
F Attitudes in science
This objective goes beyond science and refers to encouraging attitudes and dispositions that will contribute to students’ development as caring and responsible individuals and members of society.
This objective is set in the context of the science class but will pervade other subjects and life outside school. It includes notions of safety and responsibility when working in science as well as respect for and collaboration with others and their shared environment.
During the course, students should:
- carry out scientific investigations using materials and techniques safely and skillfully
- work effectively as members of a team, collaborating, acknowledging and supporting others as well as ensuring a safe working environment
- show respect for themselves and others, and deal responsibly with the living and non-living environment.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 846 Autumn & Spring 2022
In most developing countries, few children graduate from secondary school and many don’t even finish primary school. In Ghana, for example, only 50 percent of children complete grade 5, and of those, less than half can comprehend a simple paragraph. The UNESCO program Education for All, which as part of the Millennium Development Goals aims to provide free, universal access to primary schooling, has been successful in dramatically increasing enrollment. But, according to annual Education for All reports, many kids drop out before finishing school. Why don’t they stay?
There are numerous reasons, including the difficulty of getting to school and the cost of schooling. Even when tuition is free, there are often expenses for lunch, uniforms, and examination fees. And because the quality of education is often poor, parents are forced to pay for additional tutoring to enable their children to pass tests. Opportunity costs may be even larger—while they are in school, children forgo opportunities to produce income working on the family farm or selling in the marketplace. It is not surprising that when education investments do not result in adequate learning, or even basic literacy and numeracy, parents do not keep their children in school.
Even when learning outcomes are adequate, very few students continue on to secondary school. Job prospects for most people in the developing world are poor, and staying in school past grade 5, or even through grade 10, does not improve them significantly. In impoverished regions, the vast majority will not secure formal employment and will be supported primarily through subsistence level agriculture and trading. Health outcomes in these regions are also dire. Millions of children die every year from controllable diseases such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria.
Educational programs typically adopt traditional Western models of education, with an emphasis on math, science, language, and social studies. These programs allocate scarce resources to topics like Greek mythology, prime numbers, or tectonic plate movement—topics that may provide intellectual stimulation, but have little relevance in the lives of impoverished children. Highperforming students in less developed regions face a much different future from their counterparts’ in wealthier areas. There are no higher levels of schooling or professional job opportunities awaiting most of these children; they will likely end up working on family or neighborhood farms or starting their own small enterprises.
Schooling provides neither the financial literacy students will need to manage the meager resources under their control, nor the guidance needed to create opportunities for securing a livelihood or building wealth. In addition, schooling provides little assistance to promote the physical health needed for economic stability and quality of life. Life expectancy is low in impoverished regions, and not just because of lack of quality medical care. The devastation preventable disease wreaks on well-being and financial stability in poor regions can be dramatically mitigated through instruction on basic health behaviors, such as hand washing.
We fervently believe that what students in impoverished regions need are not more academic skills, but rather life skills that enable them to improve their financial prospects and well-being. These include financial literacy and entrepreneurial skills; health maintenance and management skills; and administrative capabilities, such as teamwork, problem solving, and project management.
Over the last five years, we have done extensive work on the state of education in developing countries. We have visited many government, nongovernment, and private schools and teacher training programs in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and we have talked extensively with teachers, students, headmasters, school owners, and government officials. We have visited innovative educational programs that are among the world’s largest and most successful, including BRAC, an NGO in Bangladesh that owns and operates 32,000 primary schools; Pratham, which provides literacy and other educational support programs, teaching 33 million children in India; and Escuela Nueva, the Colombian program of mono- and multigrade teaching that has grown to 20,000 schools. We have implemented training for illiterate adults in developing countries and have tested that training effectively over the last few years, applying the best of our experience to improving organizations like Opportunity International, a large microfinance institution.
These experiences have convinced us that the time is right to redefine quality education in the developing world.
A New Educational Model
We have developed a robust educational model that combines traditional content with critically important financial, health, and administrative skills, which can be delivered via existing school systems and teachers.
Our model, which we call “school for life,” shifts the goal of schooling away from the achievement of standardized learning outcomes toward making a positive impact on the economic and social well-being of students and their communities. The model requires significant changes in both content and pedagogy. First, entrepreneurship and health modules are mandatory curriculum components for all primary grade students. Second, student-centered learning methods are used that require students to work in groups to solve complex problems and manage projects on their own.
This approach is inspired by models of adult education in developing countries that focus on self-efficacy as a critical foundation of positive livelihood and health-seeking behaviors, along with active-learning pedagogies used in progressive schools throughout the world. The health curriculum draws on the work of the World Health Organization and focuses on preventing disease, caring for sick children, and obtaining medical care. The entrepreneurship curriculum is informed by our work with adult entrepreneurs in developing countries, and it draws ideas from a broad range of financial and entrepreneurial programs developed by organizations like the International Labour Organization, Junior Achievement, and Aflatoun.
Conceptual knowledge is put into practice at school through activities that empower children to use what they have learned. For example, students practice routine health behaviors, such as hand washing and wearing shoes near latrines—and, to the extent feasible, gain exposure to other important behaviors, such as boiling drinking water and using malaria nets. They practice routine market-like transactions by earning points for schoolwork and budgeting those points to obtain valuable prizes, such as sitting in a favorite chair or being first in line.
Students also develop higher order skills as they work in committees to develop and execute complex projects. Health-related projects can range from planning and carrying out an athletic activity to be played during recess, to practicing diagnostic skills when classmates are ill—helping to decide, for example, when a cold has turned into a respiratory infection that requires antibiotics. Entrepreneurship projects include identifying and exploiting market opportunities through business ideas like school gardens or community recycling that create real value. Students learn and practice workplace skills and attitudes like delegation, negotiation, collaboration, and planning—opportunities that are rarely available to them outside their families.
Some school systems, especially at the secondary level, have begun to include entrepreneurship and health topics in their curricular requirements. But including information in basic lectures is not enough. Schools must simultaneously adopt action-oriented pedagogical approaches that hone critical thinking skills and enable children to identify problems, seek out and evaluate relevant information and resources, and design and carry out plans for solving these problems. This involves tackling real problems that require and empower students to take the initiative and responsibility for their own learning.
A full implementation of this new school for life approach has not yet been adopted by any major organization, but a pilot is currently being developed by Escuela Nueva in Colombia. Escuela Nueva was the pioneer in adapting student-centered approaches for use in impoverished rural environments, which often use multigrade classrooms. Escuela Nueva develops classroom materials and pedagogical approaches in which students work in self-directed teams to learn, discuss, and actively practice, using the basic content included in standard governmental curricula.
Through this unique combination of relevant content, practical implementation, and student empowerment, children develop a body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable them to succeed and thrive when they leave school, whether they are headed toward college or remain in their communities.
Dramatic Changes Are Needed
The traditional definition of school quality in the developing world is based on content mastery. But using traditional schooling approaches during the few precious years most children will spend in school leads to wasted resources and forgone opportunities for individuals and communities. Governmental agencies and organizations that support and promote quality education for all children must move beyond traditional models to help children develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are relevant to their lives and that can lift them out of poverty.
For too long, governments and organizations investing in developing-world education have operated under the unquestioned assumption that improved test scores were clear evidence that their investments have paid off. But if, as we argue here, mastery of the basic primary school curriculum is not the best means for improving life chances and alleviating poverty in developing countries, that model is broken. Investing in interventions that produce the highest test scores is no longer a valid approach for allocating scarce educational dollars or the scarce time available for the development of young minds. It is time to seek out the interventions that lead to the greatest social and economic impact for the poor.