AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ

AIOU Solved Assignments code 840 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course: Educational Psychology (840)   Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  1& 2
Educational Psychology (840) Semester
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

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One of the things that educational psychology addresses is how people learn. Some of the topics that this field might cover include individual learning differences, instructional processes, learning outcomes, learning disabilities, and gifted learners.

Although this psychology branch often focuses on children and adolescents, these psychologists study cognitive, social, and processes in all age groups. Some of the other disciplines that also play a role include cognitive, behavioral, and developmental psychology.

How Long Has This Field in Psychology Been Around?

Education-related psychology has seen a large amount of growth, despite its relative newness as a distinct subfield. Because psychology only achieved status as a separate science in the late 1800s, most psychology work was related to education.

Some of these early figures include:

  • John Locke – Locke was a philosopher who lived between 1632 and 1704 who promoted the theory of the mind being a blank slate that develops through learning and experience, with beliefs strongly influenced by Enlightenment ideas
  • Johann Herbart – Herbart was a philosopher and early psychologist who lived between 1776 and 1841 emphasized teachers providing instruction according to students’ interests, as well as prior knowledge when determining an instruction type
  • William James – James lived from 1842 to 1910 and was the psychologist most well-known for lectures that addressed how teachers could help students learn most effectively, as well as the first to teach a psychology class
  • Alfred Binet – Binet, who was born in 1857 and died in 1911, was the inventor of what we now know as intelligence tests, which helped identify possible developmental delays
  • John Dewey – Dewey, who lived from 1859 to 1952, was both an educational reformer and psychologist who emphasized learning through doing and progressive education
  • Jean Piaget – Piaget, who was born in 1892 and died in 1980, was the psychologist best known for promoting cognitive development theory
  • B.F. Skinner – Skinner, who lived between 1904 and 1990, was the behaviorist most responsible for promoting the theory of operant conditioning
  • Benjamin Bloom – Bloom, who was born in 1913 and died in 1999, was the developer of the taxonomy that describes and categorizes the three primary educational objectives, which are affective, cognitive, and psychomotor.

Related resource: Top Master’s Degrees in Educational Psychology

What Are the Main Subjects That This Subset Focuses On?

Educational psychologists work closely with students, teachers, and administration staff to learn more about the most effective learning methods. According to The Bureau of Labor Statistics, educational settings represent one of the biggest markets for jobs in psychology. A few of the responsibilities might include identifying students having difficulty and developing programs to help them overcome their struggles. New learning methods may come about as a result of this type of work.

Some of the important career focuses include:

  • Educational technology
  • Instructional design
  • Organizational learning
  • Curriculum development
  • Special education
  • Gifted students

The Role of Education Technology

Educational technology is one field that can help maximize how technology allows students to learn more effectively. Both hardware and software, as well as theoretical concepts, play crucial roles in education technology. The use of technology is of vital importance in providing the education that students need in today’s learning environment. A background in psychology helps fill in where technology cannot work in its own right. Psychology helps educators understand the impact that certain forms of technology have on the learning process.

What Instructional Design Does

Another field is instructional design, which relates to learning materials development. Education-related psychology gives educators the background they need to develop the proper materials for student needs. Both public and private schools have begun to appreciate the value of adapting learning materials to their students’ needs. One of the things that has come about from schools and educators being more responsive to the needs of students is better learning outcomes, making this focus of great importance for psychology students.

The Impact of Organizational Learning

Many psychologists with an educational background study the organizational learning process, as well as curriculum development. The organizational learning process is one of the most critical areas of study in education-focused psychology. One of the most essential functions that organizational learning serves is helping educators and psychologists learn more about learning processes in a group setting, which differ somewhat from individual methods and are worthy of their own study.

Curriculum Development and Its Importance

Developing an effective curriculum is a vital part of ensuring that students get the most out of the learning process. The backgrounds that psychologists who have studied education have provided them with better knowledge in the ways that students might process information. A more thorough understanding of how students learn helps educators design the curriculum in more effective ways.

The Role of Psychologists in Special Education

Another setting that many educational psychologists work in is helping students with special or gifted needs. Special education-focused psychologists help students who need specialized instruction due to developmental or physical disabilities. An understanding of psychology helps educators tailor the learning experience to the unique needs of special education students. These students often require learning techniques structured towards their different abilities.

How Psychologists Help Gifted Students

Psychologists who specialize in education may also help identify gifted students, who are also likely to have needs that a standard curriculum might not meet. In many cases, these students are at risk of not reaching their potential if their typical academic program fails to hold their interest. Regardless of the circumstances, these psychologists will help students try to reach their full potential.

What Are Some of the Major Perspectives in This Field?

All branches of psychology feature different approaches or perspectives that might be used for problem-solving, and the education-related subfield is no exception. These different perspectives include:

  • Behavioral
  • Developmental
  • Cognitive
  • Constructivist

Each of these perspectives brings a new way of looking at psychology in education to key decision-makers. Although most psychologists who work in an educational setting will not be likely to use all of these approaches, an understanding of all of them is important. The more educational psychologists understand the processes, the more they will know how to address these needs in the future.

About the Behavioral Approach

The behavioral approach to psychology has its basis in the idea that all behaviors are learned through the conditioning process. This approach relies heavily on Skinner’s theories of operant conditioning. One example of this approach is the use of rewards. However, critics feel that those approach does not address intrinsic motivations, cognitions, or attitudes. The behavioral perspective continues to be a topic of much discussion in spite of its long-standing acceptance in the world of psychology.

The Developmental Perspective

The developmental perspective draws on Piaget’s cognitive development stages. Knowledge and skills that children adopt as they grow play an essential role in understanding children’s’ capabilities at different stages. One of the things that is most helpful for educators about this perspective is that they can adapt both their materials and methods to suit the needs of different age groups. Some educators feel that this approach is one of the most helpful for adopting a curriculum that adapts to students’ changing educational needs.

The Cognitive Approach

The cognitive approach involves understanding more about thinking, learning, remembering, and processing information. This perspective has become much more popular in recent years. Some of the things that educators working through this approach do is understand what motivates learning in children or adolescents, how they remember the information received, and their problem-solving. A better understanding of all these concepts makes it easier for educators to know how to create materials with the most significant impact.

The Constructivist Perspective

The constructivist perspective in educational psychology is relatively newer, with a focus on children’s active construction of their world knowledge. This approach treats cultural and social influences as having a significant impact. Lev Vygotsky was the psychologist who played the most considerable role in advancing this perspective, and the approach continues to draw a lot of attention today.

What is the Career Outlook Like for This Form of Psychology?

Although this psychology subset is relatively new, it has a growing following. A better understanding of how people learn, instead of only what they learn, is going to keep playing more of a role in teaching on education. With psychology either being an elective or a requirement in many degree programs, it is likely that interest will continue to grow in the coming years.

Choosing a career in education-related psychology can be a wise choice for students interested in the development of curriculum and teaching methods. Career prospects for this field are promising, especially as educators continually look for ways to refine their techniques for different student groups.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

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Scope of the subject implies its field of study. Speaking in specific terms, it means the areas of study that are included in a particular subject.

The scope of Educational Psychology is securing greater and greater importance in the field of education. Educational psychology is the combination of two i.e. Educational and Psychology. So educational psychology is the study of behavior of the teacher, taught and persons connected to educational environment.

Educational psychology is, therefore, that branch of educational content, which deals with human behavior and its modification.

The following are included in the scope of Educational Psychology.

(1) Human Behavior:

It studies human behavior in educational situations. Psychology is the study of behavior and education deals with the modification of behavior and hence, educational psychology pervades in whole field of education.

(2) Growth and Development:

It studies growth and development of the child. How a child passes through various stages of growth and what are the characteristics of each stage are included in the study of Educational Psychology.

(3) Learning Process:

It studies the law of learning: learning is a major phenomenon in education. It studies how learning can take place most effectively and economically.

(4) Heredity and Environment:

To what extent heredity and environment contribute towards the growth of the individual and how this knowledge can be used for bringing about the optimum development of the child, form a salient feature of the scope of Educational Psychology.

(5) Personality:

Educational Psychology deals with the nature and development of the personality of an individual. In fact, education has been defined as an all-round development of the personality of an individual; personality development also implies a well-adjusted personality.

(6) Individual Difference:

Every individual differs from another and it is one of the fundamental facts of human nature, which has been brought to light by Educational Psychology. This one fact has revolutionized the concept and process of education.

(7) Intelligence and its Measurement:

The scope of Educational Psychology includes the study of the nature of intelligence as well as its measurement. This is of great importance for a teacher or an educator.

(8) Guidance and Counseling:

This is one of the most important fields or areas of study included in the field of Educational Psychology. Education is nothing but providing guidance to the growing child. Thus, guidance forms an important aspect of Educational Psychology.

The following five areas were named by American Psychological Associations:

(1) Human growth and development, including the effect of heredity and environment on various aspects of individual,

(2) Learning: The nature of learning process, factors influencing the learning process etc.,

(3) Personality and adjustment: It include many sub-topics, such as, mental health of the students and teachers character,

(4) Measurement and evaluation, statistics,

(5) Techniques and methods of Educational Psychology.

Thus, Educational Psychology describes and explains the learning experience of an individual from birth to old age. Its subject matter is concerned with the conditions that affect learning.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

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The period of human growth from birth to adolescence is commonly divided into the following stages:

  • Infancy: From birth to weaning.
  • Childhood: From weaning to the end of brain
  • Juvenile: From the end of childhood to adolescence.
  • Adolescence: From the start of growth spurt at pubertyuntil sexual maturity.

Growth curves are used to measure growth. The distance curve is a measure of size over time; it records height as a function of age and gets higher with age. The velocity curve measures the rate of growth at a given time for a particular body feature (such as height or weight). The height velocity curve is highest in infancy, up to two years of age, with more consistent annual growth afterwards and increases again at puberty. The height of the average infant increases by 30% by the age of five months and by 50% by the age of one year. The height of a five-year-old usually doubles relative to that at birth. The limbs and arms grow faster than the trunk, so that body proportions undergo marked variation as an infant grows into an adolescent. Different body systems grow and develop at different rates. For example, if infants grew in height as quickly as they do in weight, the average one-year-old would be approximately 5 ft (1.5m) tall. Thus, weight increases faster than height—an average infant doubles his birth weight by the age of five months and triples it by the age of one year. At two years of age, the weight is usually four times the weight at birth.

Physical development

During the growth period, all major body systems also mature. The major changes occur in the following systems:

  • Skeletal system. At birth, there is very little bone mass in the infant body, the bones are softer (cartilagenous) and much more flexible than in the adult. The adult skeleton consists of 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons. It provides support for the attached muscles and the soft tissues of the body. Babies are born with 270 soft bones that eventually fuse together by the age of 20 into the 206 hard, adult bones.
  • Lymphatic system. The lymphatic system has several functions. It acts as the body’s defense mechanism by producing white blood cells and specialized cells (antibodies) that destroy foreign organisms that cause disease. It grows at a constant and rapid rate throughout childhood, reaching maturity just before puberty. The amount of lymphatic tissue then decreases so that an adult has approximately 50% less than a child.
  • Central nervous system(CNS). The CNS consists of the brain, the cranial nerves, and the spinal cord . It develops mostly during the first years of life. Although brain cell formation is almost complete before birth, brain maturation continues after birth. The brain of the newborn is not yet fully developed. It contains about 100 billion brain cells that have yet to be connected into functioning networks. But brain development up to age one is more rapid and extensive than was previously realized. At birth, the brain of the infant is 25% of the adult size. At the age of one year, the brain has grown to 75% of its adult size and to 80% by age three, reaching 90% by age seven. The influence of the early environment on brain development is crucial. Infants exposed to good nutrition , toys, and playmates have better brain function at age 12 than those raised in a less stimulating environment.

Psychomotor development

During the first year of life, a baby goes through a series of crucial stages to develop physical coordination. This development usually proceeds cephalocaudally, that is from head to toe. For example, the visual system reaches maturity earlier than do the legs. First, the infant develops control of the head, then of the trunk (sitting up), then of the body (standing), and, finally, of the legs (walking). Development also proceeds proximodistally, that is from the center of the body outward. For example, the head and trunk of the body develop before the arms and legs, and infants learn to control their neck muscles before they learn to direct their limbs. This development of physical coordination is also referred to as motor development and it occurs together with cognitive development, meaning the development of processes such as knowing, learning, thinking, and judging.

The stages of motor development in children are as follows:

  • First year. The baby develops good head balance and can see objects directly in his line of vision. He learns how to reach for objects and how to transfer them from one hand to the other. Sitting occurs at six months of age. Between nine and 10 months, the infant is able to pull himself to standing and takes his first steps. By the age of eight to 24 months, the baby can perform a variety of tasks such as opening a small box, making marks with a pencil, and correctly inserting squares and circles in a formboard. He is able to seat himself in small chair, he can point at objects of interest, and can feed himself with a spoon.
  • Second year. At 24-36 months, the child can turn the pages of a book, scribble with a pencil, build towers with blocks up to a height of about seven layers, and complete a formboard with pieces that are more complex than circles or squares. He can kick a ball, and walks and runs fairly well, with a good sense of balance. Toilet training be started.
  • Third year. The child can now draw circles, squares, and crosses. He can build 10-block towers and imitate the building of trains and bridges. He is also achieving toilet independence. Hand movements are well coordinated and he can stand on one foot.
  • Four years. At that age, a child can stand heel to toe for a good 15 seconds with his eyes closed. He can perform the finger-to-nose test very well, also with eyes closed. He can jump in place on both feet.
  • Five years. The child can balances on tiptoe for a 10-second period, he can hops on one foot, and can part his lips and clench his teeth.
  • Six years. The child can balance on one foot for a 10-second period, he can hit a target with a ball from 5 ft (1.5 m), and jumps over a rope 8 in (20 cm) high.
  • Seven years. He can now balance on tiptoes for a 10-second period, bend at the hips sideways, and walk a straight line, heel-to-toe for a distance of 6 ft (1.8 m).
  • Eight years. The child can maintain a crouched position on tiptoes for a 10-second period, with arms extended and eyes closed. He is able to touch the fingertips of one hand with his thumb, starting with the little finger and repeating in reverse order.

The development of motor skills in the child goes hand in hand with the development of cognitive skills, a process called cognitive development. Cognitive development can be divided into four stages:

  • Sensorimotor stage. At this stage, infants discover their environment using a combination of sensory impressions (sight, smellhearing , taste , and touch) and motor activities.
  • Preoperational stage. At this stage, children are not able to use information in rational and logical ways, rather they use images and symbols. They learn how to associate cause and effect and to represent something with something else. Speech development begins.
  • Concrete operational stage. At this stage, children understand elementary logical principles that apply to concrete external objects. They learn to sort things into categories, reverse the direction of their thinking, and think about two concepts (such as length and width) simultaneously.
  • Formal operational stage. This stage is reached at adolescence. The individual can think in the abstract and speculate about probabilities and possibilities as well as reflect on their own thinking activities.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

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Social Development

Psychosocial Development

Adolescents continue to refine their sense of self as they relate to others. Erikson referred to the task of the adolescent as one of identity versus role confusion. Thus, in Erikson’s view, an adolescent’s main questions are “Who am I?” and “Who do I want to be?” Some adolescents adopt the values and roles that their parents expect for them. Other teens develop identities that are in opposition to their parents but align with a peer group. This is common as peer relationships become a central focus in adolescents’ lives.

As adolescents work to form their identities, they pull away from their parents, and the peer group becomes very important (Shanahan, McHale, Osgood, & Crouter, 2007). Despite spending less time with their parents, most teens report positive feelings toward them (Moore, Guzman, Hair, Lippman, & Garrett, 2004). Warm and healthy parent-child relationships have been associated with positive child outcomes, such as better grades and fewer school behavior problems, in the United States as well as in other countries (Hair et al., 2005).

It appears that most teens don’t experience adolescent storm and stress to the degree once famously suggested by G. Stanley Hall, a pioneer in the study of adolescent development. Only small numbers of teens have major conflicts with their parents (Steinberg & Morris, 2001), and most disagreements are minor. For example, in a study of over 1,800 parents of adolescents from various cultural and ethnic groups, Barber (1994) found that conflicts occurred over day-to-day issues such as homework, money, curfews, clothing, chores, and friends. These types of arguments tend to decrease as teens develop (Galambos & Almeida, 1992).

Social Changes

Parents. Although peers take on greater importance during adolescence, family relationships remain important too. One of the key changes during adolescence involves a renegotiation of parent–child relationships. As adolescents strive for more independence and autonomy during this time, different aspects of parenting become more salient. For example, parents’ distal supervision and monitoring become more important as adolescents spend more time away from parents and in the presence of peers. Parental monitoring encompasses a wide range of behaviors such as parents’ attempts to set rules and know their adolescents’ friends, activities, and whereabouts, in addition to adolescents’ willingness to disclose information to their parents (Stattin & Kerr, 2000[1]). Psychological control, which involves manipulation and intrusion into adolescents’ emotional and cognitive world through invalidating adolescents’ feelings and pressuring them to think in particular ways (Barber, 1996[2]), is another aspect of parenting that becomes more salient during adolescence and is related to more problematic adolescent adjustment.

Peers

As children become adolescents, they usually begin spending more time with their peers and less time with their families, and these peer interactions are increasingly unsupervised by adults. Children’s notions of friendship often focus on shared activities, whereas adolescents’ notions of friendship increasingly focus on intimate exchanges of thoughts and feelings. During adolescence, peer groups evolve from primarily single-sex to mixed-sex. Adolescents within a peer group tend to be similar to one another in behavior and attitudes, which has been explained as being a function of homophily (adolescents who are similar to one another choose to spend time together in a “birds of a feather flock together” way) and influence (adolescents who spend time together shape each other’s behavior and attitudes). One of the most widely studied aspects of adolescent peer influence is known as deviant peer contagion (Dishion & Tipsord, 2011[3]), which is the process by which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval that then increase the likelihood of future problem behavior.

Peers can serve both positive and negative functions during adolescence. Negative peer pressure can lead adolescents to make riskier decisions or engage in more problematic behavior than they would alone or in the presence of their family. For example, adolescents are much more likely to drink alcohol, use drugs, and commit crimes when they are with their friends than when they are alone or with their family. However, peers also serve as an important source of social support and companionship during adolescence, and adolescents with positive peer relationships are happier and better adjusted than those who are socially isolated or have conflictual peer relationships.

Crowds are an emerging level of peer relationships in adolescence. In contrast to friendships (which are reciprocal dyadic relationships) and cliques (which refer to groups of individuals who interact frequently), crowds are characterized more by shared reputations or images than actual interactions (Brown & Larson, 2009[4]). These crowds reflect different prototypic identities (such as jocks or brains) and are often linked with adolescents’ social status and peers’ perceptions of their values or behaviors.

Romantic relationships

Adolescence is the developmental period during which romantic relationships typically first emerge. Initially, same-sex peer groups that were common during childhood expand into mixed-sex peer groups that are more characteristic of adolescence. Romantic relationships often form in the context of these mixed-sex peer groups (Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000[5]). Although romantic relationships during adolescence are often short-lived rather than long-term committed partnerships, their importance should not be minimized. Adolescents spend a great deal of time focused on romantic relationships, and their positive and negative emotions are more tied to romantic relationships (or lack thereof) than to friendships, family relationships, or school (Furman & Shaffer, 2003[6]). Romantic relationships contribute to adolescents’ identity formation, changes in family and peer relationships, and adolescents’ emotional and behavioral adjustment.

Furthermore, romantic relationships are centrally connected to adolescents’ emerging sexuality. Parents, policymakers, and researchers have devoted a great deal of attention to adolescents’ sexuality, in large part because of concerns related to sexual intercourse, contraception, and preventing teen pregnancies. However, sexuality involves more than this narrow focus. For example, adolescence is often when individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender come to perceive themselves as such (Russell, Clarke, & Clary, 2009[7]). Thus, romantic relationships are a domain in which adolescents experiment with new behaviors and identities.

Behavioral And Psychological Adjustment

Identity formation

Theories of adolescent development often focus on identity formation as a central issue. For example, in Erikson’s (1968[8]) classic theory of developmental stages, identity formation was highlighted as the primary indicator of successful development during adolescence (in contrast to role confusion, which would be an indicator of not successfully meeting the task of adolescence). Marcia (1966[9]) described identify formation during adolescence as involving both decision points and commitments with respect to ideologies (e.g., religion, politics) and occupations. He described four identity statuses: foreclosure, identity diffusion, moratorium, and identity achievement. Foreclosure occurs when an individual commits to an identity without exploring options. Identity diffusion occurs when adolescents neither explore nor commit to any identities. Moratorium is a state in which adolescents are actively exploring options but have not yet made commitments. Identity achievement occurs when individuals have explored different options and then made identity commitments. Building on this work, other researchers have investigated more specific aspects of identity. For example, Phinney (1989[10]) proposed a model of ethnic identity development that included stages of unexplored ethnic identity, ethnic identity search, and achieved ethnic identity.

Aggression and antisocial behavior

Several major theories of the development of antisocial behavior treat adolescence as an important period. Patterson’s (1982[11]) early versus late starter model of the development of aggressive and antisocial behavior distinguishes youths whose antisocial behavior begins during childhood (early starters) versus adolescence (late starters). According to the theory, early starters are at greater risk for long-term antisocial behavior that extends into adulthood than are late starters. Late starters who become antisocial during adolescence are theorized to experience poor parental monitoring and supervision, aspects of parenting that become more salient during adolescence. Poor monitoring and lack of supervision contribute to increasing involvement with deviant peers, which in turn promotes adolescents’ own antisocial behavior. Late starters desist from antisocial behavior when changes in the environment make other options more appealing. Similarly, Moffitt’s (1993[12]) life-course persistent versus adolescent-limited model distinguishes between antisocial behavior that begins in childhood versus adolescence. Moffitt regards adolescent-limited antisocial behavior as resulting from a “maturity gap” between adolescents’ dependence on and control by adults and their desire to demonstrate their freedom from adult constraint. However, as they continue to develop, and legitimate adult roles and privileges become available to them, there are fewer incentives to engage in antisocial behavior, leading to desistance in these antisocial behaviors.

Anxiety and depression

Developmental models of anxiety and depression also treat adolescence as an important period, especially in terms of the emergence of gender differences in prevalence rates that persist through adulthood (Rudolph, 2009[13]). Starting in early adolescence, compared with males, females have rates of anxiety that are about twice as high and rates of depression that are 1.5 to 3 times as high (American Psychiatric Association, 2013[14]). Although the rates vary across specific anxiety and depression diagnoses, rates for some disorders are markedly higher in adolescence than in childhood or adulthood. For example, prevalence rates for specific phobias are about 5% in children and 3%–5% in adults but 16% in adolescents. Anxiety and depression are particularly concerning because suicide is one of the leading causes of death during adolescence. Developmental models focus on interpersonal contexts in both childhood and adolescence that foster depression and anxiety (e.g., Rudolph, 2009[15]). Family adversity, such as abuse and parental psychopathology, during childhood sets the stage for social and behavioral problems during adolescence. Adolescents with such problems generate stress in their relationships (e.g., by resolving conflict poorly and excessively seeking reassurance) and select into more maladaptive social contexts (e.g., “misery loves company” scenarios in which depressed youths select other depressed youths as friends and then frequently co-ruminate as they discuss their problems, exacerbating negative affect and stress). These processes are intensified for girls compared with boys because girls have more relationship-oriented goals related to intimacy and social approval, leaving them more vulnerable to disruption in these relationships. Anxiety and depression then exacerbate problems in social relationships, which in turn contribute to the stability of anxiety and depression over time.

Academic achievement

Adolescents spend more waking time in school than in any other context (Eccles & Roeser, 2011[16]). Academic achievement during adolescence is predicted by interpersonal (e.g., parental engagement in adolescents’ education), intrapersonal (e.g., intrinsic motivation), and institutional (e.g., school quality) factors. Academic achievement is important in its own right as a marker of positive adjustment during adolescence but also because academic achievement sets the stage for future educational and occupational opportunities. The most serious consequence of school failure, particularly dropping out of school, is the high risk of unemployment or underemployment in adulthood that follows. High achievement can set the stage for college or future vocational training and opportunities.

Diversity

Adolescent development does not necessarily follow the same pathway for all individuals. Certain features of adolescence, particularly with respect to biological changes associated with puberty and cognitive changes associated with brain development, are relatively universal. But other features of adolescence depend largely on circumstances that are more environmentally variable. For example, adolescents growing up in one country might have different opportunities for risk taking than adolescents in a different country, and supports and sanctions for different behaviors in adolescence depend on laws and values that might be specific to where adolescents live. Likewise, different cultural norms regarding family and peer relationships shape adolescents’ experiences in these domains. For example, in some countries, adolescents’ parents are expected to retain control over major decisions, whereas in other countries, adolescents are expected to begin sharing in or taking control of decision making.

Even within the same country, adolescents’ gender, ethnicity, immigrant status, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and personality can shape both how adolescents behave and how others respond to them, creating diverse developmental contexts for different adolescents. For example, early puberty (that occurs before most other peers have experienced puberty) appears to be associated with worse outcomes for girls than boys, likely in part because girls who enter puberty early tend to associate with older boys, which in turn is associated with early sexual behavior and substance use. For adolescents who are ethnic or sexual minorities, discrimination sometimes presents a set of challenges that nonminorities do not face.

Finally, genetic variations contribute an additional source of diversity in adolescence. Current approaches emphasize gene X environment interactions, which often follow a differential susceptibility model (Belsky & Pluess, 2009[17]). That is, particular genetic variations are considered riskier than others, but genetic variations also can make adolescents more or less susceptible to environmental factors. For example, the association between the CHRM2genotype and adolescent externalizing behavior (aggression and delinquency)has been found in adolescents whose parents are low in monitoring behaviors (Dick et al., 2011[18]). Thus, it is important to bear in mind that individual differences play an important role in adolescent development.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 840 Spring 2020

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The personality implies psychological and social character that an individual acquires by hereditary biological endowment which provides him the basis for development and social growth of environment within which he springs forth. Personality is the product of social interaction in group life. In society every person has different traits such as skin, color, height and weight. They have different types of personalities because individuals are not alike. It refers to the habits, attitudes as well as physical traits of a person which are not same but have vary from group to group and society to society, everyone has personality, which may be good or bad, impressive or unimpressive. It develops during the process of socialization in a culture of a specific group or society. One cannot determine it of an individual exactly because it varies from culture to culture and time to time. For example, a killer is considered criminal in peace time and hero in war. The feeling and actions of an individual during interaction moulds the personality. It is the sum of total behaviors of the individual and covers both overt and covert behaviors, interests, mentality and intelligence. It is the sum of physical and mental abilities and capabilities. Personality has been derived from the Latin word “persona” which means “mask” used by the actors to change their appearance. It is the combination of an individual thoughts, characteristics, behaviors, attitude, idea and habits. The Meaning of Personality: The term ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which means a mask. According to K. Young, “Personality is a …. patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual, as these are organised externally into roles and statuses, and as they relate internally to motivation, goals, and various aspects of selfhood.” G. W. Allport defined it as “a person’s pattern of habits, attitudes, and traits which determine his adjustment to his environment.” According to Robert E. Park and Earnest W. Burgess, personality is “the sum and organization of those traits which determine the role of the individual in the group.” Herbert A. Bloch defined it as “the characteristic organization of the individual’s habits, attitudes, values, emotional characteristics……. which imparts consistency to the behavior of the individual.” According to Arnold W. Green, “personality is the sum of a person’s values (the objects of his striving, such as ideas, prestige, power and sex) plus his non- physical traits (his habitual ways of acting and reacting).” According to Linton, personality embraces the total “organised aggregate of psychological processes and status pertaining to the individual.” Personality, as we understand it, says MacIver, “is all that an individual is and has experienced so far as this “all” can be comprehended as unity.” According to Lundberg and others, “The term personality refers to the habits, attitudes, and other social traits that are characteristic of a given individual’s behaviour.” By personality Ogburn means “the integration of the socio psychological behaviour of the human being, represented by habits of action and feeling, attitudes and opinions.” Davis regards personality “a psychic phenomenon which is neither organic nor social but an emergent from a combination of the two.” According to Anderson and Parker, “Personality is the totality of habits, attitudes, and traits that result from socialization and characterizes us in our relationships with others.” According to N.L. Munn, “Personality may be defined as the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structure modes of behaviour, interests, attitudes, capacities, abilities and aptitudes.” According to Morton Prince, “Personality is the sum total of all the biological innate dispositions, impulses tendencies and instincts of the individual, and the acquired disposition and tendencies acquired by experience.” According to Young, “Personality is the totality of behaviour of an individual with a given tendency system interacting with a sequence of situations.” Lawrence A. Pewin has given a working definition of personality in these words, “Personality represents those structural and dynamic properties of an individual or individuals as they reflect themselves in characteristic responses to situations.” Characteristics of personality (i) Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes both structure and dynamics (ii) Personality is an indivisible unit. (iii) Personality is neither good nor bad. (iv) Personality is not a mysterious phenomenon. (v) Every personality is unique.(vi) Personality refers to persistent qualities of the individual. It expresses consistency and regularly. (vii) Personality is acquired. (viii) Personality is influenced by social interaction. It is defined in terms of behaviour. Types of Personality Following are the three types of personality 1. Extrovert Personality This type has the tendency to live mostly outside the like to live with others. Those individuals are highly socialized and have contact with outside people in the society. They want to join other groups who are more in number. These type of people are drivers, excessive drinkers, smokers, robbers, thieves, wicked persons etc. 2. Introvert Personality Introvert is opposite to extrovert. Those people are always live alone in their rooms and do not want to go outside. They have their own imaginary world. They are teachers, scientists, thinkers and philosophers. 3. Ambivert Personality Between extrovert and introvert personalities there is a third one type called ambivert. People belonging to this type enjoy both the groups and attend them. They have middle mind and want to live in both parties. Sometimes they join outside people but sometimes they live in their own rooms. Factors of Personality Enormously the following five factors of personality are contributing to the formation and development of human personality. 1.Biological Factors 2.Social Factors 3.Cultural Factors PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT TIPS 1.Should be a better listener 2.Good conversation 3.Be positive in outlook and attitude 4.More reading and building interest 5.Should be a good courteous 6.Interaction with new people 7.Helpful to other people 8.Give respect if you want respect 9.Confident about yourself 4.Physical Environment 5.Situational Factors 1. Biological Factors of Personality Biological factors of personality are very important for the formation of human personality. Children are born in a family; inherit many traits and features from their parents. Children get physical and psychological characteristics from their parents which becomes a part of their personalities. Some of the inherited traits are courage, coward, intelligence, weakness etc. For example it was experimented on the negro that they are biological inferior. A normal healthy man has some physical similarities such as two hands five senses, two eyes and these biological similarities help to explain some of the similarities in the behavior. It separates individuals from one another and their various physical characteristics except identical twins having the same physical qualities. So, biological factors of personality are responsible for the development of personality. 2. Social Factors of Personality When an individual interact with other persons in his/her group give and take relationship takes place and it affects the personality of an individual social factors of personality are responsible for the formation of personality, when an individual has group experience and contact with others personality of an individual is influenced by others may be bad or good but depends on the association in which he/she keeps. In a society every person plays a specific role and status. For example in our society younger are expected to be respectful for elders. Many other social factors like environment, group life, family, media with which an individual interact in his/her society daily life mold their personalities. We can say that whatever comes in contact with an individual’s social life affects personality of that individual and develop good or bad personality. 3. Cultural Factors of Personality Both material as well as non-material culture affects personality of an individual. An individual living in his/her culture adopts the traits consciously or unconsciously and acts accordingly. Culture of any society determines the behaviors and personality of an individual and he/she is expected to act according to the culture. A person follows all the social norms of a culture which results in the formation of good personality while non-conformity to the cultural rules develops abnormal or bad personality. So, the culture in which an individual seeks satisfaction adjusts himself/herself and develops personality. 4. Physical Environment Physical environment also determines the personality of an individual. Environmental factors include land, river, mountains, hills, forests, plain area, atmosphere etc which affect the personality to be good or bad, healthy or weak. All the feelings, emotions, ideas, attitudes, habits and behavior as well as body structure is the result of physical environment of to which an individual belongs. For example, body structure, physique, color and health of the rural people are different from urban people. These people have different environment due to which they develop variety of personalities. The people living in cities have facilities and modern ways of life which creates to develop delicate bodies and minds as compare to the rural people who are deprived of these facilities. 5. Situational Factors of Personality Situational factors of personality also have a complete share in the formation of personality of an individual. situational factors of personality are charging according to the social situations. Every person face may situations in his life which enables him/her to change his/her behavior. For example, a teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may not with his/her family. An officer may behave with the subordinates differently as compare to his/her friends. Personality is not the result of only one factor but every factor is responsible to give complete share in its formation. A person behave and his/her personality exists when interacts with environment, culture, society, parents, friends and to those who come in contact by chance.

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