AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 829 Spring 2020

ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ

AIOU Solved Assignments code 829 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course: Teacher Education  (829)   Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  1& 2
Teacher Education (829)  Semester
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 829 Spring 2020

Q.1,CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE OBJECTIVE OF TEACHER EDUCATION AS GIVEN IN THE NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2009 ARE INALIGHMENT EITH THE OBJECTIVE DEFINED BY AGGERWAL’

ANS;. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (“the Policy”) comes in a series of education policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first document, the White Paper was finalised in March 2007. The White Paper became the basis for development of the Policy document. The lag in finalisation of the draft owes to lot of factors including the process of consultations adopted as well as significant political changes in the country. 2. Two main reasons that prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to launch the review in 2005 well before the time horizon of the existing Policy (1998 – 2010)1 were, firstly, the Policy was not producing the desired educational results and the performance remained deficient in several key aspects including access, quality and equity of educational opportunities and secondly, the international challenges like Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) , Dakar Framework of Action Education for All (EFA) Goals and the challenges triggered by globalisation and nation’s quest for becoming a knowledge society in the wake of compelling domestic pressures like devolution and demographic transformations have necessitated a renewed commitment to proliferate quality education for all. 3. The document is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 describes overarching challenges, identifies two fundamental causes that lie behind the deficiencies in performance (the commitment gap and the implementation gap), and outlines the way forward. Chapters 2 and 3 articulate the ways of filling the Commitment Gap (system values, priorities and resources) and Implementation Gap (Ensuring good governance) respectively. Chapters 4 puts forward the provisions of Islamic Education and transformation of the society on Islamic and human values. Chapters 5 to 8 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector level. Chapter 9 broadly suggests a Framework for Implementation of the Action Plan of this Policy document. Annex- I lays out the current state of education sector. Available indicators have been assessed against data in comparable countries. 4. Many of the areas discussed in this document were present in the previous policy documents prepared in the country from time to time and apparently many of the problems persist. A new policy document on its own will not rectify the situation but all the segments of the society will have to contribute in this endeavour. However, the document does recognise two deficits of previous documents i.e. governance reform and an implementation roadmap which if redressed, can alter results for the present Policy. 5. On governance, the policy discusses the issue of inter-tier responsibilities wherein the respective roles and functions of the federal-provincial-district governments continue to be not clear. Confusion has been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’ mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for management of various sub-sectors of education and, at times, within each sub-sector. Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations prepared. 6. On implementation, the Policy document includes a chapter that describes the implementation framework. The framework recognises the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education. The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a 1 National Education Policy: 1998-2010, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1998. 8 coordinator and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity in achievement of educational goals nationally. A shift has been made by making the National Education Policy a truly ‘national’ document and not a federal recipe. For this, it has been recommended that InterProvincial Education Ministers’ Conference (IPEMC) with representation of all the federating units, will be the highest body to oversee progress of education in the country. In this respect the Federal-Provincial collaborative effort remains the key to success. 7. It has also been proposed to make the document a “living document” that will remain for an indefinite period and be subjected to improvements whenever any such requirement is felt. IPEM will consider and approve all such improvements which can be proposed by any of the federating units. 8. The purpose of the Policy is to chart out a national strategy for guiding education development in Pakistan. Many of the policy actions outlined have already been initiated in reforms during the process, most notably in the domains of curriculum development, textbook/learning materials policy, provision of missing facilities. A number of initiatives are already being implemented by the provincial and area governments. The Policy takes account of these ongoing reforms and integrates them into its recommendations. The Policy is also embedded within the Islamic ethos as enshrined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 9. The success of the Policy will depend on the national commitment to the sector. Already there has been a marked improvement in the area as all provinces and areas as well as the federal government have raised the priority of education. This will now have to be matched with availability of resources and capacity enhancement for absorption of these resources to improve education outcomes for the children of Pakistan. It is a long journey that has already begun. It is hoped that the policy document will help give a clearer direction to the efforts and help in institutionalising the effort within a national paradigm.

Q.2,EXPLAIN THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEACHER IN ISLAMIC ROSPECTIVE AND ELUCIDATE THEIR ROLE IN INCLUDING SOCIETAL VALUES IN STUDENTS.

ANS;. Responsibilities of Teachers Although teachers are given high status in the society but at the same time some responsibilities are also assigned to the teachers, which they are supposed to consider by performing their duties. The Holy Quran and the Hadiths give number of instructions to the teachers. “As part of the mercy of God, you deal with them gently; if you were severed and hardhearted, they would have broken away from you.” (Al-Imran, 3:159) This verse of the Holy Quran is having guideline or a piece of advice for the teachers and teachers are asked to deal students gently, they are asked to have kindness for them because if you will be harsh with them then they will not come to school and will be fed up. If we see the modern era theories about attitude of teachers for students, it is recommended that the teachers need to “deal the students with love not punishment”, this theory is introduced by the West just fifty years back but this was shared in the Holy Quran centuries back but this the bad luck of our nation that the teachers in Pakistan are not following the instructions given in the Holy Quran that is why Pakistani children have interest in studies, they do not want to go to schools just because of the attitude of the teachers. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” He also said, “Use leniency to those whom you teach and those who learn you.” Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education Vol. 3(3) July 2014 94 The above comments of our Prophet (PBUH) are providing guideline to teachers that how do they need to treat their students, it is clear from the statement that teachers should not blame their students and teachers and are asked to be lenient with their students, means if your students do mistake then you need not to be harsh with them. He the Prophet (PBUH) is reported to say, “Teachers who have three students- of different social classes- and do not treat them equally, will be in the line of the traitors on the Resurrection Day.” It is been observed that sometimes teachers become little unfair with their students, they give favors to those students who are close to them or who give extra benefit or who are taking tuition from them or who belongs to same religion. But it quite clear from the above statement that teachers should not do any kind of discrimination in any of the cases discussed above. But teacher in Pakistan are indulged in such types of discriminations that is the reasons that our students are not interested to come to school or having no interest in the studies because of the prevailed favoritism of the teachers and it has destroyed the whole education system of Pakistan. Ibn Maskub said, “Pupils should be praised and rewarded for any good manner and favorable act they show.” This is another problem present in our educational system that it has been quoted by number of writers or complained by the students that the teachers are too much scared in given marks to the students or giving them appreciation when they display good behavior and when they show well mannered attitude in the class. If the teachers will start appreciating students in such case then surely students will attend the school or the class and will take interest. The teachers’ response to the well mannered students will provide motivation to the other students present in the class and they will change themselves with the passage of time. The teacher is given more important than the books. Imam al-Shafi’i, the famous jurist, said: “Whoever learns from books will miss the required achievement” (lbn Jumah, p.87). Among the most concise descriptions of the teacher’s role was written by Imam al-Ghazali (d, 505H/ 1113) in his Ihya Ulum al-Din. (‘The Revival of the Islamic Sciences’) and his Ayyuha 1-Walad (‘0 Child!’). A text written nearly a hundred years later and covering similar themes used in present era teachers’ training. Ta’lim al-Muta’allim by al-Zamuji has also been translated into English. Below we have summarized some of the main principles of teaching according to al-Ghazali. Imam Al-Ghazzali, one of the most outstanding Muslim scholars and teachers of all time, regards the first duty of a teacher to accept the child unconditionally as his own. He quotes the saying of our Nabi Muhammad (SAWS): “I am to you like a father who desires to save his child from the fires of hell, which is more important than any of the efforts of parents to save their children from the fires of earth.” If we read the statement of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the statement of Imam Al-Ghazaali, we learn that a teacher needs to consider a student his/her son/daughter. As the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has given his own example that as I am saving you from the hardships or fires of Hell as I am your teacher therefore in the same way you (teachers) need to save your students from the hardships of the world by providing them knowledge to tackle the problems. But it Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education leena-luna.co.jp has been quoted and observed by number of writers that teachers in Pakistan are not equipping the students with such armors, which could help them to deal with the hardships in lives. Teachers at Muslim schools must struggle to cultivate God-consciousness in their students as well as knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “And speak nicely to people.” (Qur’an, 2:83) The quote teaches us that teachers need to be careful while speaking with their students, they need to choose proper, suitable and respectable words for their students, and they should not use such words which heart them or which could become the reason of depression or bring lack of confidence in the students. But this the bad luck of our nation that some teachers also use very rough language with their students which is ultimately effecting on the learning or confidence of the students, that could be one of the reason that we are unable to see any kind change in behavior of our students. It is written in the Holy Quran that “Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolishness.” (Qur’an, 7:199) It is an advice for the Muslims or the believers that they need to forgive others. But has been observed that some teachers become too much harsh with their students when they do any kind of mistake, moreover they do not forget any wrong action taken by the students and continue to treat them for their wrong action. It should be their utmost duty to forgive their students if they do any kind of mistake. At another place in the Holy Quran it is said: “And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah” (Qur’an, 42:43) It means that if we show patience and forgive others that could do the right action being expected by Almighty Allah. This means teachers need to show patience and they need to forgive their students in case if they do any kind of mistake they should not give corporal punishment to their students if their behavior is not up to the mark. “Blessed is He in whose hands are the Kingdom – who is powerful over everything – who has created death and life, so that He might test you as to which among you is good in conduct.” (Al-Mulk 67: 1-2) The above verse of the Holy Quran teaches us that our conduct should be very good, if we want to get Almighty Allah’s favors or blessings. This verse teaches to the teachers that they have to show good conduct in the institute premises, because teachers are model for the students. Students try to copy their teachers. If teachers of any nation will not show good conduct then surely we cannot expect that nation will develop or get progress in the world. “The true servants of the Most Merciful are those who behave gently and with humility on earth, and whenever the foolish quarrel with them, that reply with (words of) peace.” (Al-Furqan) The above verse of the Holy Quran gives us the message of mercifulness and advises us that we should not treat foolish in the same way as they treat you. This means that your students sometimes behave in such a way which is not required then teachers need to teach them in Asian Journal of Management www.ajmse. leena-luna.co.jp Leena and Luna International, Oyama, Japan. ( humble manner. Because it has been found by the research scholars that if, we treat students humbly, and then our response will bring change in their behavior. “My Lord has commanded justice….” (Surat al This verse of the Holy Quran teaches us that there should justice in the society; we should not keep any kind of the discrimination in the society. This verse gives message to the teachers that they should have same measure for all of their students; they measures for different students, which indicate their discrimination in the class. That could be one of the reasons for the students’ lack of interest in their schools. Students will not like to go to that school or class where th “…and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.” (Al In this verse of the Holy Quran the Muslims are asked to remain patient because Allah will help those who will show patience through thick and thin of their era need to inculcate this attitude in their behavior, when they go to take their class. They need to keep in their mind that students are children and as children are not grown up people any mistake could expected from them t their students in case if they do any mistake. “And seek assistance through patience and prayer…” (Al This verse of the Holy Quran again teaches us patience and the believers are advised to seek assistance through patience and prayers. It means that teachers need kind of difficulty in the practical life. They should pray for those students who are not behaving as per the requirement in their classes; they should not take the law in their hand. و آمنوا الذین إلا“By time, indeed, mankind is in loss, Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.” (Al The above verse of the Holy Quran has two messages for means that we need to be truthful in our lives, we should not tell a lie as it is not right in the eyes of Almighty Allah. The above verse teaches us that those who do wrong in the lives they will be in loss, means almighty Allah will treat them as per their deeds. “Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning (39:10) This verse of the Holy Quran gives us message of reward which will be awarded to those who will remain patient in their lives. This means that while teaching in the classes if students responses are not as per the requirement then teachers needs to remain polite with the students and should show patience and should let Almighty to do justice, then surely they will get reward as per promise of Allah with the mankind that reward will be unlimited. Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education Vol. 3(3) July 2014, 小山市、日本 humble manner. Because it has been found by the research scholars that if, we treat students humbly, and then our response will bring change in their behavior. “My Lord has commanded justice….” (Surat al-A ‘raf, 29) This verse of the Holy Quran teaches us that there should justice in the society; we should not keep any kind of the discrimination in the society. This verse gives message to the teachers that they should have same measure for all of their students; they should not use different measures for different students, which indicate their discrimination in the class. That could be one of the reasons for the students’ lack of interest in their schools. Students will not like to go to that school or class where they find injustice. و ا “…and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.” (Al-Anfal 8:46) In this verse of the Holy Quran the Muslims are asked to remain patient because Allah will help those who will show patience through thick and thin of their life. The teachers of present era need to inculcate this attitude in their behavior, when they go to take their class. They need to keep in their mind that students are children and as children are not grown up people any mistake could expected from them therefore they need to be patient and sympathetic with their students in case if they do any mistake. And seek assistance through patience and prayer…” (Al-Baqarah 2:45) This verse of the Holy Quran again teaches us patience and the believers are advised to seek assistance through patience and prayers. It means that teachers need to pray if they find any kind of difficulty in the practical life. They should pray for those students who are not behaving as per the requirement in their classes; they should not take the law in their hand.“By time, indeed, mankind is in loss, Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.” (Al-Asr 103:1 The above verse of the Holy Quran has two messages for us, which are patience and truth. It means that we need to be truthful in our lives, we should not tell a lie as it is not right in the eyes of Almighty Allah. The above verse teaches us that those who do wrong in the lives they ghty Allah will treat them as per their deeds. “Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning (39:10) This verse of the Holy Quran gives us message of reward which will be awarded to those ent in their lives. This means that while teaching in the classes if students responses are not as per the requirement then teachers needs to remain polite with the students and should show patience and should let Almighty to do justice, then surely they ill get reward as per promise of Allah with the mankind that reward will be unlimited. research scholars that if, we treat students This verse of the Holy Quran teaches us that there should justice in the society; we should not keep any kind of the discrimination in the society. This verse gives message to the teachers should not use different measures for different students, which indicate their discrimination in the class. That could be one of the reasons for the students’ lack of interest in their schools. Students will not like to Anfal 8:46) In this verse of the Holy Quran the Muslims are asked to remain patient because Allah will life. The teachers of present era need to inculcate this attitude in their behavior, when they go to take their class. They need to keep in their mind that students are children and as children are not grown up people herefore they need to be patient and sympathetic with Baqarah 2:45) This verse of the Holy Quran again teaches us patience and the believers are advised to seek to pray if they find any kind of difficulty in the practical life. They should pray for those students who are not behaving as per the requirement in their classes; they should not take the law in their hand. “By time, indeed, mankind is in loss, Except for those who have believed and done righteous -Asr 103:1-3) us, which are patience and truth. It means that we need to be truthful in our lives, we should not tell a lie as it is not right in the eyes of Almighty Allah. The above verse teaches us that those who do wrong in the lives they “Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning (39:10) This verse of the Holy Quran gives us message of reward which will be awarded to those ent in their lives. This means that while teaching in the classes if students responses are not as per the requirement then teachers needs to remain polite with the students and should show patience and should let Almighty to do justice, then surely they ill get reward as per promise of Allah with the mankind that reward will be unlimit

ocial values and implementation of them in school setting were discussed in terms of both global and national perspectives as well as the structural and functional aspects were elaborated in this study. It was suggested a healthy way to teach of them and it was elaborated the pattern of relationships between these concepts. Social values show the ideal way of thinking and acting in a society. Increasing gap between ways of thinking and behavior of an ideal society and actual world considered to be indicator and ignition for number of social problems. Therefore, it is important that the values of real world and ideal world should be overlapped. Understanding and explaining extremely complex nature of the values at national and global settings and rationale them in a healthy way is the most important condition to build a peaceful society and the world In fact, when we say we enjoy similar things and we find the same things beautiful, we refer to shared content of

values. What sociologists call collective consciousness are called by philosophers objective soul are the domain of

common values (Ülken, 2001). It is clear that without society, there will not be any biological, psychological, and

sociological value. Only in society, language, religion, morals, arts, and traditions can appear the result of which is

the accepted core of a society. Coming to the world as an organism, human beings come to learn societal dreams,

ideals, norms, morals, arts and religion by means of growing into an identity (produce) from an organism (seed)

(Türkdoğan, 1982). Ethos is what anthropologists and sociologists call when they mean a society’s profile of values

which comes from a Greek word meaning common behaviors (Doğan, 2011).

Values that inspire and are inspired by a society can function both as a measure as well as something that are

measured. In essence, values should be regarded as positive entities since “honesty” is a value; “intricacy” refers to

lacking it. Values guide people as abstract entities that ordain people with ideal thinking and behavioral aspects such

as being hard-working all the time. Hence, values are belief-based narratives that shape our approach to stuff and

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 829 Spring 2020

Q.3,DISCUSS THE PROBLEM FACED BY TEACHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN AND ALSO SUGGEST WAYS TO OVERCOME THESE PROBLEM. .

ANS;. The education system of Pakistan, in terms of quality teaching and learning, stands in the lowest rank in the world. Numerous reasons can be held responsible for this state of affairs. Teacher is one of these factors. Teacher is an important part of the teaching and learning process, who faces various problems due to which they cannot play their roles effectively in the education process. This paper, based on a thorough review of the existing literature, critically analyses the problems faced by school teachers in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Findings of the study revealed that teachers are less motivated towards teaching profession, because their appointments, transfers, placements and promotions are decided on nepotism, corruption and political affiliations rather than on merit. In many cases teachers are posted in remote areas, faced with accommodation and transportation problems. The study further found that teachers are overburdened with more classes due to shortage of staff in schools, teachers face shortage of teaching and learning resources in schools, there are fewer professional development opportunities for teachers, servant-master environment and a culture of leg-pulling and flattering prevails in schools, and that teachers often rely on other activities such as property business, shop-keeping etc for living. This has gravely affected the process of teaching and learning in schools. This study recommends that the problems of teachers could be solved by creating an environment of trust and strengthening the mechanism of accountability, providing teaching and learning resources to schools, providing ongoing professional development opportunities and incentives to teachers, making appointments and promotions on merit, providing enough staff to schools and eradicating the evil of political interference.

In nearly all countries, courses of the Normal School B, college, and university categories contain three main elements. The first element is the study of one or more academic, cultural, or aesthetic subjects for the purpose both of continuing the student’s own education and of providing him with knowledge to use in his subsequent teaching career. A second element is the study of educational principles, increasingly organized in terms of social science disciplines such as psychology, sociology, philosophy, and history. A third element consists of professional courses and school experience. Primary teachers may also receive instruction in the content and methods of subjects other than their own specialties that figure in the primary curriculum. In normal schools and colleges, and some universities, the three elements run parallel to one another, and the student is professionally committed from the outset of his course. Elsewhere, the study of educational processes and professional work (including school experience) may follow the completion of a period of academic study that the student has begun without any prior commitment to teaching as a career. There are still advanced countries where the possession of a university degree, without any qualification in education as such, is sufficient basis for the award of qualified teacher status. In England and Wales, for example, compulsory training for graduates, generally comprising two terms (six months) of professional and theoretical studies and a further three-month period of school experience, was scheduled to come into effect only in 1973.

General education

The sequencing, balance, content, and organization of general and specialist academic work, courses in education, and professional studies and teaching experience has been a subject of discussion since the earliest days of organized teacher education. The importance of the element of general education has been defended on various grounds. Sometimes such academic work may be highly specialized. Students in many colleges of education in England study only one principal subject, to which they devote about one-third of their total time, and teachers who graduate from universities have often pursued three-year courses for single-subject honours degrees. In the United States and elsewhere the academic element is broader, and the first two years of college or university work may embody a wide range of elective subjects from diverse disciplinary fields. Both patterns have their critics, the first because it produces narrow intellectual specialists, the second because it encourages dilettantism and inadequate depth. Where a pattern of electives is combined with a units/credits system, as in some universities in Japan and the United States, it is claimed that one result is an undesirable fragmentation of study and effort. In his influential Education of American Teachers (1963), James B. Conant recommended that half the course requirements of the four-year program of preparation for elementary teachers should be given over to general courses, a further quarter to an “area of concentration,” and the remaining quarter to professional studies, including school experience. Prospective secondary teachers would spend still more time on the subjects they were preparing to teach, with less than 10 percent of their time devoted to practice teaching and special methods. Such a subject emphasis for secondary teachers can be found in many countries. In France the École Normale Supérieure still places freedom of study and the nurture of intellectual curiosity above questions of professional teacher training. Generally speaking, wherever there is a stress upon academic excellence and the achievement of high standards of scholarship, there is likely to be skepticism as to the claims of professional training for teaching. Oxford University had still not appointed a professor of education by the beginning of the 1970s.

In countries where technical or vocational education forms an important part of secondary school provision, there have sometimes been specialist institutions for the training of teachers for this work. Such teachers tend to have lower status than the secondary school staff who teach academic subjects, and efforts have been made to upgrade the position of the teacher of agricultural and industrial arts, home economics, and handicrafts. Nearly all the universities in England and Wales that now offer the bachelor of education degree for college of education students include technical subjects within their list of approved options.

The element of educational courses in the teacher preparation program has been the object of criticism from academic specialists, defenders of liberal culture, and practical-minded professional educators. The growing range of speculation and empirical data generated by the burgeoning social sciences, philosophy, and history, have provided a rich ore from which those responsible for teacher preparation mined the materials they needed for the construction and legitimation of their pedagogic systems and principles. But such borrowing has done little to establish any very coherent system of educational ideas, or to provide the basis for a systematic theory of teaching adequate to sustain the variety and complexity of teacher preparation programs. In his Evolution of American Educational Theory (1964), C.J. Brauner was forced to conclude that

middleman theorists, inexpert as scholars, had naïvely striven for some impossible synthesis that would be at once faithful to scholarship, useful to the practitioner, intelligible to the populace and thus comprehensive as a discipline, workable as a general method, and defensible as a social institution.

The study of educational principles

There has been much dispute as to whether the study of educational principles is to be seen as part of the liberal element in the course, contributing to the teacher’s general education and personal development, or whether it is properly an adjunct to the professional sequence, serving to illuminate and enrich students’ method courses and practical work. Where it was well done, the study of the philosophy, sociology, and history of education and of educational psychology clearly served both ends and also provided an introduction to a systematic exploration of human conduct and affairs that was both educationally defensible and important in its own right. But all too often it was not well done. As the field of the social sciences grew, it became increasingly difficult for those employed in teacher-preparing institutions to keep pace. In some places, student teachers could follow courses in psychology, sociology, and so on given by recognized authorities in their respective disciplines, and in all countries there were some prominent social scientists who themselves took a close and direct interest in educational matters. But, given the large number of institutions responsible for teacher preparation and the fact that the majority of their staff were necessarily recruited for their teaching competence rather than for their high academic qualifications, much of the teaching of educational principles tended to become out-of-date and secondhand.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 829 Spring 2020

Q.4,HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF IN.SERVICE TRAINING WITH RESPECT TO CONTINOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT .HOW CAN TEACHER BE MOTIVATED TO PARTICIPATE IN THESE TRAINING.

ANS;.

Bottom of Form

We are often asked to describe the importance of continuing professional development. Why is CPD important and why does it matter?

 

You’ve finished your degree. Check.

You’ve completed all your practical experience requirements so that you can graduate. Check.

Your new job is all lined up and ready to go. Mission accomplished.

It’s fair to say the first part of your mission is well and truly accomplished.  Sit back and give yourself a pat on the back. But don’t take too long about it or you’ll be lagging behind your colleagues. The same is true for professionals with many years experience in the workplace.

Continuing professional development is important because it ensures you continue to be competent in your profession. It is an ongoing process and continues throughout a professional’s career.

The ultimate outcome of well planned continuing professional development is that it safeguards the public, the employer, the professional and the professional’s career.

Well crafted and delivered continuing professional development is important because it delivers benefits to the individual, their profession and the public.

CPD ensures  your capabilities keep pace with the current standards of others in the same field.

CPD ensures that you maintain and enhance the knowledge and skills you need to deliver a professional service to your customers, clients and the community.

CPD ensures that you and your knowledge stay relevant and up to date. You are more aware of the changing trends and directions in your profession. The pace of change is probably faster than it’s ever been – and this is a feature of the new normal that we live and work in. If you stand still you will get left behind, as the currency of your knowledge and skills becomes out-dated.

CPD helps you continue to make a meaningful contribution to your team. You become more effective in the workplace. This assists you to advance in your career and move into new positions where you can lead, manage, influence, coach and mentor others.

CPD helps you to stay interested and interesting.  Experience is a great teacher, but it does mean that we tend to do what we have done before.  Focused CPD opens you up to new possibilities, new knowledge and new skill areas.

CPD can deliver a deeper understanding of what it means to be a professional, along with a greater appreciation of the implications and impacts of your work.

CPD helps advance the body of knowledge and technology within your profession.

CPD can lead to increased public confidence in individual professionals and their profession as a whole.

Depending on the profession – CPD contributes to  improved protection and quality of life, the environment, sustainability, property and the economy.  This particularly applies to high risk areas, or specialised practice areas which often prove impractical to monitor on a case by case basis.

The importance of continuing professional development should not be underestimated – it is a career-long obligation for practising professionals.

Sometimes it is mandated by professional organisations or required by codes of conduct or codes of ethics. But at its core it is a personal responsibility of professionals to keep their knowledge and skills current so that they can deliver the high quality of service that safeguards the public and meets the expectations of customers and the requirements of their profession.

But continuing professional development should be engaging and fun too. Sometimes it’s difficult to find a relevant course that fits in with your other obligations.  Sometimes, as you walk out of a course or seminar it’s hard to assess what you have actually learned. Have you absorbed the necessary skills and will you be able to apply them correctly in your work?  Our online courses for continuing professional development, written by professionals for professionals and involving thoughtful online interaction with your peers, go a long way towards resolving these issues. Try our online courses on Project Management, Risk Management, Finance and the Environment which are available now.  Online courses on technical writing, and Sales and Marketing will be coming soon. And if you want to test the waters before you take the first step, enter our draw to win a free online course.  We run these offers regularly, and by signing up to our email newsletter at the bottom of the page you will be notified about new offers.

Q.5,EXPLAIN THE STRUCTURE OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN .ALSO CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE EFFECT 18TH AMMENDMENT ON TEACHER EDUCATION.

ANS;. Teachers’ professional education is viewed as one of the most important factors in improving students’ learning. Keeping this in view many developed and less developed countries pay significant attention to improve the practices of teacher education. In order to develop capable teachers they make conscious efforts to establish and maintain quality teacher education institutions.

The history of teacher education in Pakistan starts with the establishment of the country. However, this area has been facing various challenges such as lack of consistent policy, inconsistency in curriculum, low resources, lack of quality teachers, low quality of teaching process, lack of standard, etc. Today, a range of public and private institutions are engaged in preparing school teachers. In Pakistan, like many other countries, public institutions are the main source for developing teachers through pre-service and in-service programmes. However, many studies have raised the question on the quality of delivery mechanism of the institutions while forwarding recommendations for improvement.

Historically, different reforms have been brought to improve the condition of teacher education in the country. Currently, teacher education in Pakistan is passing through a transition as an innovation has been initiated by the Government of Pakistan with the support of USAID through their Pre-Service Teachers Education Programme (STEP) project. This reform is attempted in order to improve the quality of teacher education by including different innovations.

In this regard, a new curriculum has been developed for pre-service programmes such as a two-year Associate Degree in Education (ADE) and a four-year BEd (Hons). Effort has been made to design the curriculum keeping in view the modern educational principle along with the contextual relevancy. These programmes are gradually replacing the previous pre-service and in-service programmes such as Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC), Certificate in Teaching (CT) and the one-year Ed programme. In addition, an effort is being made for the accreditation and standardisation of teacher training institutions through this initiative.

ARTICLE CONTINUES AFTER AD

The ADE and BEd programme has been initiated in some colleges and will be gradually implemented in remaining colleges throughout the country in the coming years. In addition, to attract the best mind towards the teaching profession a stipend is also offered to student-teachers for providing them financial support.

The significance of such educational innovation cannot be overlooked for improvement of teacher education in the country. However, there are areas that need serious considerations for the effectiveness and sustainability of the new reform initiatives.

Firstly, the new developed curriculum is based on the modern educational principles. Teachers are provided a course outline with the expectation that they will explore the teaching learning material for classroom instructions. However, it was observed that some of the teachers are struggling with identifying teaching resources due to the unavailability of the reference books and lack of Internet facility in their colleges/institutions. This situation may affect the teaching-learning process of the ADE courses. Hence there is a need to provide the reference books and Internet facility to the faculty members in order to make the teaching-learning process smooth.

Second, Internet is considered as one of the important sources for identifying teaching-learning material. However, it was observed that some of the faculty members are not literate in computers and Internet. So they are facing challenges in accessing the teaching-learning resources that are available on the Internet or in soft version. Therefore, the faculty members of colleges need to be helped in acquiring workable computer and Internet skills.

Third, the new curriculum demands new teaching strategies such as collaborative, inquiry and activity-based teaching approach. However, a majority of the faculty in the teacher institutions are not oriented with the teaching strategies demanded by the ADE and BEd programme. Therefore, the professional development of the faculty at teacher training institutions should be given priority along with the curriculum development.

Furthermore, there is a sense of uncertainty about the sustainability of the new initiatives after completion of the Pre-STEP project. Many educational initiatives in the past died away with closure of the projects. Therefore there is a dire need to develop a clear road map for the continuity and sustainability of reforms.

It was also observed that some school teachers are being deputed in teacher education colleges due to lack of adequate number of teachers in there. Due to the different approach of pedagogy and andragogy, these teachers treat the prospective teacher like children, which demotivates them. Thus when the school teachers are deputed in colleges they should be oriented with the andragogy of teaching an adult.

Finally, a sense of insecurity can be observed among the student-teachers about their job prospects after the completion of their ADE or BEd honours. How will they stand apart from the teacher who has done one year BEd and other courses, is a question to ponder upon. A clear policy is required about job opportunities for the prospective teachers so that they can focus their studies.

These issues need to be addressed in order to sustain and maintain the quality of the new reforms. A vigilant plan and sincere implementation will, of course, be helpful in transforming the teacher education practices in the country.

In short, the importance of quality teacher education cannot be overlooked for improving the quality of teaching-learning in the school. The new educational innovation will, definitely, lead to improve teacher education practices in Pakistan. However, there is a dire need to look reflectively at how to sustain the initiatives and make it productivity

attributed to education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998). The standard of education of a country intertwined and

determines its position among other nations of the world. In this regard countries with high achievements in the

fields of education and research lead the world. Education influences living standard as it turns the population of

a country into useful human capital and  works as an agent of positive change (Hoodbhoy, 1998). However, it is

worth  noting  that teacher(s),  as  builders  of  the  nation,  holds  a pivotal  role  in  the process  of education.  In this

sense  the  quality  and standards  of education  are  strongly  associated  with  the  quality  and  effectiveness  of its

teachers. Unfortunately in Pakistan very little attention has been paid to the education sector in general and the

recruitment of quality teachers in particular. Resultantly, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rate and quality

education  (Farooq,  1990).  This  study  attempts  to  examine  the  problems  faced  by  school  teachers  such  as,

academic,  recruitment  and  promotion  procedure,  administrative  and  power  structure,  financial,  training,

curriculum, parental relations, and examination in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan

Education is development  and a key to  success.  Existing scientific  and  technological development  can  only be

attributed to education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998). The standard of education of a country intertwined and

determines its position among other nations of the world. In this regard countries with high achievements in the

fields of education and research lead the world. Education influences living standard as it turns the population of

a country into useful human capital and  works as an agent of positive change (Hoodbhoy, 1998). However, it is

worth  noting  that teacher(s),  as  builders  of  the  nation,  holds  a pivotal  role  in  the process  of education.  In this

sense  the  quality  and standards  of education  are  strongly  associated  with  the  quality  and  effectiveness  of its

teachers. Unfortunately in Pakistan very little attention has been paid to the education sector in general and the

recruitment of quality teachers in particular. Resultantly, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rate and quality

education  (Farooq,  1990).  This  study  attempts  to  examine  the  problems  faced  by  school  teachers  such  as,

academic,  recruitment  and  promotion  procedure,  administrative  and  power  structure,  financial,  training,

curriculum, parental relations, and examination in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Education is development  and a key to  success.  Existing scientific  and  technological development  can  only be

attributed to education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998). The standard of education of a country intertwined and

determines its position among other nations of the world. In this regard countries with high achievements in the

fields of education and research lead the world. Education influences living standard as it turns the population of

a country into useful human capital and  works as an agent of positive change (Hoodbhoy, 1998). However, it is

worth  noting  that teacher(s),  as  builders  of  the  nation,  holds  a pivotal  role  in  the process  of education.  In this

sense  the  quality  and standards  of education  are  strongly  associated  with  the  quality  and  effectiveness  of its

teachers. Unfortunately in Pakistan very little attention has been paid to the education sector in general and the

recruitment of quality teachers in particular. Resultantly, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rate and quality

education  (Farooq,  1990).  This  study  attempts  to  examine  the  problems  faced  by  school  teachers  such  as,

academic,  recruitment  and  promotion  procedure,  administrative  and  power  structure,  financial,  training,

curriculum, parental relations, and examination in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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