AIOU Solved Assignments code 828 Autumn & Spring 2021 Assignment 1& 2 Course: Higher Education (828) Spring 2021. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Higher Education (828) Semester
Autumn & Spring 2021
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 828 Autumn & Spring 2021
The twentieth century witnessed a major growth in the provision of educational opportunity across the globe, which is a good thing. Landmark multinational agreements such as the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights and the more recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward a right for all children to be educated
There are many reasons to believe that increased educational opportunity and achievement lead to social progress. The aim of this chapter is to examine how can educatıon promote social progress.
Answering this question is not straightforward. Education has multiple aims, and the way in which education is provided – educational governance, educational institutions and educators, curriculum, and pedagogy – all matter a great deal. We will cover each of these topics in this chapter, looking at trends across the globe and seeking ascertain what scholars know about better and worse forms of educational provision.
To understand the connection between education and social progress, we must first distinguish among four distinct aims of education: economic, civic, humanistic, and equity promotion
Current conditions and challenge
In this section, we present a broad view of education in the world today, showing how formal education has expanded in the last decades, and emphasizing how it relates to citizenship, growing opportunities for social mobility, economic development and equity. We take stock of what has been achieved and is still to be done to improve access to quality education in the poorer parts of the word, through the Sustainable Developed Goals fostered by global community, which is mostly concerned with initial and mandatory education; and take a closer look at the special roles played by vocational and tertiary education. Each of these dimensions are subject to controversies, which we try to take into account, while emphasis the overall positive effects of education for social progress.
Education and social progress
Culture, “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits” (Tylor 1870) is the most distinctive element of human societies, and in its broadest sense education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of culture. Education takes place informally, starting with the interaction of children with their parents and relatives, but becomes to a large extent formal in complex societies, as it is codified (in primers, manuals, catechisms, handbooks) and provided by specialized institutions (churches, schools, universities, professional guilds, academies) according to specific methods (lecturing, memorization, demonstration, interpretation, collaboration, practice, experimentation).
Expansion and increased access
In the last century, and especially after World War II, access to formal education expanded dramatically. In the same period, governments shifted their priorities from education for citizenship to education for productivity, with great consequence.
National examples, there is the interesting and promising Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project, a field experiment conducted between 1994 and 2003 in the isolated and impoverished northern region of Ghana. As the Matlab experiment in Bangladesh showed a decade earlier, the Navrongo study showed that even under conditions of extreme poverty and depressed living standards, a demand for fertility limitation could be identified and satisfied by appropriately designed services (Phillips et al. 2006). Fertility was reduced by 15 per cent in the programme areas, whereas it remained essentially unchanged in the control areas.
Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Rwanda, and the Navrongo project, have all demonstrated that population policies and reproductive health programmes can work in Africa. What is needed now is for African leaders to understand this and also to believe that effective fertility control programmes need to become essential elements of the economic development strategies they design and implement in their countries. Effective family planning is as essential to the future success of Ghana, Cote D’Ivoire and Mozambique as it was for Korea, Thailand and Indonesia.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 828 Autumn & Spring 2021
Working towards a baccalaureate degree in the Arts or Sciences involves taking courses in what are traditionally referred to as the “liberal” arts. This means that your courses will be in general areas of study–philosophy, mathematics, literature, art history, economics, languages, and so on–rather than in applied or specialized fields. A liberal arts education is not intended to train you for a specific job, though it does prepare you for the world of work by providing you with an invaluable set of employability skills, including the ability to think for yourself, the skills to communicate effectively, and the capacity for lifelong learning.
Characteristics of Liberal Arts Colleges
Ever wondered what it would be like to study one of the oldest subjects in the world? ‘Liberal arts’ is one such subject – it goes back to the Ancient Greeks who considered a liberal arts education to be the ultimate mark of an educated person. Interestingly, while liberal arts education has long had an established place in the US higher education system, it has only recently resurfaced in continental .
A brief history of liberal arts education
During the era of classical antiquity (when ancient Greece and ancient Rome intertwined creating the Greco-Roman world), liberal arts was considered essential education for a free individual
active in civic life. At the time, this would have entailed being able to participate in public debate, defend oneself and serve in court and on juries, and perform military service. At this time, liberal arts covered only three subjects: grammar, rhetoric and logic, collectively known as the trivium. This was extended in medieval times to include four further subjects: arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy, named the quadrivium – so there were seven liberal arts subjects in the medieval liberal arts curriculum.
The trivium was considered preparatory work for the considerably more difficult quadrivium, with the quadrivium in turn being considered preparatory work for the more serious study of philosophy and theology. The aim of a liberal arts education was to produce a person who was virtuous and ethical, knowledgeable in many fields and highly articulate.
So, in a modern context, what is liberal arts education? There are now many subjects that fall within the broad scope of the category; a typical liberal arts degree program is interdisciplinary, covering topics within the humanities, as well as social, natural and formal sciences. There are differences in the particular subjects included in liberal arts degree programs at different institutions. However, the liberal arts spectrum is generally accepted as covering the following fields:
- Humanities – includes art, literature, linguistics, philosophy, religion, ethics, modern foreign languages, music, theater, speech, classical languages (Latin/Greek) etc.
- Social sciences – includes history, psychology, law, sociology, politics, gender studies, anthropology, economics, geography, business informatics, etc.
- Natural sciences – includes astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics, botany, archaeology, zoology, geology, Earth sciences, etc.
- Formal sciences – includes mathematics, logic, statistics, etc.
The term ‘liberal arts education’ can also be applied to the dedicated study of just one of the above subjects (for example, a student studying a BA in Philosophy could be said to be undertaking a liberal arts education). In general, however, the term refers to degree programs that aim to provide a broader spectrum of knowledge and skills.
Liberal arts degrees in the US
Today, liberal arts degrees are most commonly offered in the US. There are hundreds of dedicated liberal arts colleges in the US, with even more institutions offering a liberal arts program alongside other options.
While some universities now offer a one-year associate’s degree in liberal arts, it’s more common for liberal arts degrees in the US to be earned over four years of full-time study. Students earn either a BA or a BSc certification and can then progress to either a graduate school or a professional school. Some students may also choose to specialize by picking a major or minor subject in a specific area (common subjects to major in include business, law, communication, research and politics).
Liberal arts college
There are some notable differences between dedicated liberal arts colleges and other universities in the US. Liberal arts colleges typically rely heavily on student participation and encourage a high level of student-teacher interaction, mentorship and collaboration. Whereas universities tend to prioritize research, liberal arts colleges have more staff members dedicated to teaching full-time, rather than a combination of graduate student teaching assistants and research professors. Most liberal arts colleges are small and residential, with smaller enrollment and class sizes and a lower student-teacher ratio, with teachers becoming mentors and even research partners with their students.
Liberal arts degrees in Europe
Though the concept of liberal arts originates in Europe, today it’s much less prevalent than in the US – though in recent years liberal arts degrees have become more widely available. At the moment less than half of European countries have liberal arts colleges or universities with a liberal arts degree program; namely Bulgaria, Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Of these, only the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands, Italy, and Germany have more than one institution teaching liberal arts degrees.
Benefits of a liberal arts degree
If you’re still unsure whether a liberal arts degree is for you, here are some of the key benefits of a liberal arts degree:
- Preparation for work in a variety of sectors: you will gain a strong foundation knowledge in a wider range of subjects than if you were to take a degree specializing in a single subject or vocation.
- Introduction to career choices: the range of subjects taught in a liberal arts degree program means students can be introduced to subjects they may not have otherwise encountered, enabling them to make a more informed decision when choosing their preferred career path.
- Stepping stone to other careers: the knowledge achieved during a liberal arts education can help you to better maneuver yourself out of your current career into another.
- Liberal arts degrees are appealing to employers: in a recent survey of CEOs in the US, 74% said they would recommend a liberal arts education to students. Employers recognize that liberal arts graduates have the necessary transferable skills to adapt to a changing workplace.
- Provides a foundation for graduate study: a potential graduate student with a liberal arts background will have the ability to learn across a diverse field of studies, with the foundation knowledge to go straight into graduate study in any subject they choose.
- Provides skills to become a valuable community member: a liberal arts education extends beyond academia and the workplace to give graduates the necessary qualities that can enable them to adapt and thrive in the world, communicate with and understand other members of the community and have a broadened perspective.
Pakistan emerged as an Islamic Republic state on August 14, 1947. Pakistan comprises of four provinces: Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Balochistan and Sindh and some federating units which include Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Northern Areas (FANA). Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan, which was constructed in the beginning of 1960s. The national language is Urdu.
Commission on National Education focused on educational reforms. In 1973 the civilian democratic government came up with a 1973 constitution which provided that the state shall:
(a) promote unity and observance of the Islamic moral standards;
- promote with special care the educational and economic interests of backward areas; (c) remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period;
- make technical and professional education generally available and higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of meri
Formal Education System in Pakistan
According to Shah, (2003) and Saleem, (1999) the formal education system in Pakistan is consisting of the following units;
Pre Primary Schooling: Pre-primary education is functional and managed in schools through out country. Public schools provide pre-primary education as part of socialization process. The students attending pre-primary class are called Kachi.
Primary Schooling: This stage consists of five classes I-V and enrolls children of age 5-9 years.
Middle Schooling: The middle schooling is of three years duration and comprised of class VI, VII and VIII. The age group is 10-12 years.
High Schooling: The high school children stay for two years in classes IX and X. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education conducts the examination.
Higher Secondary Education: The higher secondary stage is also called the “intermediate stage” and is considered a part of college education. Higher Secondary Education consists of classes XI to XII.
Higher Education: To obtain a degree, 4 years of higher education after 10 years of primary and secondary schooling is required. Students who pass their first-degree stage are awarded a Bachelor’s degree in arts or science, typically at the age of 19 years.
Professional and Technical Education: The duration of post secondary education varies in technical and professional fields. The polytechnic diploma is a three-year course. A bachelor’s degree in medicine (MBBS) requires 5 years of study after intermediate stage (12 years of schooling).
Madrassah Education: Side by side with modern education system there is also religious education system, which provides Islamic education. These institutions have their own management system without interference from either the provincial or federal governments. Efforts have been made by the present government to bring the Madrassah in the mainstream under Education Sector Reforms. The main purpose of mainstreaming Madrassah is to enlarge employment opportunities for their graduates. Pakistan Madrassah Education Boards are established to regulate the Madaris activities.
Non-formal Education: There are millions of people in Pakistan who have no access to formal education system. Non-formal Basic Education School scheme has been introduced for those who have no access to formal education. This scheme is very cost-effective.
Examinations: Examinations are usually held annually, which are the main criterion to promote the students to higher classes or to retain them in the same class. In some schools students are promoted without exam at pre-primary level. At class five and eight level public exam is conducted for promotion to next grade. Teachers’ Training
In Pakistan, there are 90 Colleges of Elementary Education which offer teachers’ training programs for Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) and Certificate in Teaching (CT) to primary school teachers. For secondary school teachers, there are 16 Colleges of Education, offering graduate degrees in education and there are departments of education in 9 universities which train teachers at the master’s level.
Private Education Sector: Private sector involvement in education is encouraging. The Federal Bureau of Statistics survey (1999-2000) indicates that there are 36,096 private educational institutions in Pakistan. About 61 percent of the institutions are in urban areas and 39 percent in rural areas. The percentage share of private sector in enrollment is 18 percent at primary school level, 16 percent at middle school level and 14 percent at high school level (Shah, 2003).
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 828 Autumn & Spring 2021
EDUCATION may be the constitutional right of every individual between the ages of five and 16, but actually getting children to school has proven to be a consistent challenge for the state. Millions of children never see the inside of a classroom or are forced to drop out early for a host of reasons. These include: the sheer scarcity of public schools in the country, particularly secondary and tertiary-level institutions; having to travel long distances to reach their destination; inadequate infrastructure within the schools such as bathrooms and running water; the lingering problem of ‘ghost teachers’ who do not show up to perform their duties but still collect their salaries; corporal punishment, bullying and the abuse of power that those in authority abet or turn a blind eye to; and an array of added expenses ranging from uniforms to stationery and transport which can prove to be a burden for many parents, especially those with several children. Given all these issues, a less frequently asked question is, once at school, what are the children learning?
In the Annual Status of Education Report, researchers found that 41pc of the fifth-grade schoolchildren they surveyed in the rural districts could not read a second-grade-level story in Urdu, while 45pc were unable to read English sentences. The perceived poor quality of education in government schools is also one of the major reasons parents across the country dream of sending their children to private schools, which have popped up across the country on a significant scale to facilitate the demand for quality education that the state is not providing. And yet, despite this desire for private school education, many parents cannot afford the tuition fees of such institutions, let alone all the other expenses that add up. It is imperative then that the government not abdicate its responsibility of providing free, quality education to the children of this country. The effects of doing so are already very visible and will be severely compounded in the years to come.
ADVERSELY impacting the poor, Pakistan’s state of public education is nothing short of a national crisis. The results of decades of neglect towards education investment are aptly illustrated in Alif Ailaan’s report Pakistan District Education Rankings, 2016. For its fourth edition, the advocacy group tracked the performance of 151 districts in the country, only to find a decrease in overall education quality and infrastructure. Alarmingly, 81pc of all government schools operate as primary schools (that is 124,070 primary schools) and the remaining as middle, higher or higher secondary schools.These figures indicate that the state can provide only one in five children with an opportunity to continue his or her schooling. This is a violation of constitutional rights — under Article 24-A, the state is responsible for educating each child up to the age of 16.This crisis will cause Pakistan to miss the SDG of inclusive and equitable education, just as the country failed to meet the MDGs.
Using education (enrolment, retention, learning, gender parity) and infrastructure (facilities) markers, Alif Ailaan found scores of one-room primary schools employing lowly trained teachers; this resulted in high drop-out rates — 41pc of all primary schoolchildren dropped out of school, whereas 43pc (aged 15 and above) had never attended. Meanwhile, politicians have made negligible efforts to improve education in their respective constituencies.Why have there been no enrolment drives? Why is there no evidence of efforts to improve school infrastructure and the quality of teaching? What is being done to increase the number of secondary schools? These are key questions the politicians must be made to answer. While there are some signs of hope, eg the KP report card shows that the province is doing better since 2015 on enrolment and gender parity, despite a drop-out rate of 35pc, there is vast ground to be covered before schools in the country can truly function as institutes of learning. For starters, the state can address the infrastructure problem: the report indicates that around 48pc of schools have no toilets, boundary walls, electricity or drinking water; hence, the use of school management funds must be probed. This is necessary as matters will not improve unless it is ascertained how effectively and transparently education budgets are spent. And as long as the government does not fulfil pledges of spending at least 4pc of GDP on education, an unschooled, disillusioned young generation will have dire implications for the future.
Education is one of the basic factors which play a vital role in the development of a country. Education also combats unemployment, confirms sound foundation of social equity, awareness, tolerance, self esteem and spread of political socialisation and cultural vitality. Like many other developing countries, the situation of Pakistan’s education sector has not been very encouraging due to poverty, unemployment, over-population and slow pace of economic development in the country.
It has been 64 years since Pakistan got freedom but still we are far behind in development. According to latest Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2009-10, the overall literacy rate is 57.7 percent which is quite unsatisfactory to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
The state of education in Pakistan is in shambles. Pakistan is the second country in the world with the highest number of children who do not go to school. A large number of students who make it to schools, however, drop out by class five. According to NEP, about 72 percent make it to grade five which means a dropout rate of 28 percent. This significant figure further brings down the chunk of the population that makes it to school. Such a large number of students outside school mean that they are deprived of the opportunity to learn and acquire skills for playing a meaningful role in society.
The emphasis in education is still on a general and liberal type of BA or MA degree. The change towards scientific and technical education has still not taken place. The quality of education is low; the teachers are under-paid, under-trained and dispirited. The students are apathetic as they see no relationship between education and higher earnings or status in the society.
Pakistan’s planners continued to allocate insufficient resources for education, especially for primary education. Moreover, the money allocated was not effectively spent. The hostility of the feudal and the indifference of the educated elite are primarily responsible for the neglect of education in Pakistan.
There is a need to find a plausible explanation for Pakistan’s very poor performance in the field of education as compared to other East Asian countries and even amongst SAARC countries with the possible exception of Nepal. Pakistan was created in the name of Islam and the emphasis which Holy Quran places on education is not found in the holy books of other religions.
The elite of Pakistan have no interest in primary education. The children of the elite go to English medium schools and they do not bother at all whether children of their subordinates receive any education and even if they receive education in some form, its quality is very poor.
Today corruption at each level has increased, judiciary and education departments have suffered too. Through constructive education we can prepare our students according to our golden norms and values, and remove various faults found in the education system. Education system of Pakistan is facing strong criticism both at national and international level. Good and positive education builds nations and makes it strong. Our educational policies have been criticised because of lack of implementation at each level.
Now the people are openly talking about the failure of democracy and curse of corruption because of lack of education. Corrupt leaders are only power seekers and do not take keen interest in education and welfare of common man. When our top leadership protects the corrupt and fake degree holders, the result is obvious to all.
We all need honest, competent, devoted leadership, who knows the fruits of positive, constructive education. Only an intellectual, competent and faithful leadership knows the price of constructive education and will be able to do some good things for the Pakistani nation.
Lahore Garrison University, Lahore
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 828 Autumn & Spring 2021
Pakistan has a large higher education system with over 190 recognized private and public sector universities. Unfortunately, no Pakistani university is among the top 600 universities in The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019.
This is an indication that there is a definite need to improve Pakistan’s higher education system. The need is exacerbated by the fact that the majority of the over 200 million people in the country are young.
According to official figures, 64 percent of Pakistanis are below the age of 30. Any higher educational reform must be designed to take this significant age cohort into account.
With the new government of Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf (PTI) in Islamabad which placed a great emphasis on human development in its election manifesto, the country appears to be poised to address the higher education challenge. Prime Minister Imran Khan’s PTI has promised to put in place “the most ambitious education agenda in Pakistan’s history, spanning reform of primary, secondary, tertiary, vocational, and special education.”
It remains to be determined whether his government will be able to walk the talk. That’s because there are many areas that must be addressed in order to develop Pakistan’s higher educational system. Three are at the top of the list.
First is quality improvement. As noted, Pakistan higher educational institutions were not ranked in the top 600 on Times Higher Education Ranking. Only three Pakistani universities — COMSATS Institute of Information Technology University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and National University of Sciences and Technology ranked in the top 1000 universities in the world. In comparison, five universities in neighboring India made it to top 500 and 33 made it to top 1000 global institutions in the Times ranking. Pakistan’s poor performance comes in spite of the fact that successive governments launched a variety of measures to improve higher education two decades since the inception of Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission (HEC) in 2002.
Second is access. The number of Pakistani universities has increased to 192but the ratio of higher education institutions to the eligible population is still significantly lower than that of other neighboring countries. The ratio of PhD members of the total faculty is below 30 per cent. Poor Pakistanis are unable to afford to private sector universities. Thus, there is need to increase public sector universities. The higher education allocation in the budget is woefully insufficient at only 0.26 percent of GDP.
The enrollment in higher education is approximately nine percent of the eligible Pakistan population
Third, is Pakistan’s regulatory body the Higher Education Commission (HEC). Last month, the second most senior official of the body, the Executive Director had to resign over plagiarism charges. A former HEC Chairman is facing similar charges. Merit-based appointment in the HEC and all the universities has been a major challenge over the past several years. Under the 18th constitutional amendment, the provincial governments were supposed to establish their own higher education commissions (HECs). Until now, only the Punjab and Sindh provinces have set up their own HECs, while Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir have failed to make any substantial progress on this front.
Given the foregoing conditions, all eyes are on the newly elected government to address the key challenges and problems faced by the higher education sector. In his first speech after being elected as the Prime Minister Imran Khan highlighted the importance of a knowledge economy, youth empowerment and strengthening higher education. While chairing a high-level meeting attended by senior educationists, he said every possible effort would be made to provide required resources to the universities for promotion of higher education.
This commitment represents a good beginning and a sound vision. For Pakistan to excel on the world stage, it needs to use that framework to reach high. It needs to have the end goal of making Pakistan’s higher education system world class.
Imran Khan was one of the greatest cricket players in the history of the sport. He achieved that status through grit and determination and a commitment to becoming world class. Pakistan needs to make a similar commitment to higher education for its citizens.
Over time, and it will take decades, Pakistan needs to develop a world class higher education system. Such a system would be student or customer-centered rather than institution-centered. It would be comprised of certified and caring institutions that have the resources required and the core mission of ensuring that students/customers acquire the knowledge/skills/abilities and dispositions that they need to achieve their individual goals and to maximize their contribution to society.
There are many steps that must be taken to make Pakistan’s higher education system world class.
The federal and provincial governments currently provide limited funding for higher education. Public sector financing could be used to support existing public institutions and to establish new ones in regions in which there are limited higher educational opportunities.
Colleges and universities throughout Pakistan have inadequate physical settings, lack equipment, and suffer from a shortage of competent teachers. Ensuring that each higher educational institution is infrastructurally sound, establishes the proper environment for learning and growth.
The enrollment in higher education is approximately 9% of the eligible Pakistan population. This percentage needs to be much higher for the country to be considered and to become a developed or developing country. It also needs to be representative of the entire population of Pakistan including females, those from the weaker sectors, and rural areas.
The functioning of the HEC must be markedly improved. The higher education bodies should be set up in all provinces as per the constitution. These regulatory body should collect data and use it to monitor performance and ensure accountability for each institution in the higher education system.
The higher education system must meet the needs of potential employers and prospective employees. Currently, there is a mismatch. The higher educational system must equip itself to be the provider of first resort to provide Pakistan with a skilled workforce.
There are many other steps that must be taken — such as ensuring effective collaboration between the Centre and provinces to improve the standards of universities and other higher education institutions, – in order to make Pakistan’s higher education system world class. With this new administration, the vision is there and the journey has begun. It should not conclude until the destination of being world class is reached.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 828 Autumn & Spring 2022
Understanding the American Education System The Educational Structure
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL
Prior to higher education, American students attend primary and secondary school for a combined total of 12 years. These years are referred to as the first through twelfth grades.
Around age six, U.S. children begin primary school, which is most commonly called “elementary school.” They attend five or six years and then go onto secondary school.
Secondary school consists of two programs: the first is “middle school” or “junior high school” and the second program is “high school.” A diploma or certificate is awarded upon graduation from high school. After graduating high school (12th grade), U.S. students may go on to college or university. College or university study is known as “higher education.”
Just like American students, you will have to submit your academic transcripts as part of your application for admission to university or college. Academic transcripts are official copies of your academic work. In the U.S. this includes your “grades” and “grade point average” (GPA), which are measurements of your academic achievement. Courses are commonly graded using percentages, which are converted into letter grades.
Therefore, there are some crucial things to keep in mind:
- You should find out the U.S. equivalent of the last level of education you completed in your home country.
- Pay close attention to the admission requirements of each university and college, as well as individual degree programs, which may have different requirements than the university.
- Regularly meet with an educational advisor or guidance counselor to make sure you are meeting the requirements.
Your educational advisor or guidance counselor will be able to advise you on whether or not you must spend an extra year or two preparing for U.S. university admission. If an international student entered a U.S. university or college prior to being eligible to attend university in their own country, some countries’ governments and employers may not recognize the students’ U.S. education.
The school calendar usually begins in August or September and continues through May or June. The majority of new students begin in autumn, so it is a good idea for international students to also begin their U.S. university studies at this time. There is a lot of excitement at the beginning of the school year and students form many great friendships during this time, as they are all adjusting to a new phase of academic life. Additionally, many courses are designed for students to take them in sequence, starting in autumn and continuing through the year.
- First Level: Undergraduate
“The American system is much more open. In Hong Kong you just learn what the teacher writes on the board. In America, you discuss the issues and focus more on ideas.”
Paolo Kwan from Hong Kong: Studying English and Business Administration at Sierra College in California
A student who is attending a college or university and has not earned a bachelor’s degree, is studying at the undergraduate level. It typically takes about four years to earn a bachelor’s degree. You can either begin your studies in pursuit of a bachelor’s degree at
- community college or a four-year university or college.
- Second Level: Graduate in Pursuit of a Master’s Degree
Presently, a college or university graduate with a bachelor’s degree may want to seriously think about graduate study in order to enter certain professions or advance their career. This degree is usually mandatory for higher-level positions in library science, engineering, behavioral health and education.
- Third Level: Graduate in Pursuit of a Doctorate Degree
Many graduate schools consider the attainment of a master’s degree the first step towards earning a PhD (doctorate). But at other schools, students may prepare directly for a doctorate without also earning a master’s degree. It may take three years or more to earn a PhD degree. For international students, it may take as long as five or six years..
Classes range from large lectures with several hundred students to smaller classes and seminars (discussion classes) with only a few students. The American university classroom atmosphere is very dynamic. You will be expected to share your opinion, argue your point, participate in class discussions and give presentations. International students find this one of the most surprising aspects of the American education system.
Comparison Between Higher Education in Pakistan and Unit an opportunity to study in United States for one semester and I am writing today about the differences in education of Pakistan and United States that i observed here.
As far as major selection is considered, it is very flexible, you can change your major at any stage of your Undergraduate Degree.It is also common here to have two or more than two majors in a degree.You have choice to study whatever you want, no matter in which subject or major you were enrolled for the first time.There are no hard and fast rules to switch your major.
It would not be wrong if I say that class room culture in American Universities is almost totally different from that in Pakistan in both aspects, Behaviors of Students/Teachers and resources availability.An American teacher has more resources available in class room than that are available to Pakistani teacher.Almost class rooms of every university are smart class rooms, Teachers can record their lectures that are easily available to students later.Lecture recording is not common in Pakistan but still class rooms in Pakistani universities are equipped with multimedia systems.
Behavior of teachers with their students is more friendly than in Pakistan.
Financial Situation of An American Student:
When I compare the Financial situations of American and Pakistani university students.I found it very worse for American students and I realized that my country is blessed in this regard.A Pakistani student who has never traveled to United States, its hard for him/her to even imagine how expensive is education in USA.Most of the students has thousands of dollars loan when they complete their education.During their student life they also have to work hard to manage their finances.In Pakistan,more option of financial assistance are available to students.And best part is that students have not to return this money after completing their education.