AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 827 Spring 2020

ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ

AIOU Solved Assignments code 827 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course: Secondary Education  (827)   Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  1& 2
Secondary Education  (827)  Semester
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 827 Spring 2020

QNo 1:- What were the recommendation releated to curriculum and examination

in education policy 1998-2010 about level ?

Ans:- The Policy was announced in March 1998v The first revised draft was submitted to the Cabinet on 18 February, 1998. v The Prime Minister advised the Ministry of Education to design a new Education Policy in January 1998. v. INTRODUCTION According to the constitution of 1973, article 25 1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law. 2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of gender alone.

  1. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.ü To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. ü to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. ü Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah ü Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education: qSalient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010
  2. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education.ü Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children ü The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 ü Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. üLiteracy and Non-Formal Education : q
  3. Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII).ü Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system. ü About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. üElementary Education : q
  4. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03.ü Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. ü A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. ü One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. üSECONDARY Education : q At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education. ü Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. ü
  5. TEACHER ‘s Education :q . A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created. ü The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. ü introduction of programs of FA/F.Sc education and BA/BSc education . ü To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in- service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. ü
  6. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics.ü Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures shall be reflected in the curricula. ü Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market. ü To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) ü To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, (industry and economic development goals.) üTechnical and Vocational Education : q
  7. At the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement.ü Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. ü To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. ü Merits shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. ü Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. üHigher Education : q
  8. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etcü Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. üInformation Technology : q In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned. ü All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. ü
  9. Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations.üPrivate Sector in Education : q Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced. ü Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. ü School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. üLibrary and Documentation Services : q
  10. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.ü Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. ü Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided: I. plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, II. rebate on income tax, like industry ü Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. ü A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. ü
  11. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universitiesü Qualifying tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. üInnovative Programes : q
  12. As clearly the clash between the religious and modern school and institutions students is going on , and the battle among the modern and religious is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body.ü “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims” And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what the reasons are? And what is the logic behind it? ü If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points. So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that ; vAnalysis: q
  13. Now we turn ourselves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working . Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and assessment system.
  14. After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level. One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers. Three major successful and last stages are implementation of policy about the HE and HEC, and also they stressed the need to develop the information technology structure or the library and documentation structure to safe Your heritage and archives.
  15. This stage insist that: “Access to the Higher Education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010”. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry to the higher Education . The Novelty in this programme is that the split-PhD programme has been created through this programme. 100 researcher and desirous student will be sent to international university and institutions. And annually we will have a trained upgraded researchers, scholars to assist our Higher education system and standard will be only merit.§ And throughout they enhanced the standard of Higher education . That worked for producing quality scholars; PhD’s . § HEC a successor of university grant commission in his guidance lead this phase in right direction. § They are claimed to be competively successful phases for the policy makers and government all because of “Dr Ata-ul-Rehman” §
  16. § The Expenditure of the Government on Education will be raised from present level 2.2% to 4% of total GNP by The year 2002-03 § Few year of the policy announcement no tax was imposed on computer hardwares.networking, band with low rate, intranet culture was developed here to make information easy and accessible .that’s why in elementary and secondary level computer classes were conducted, IT course was included in the curriculum . § And used PCs were imported in country at very low price. § In information Technology stage HEC tried to make PCs common, to common people. § HEC is the most reputable professional institute in this country, but few complained have been received that few eligible low status student were not selected, this is a sad thing and only God know that How much it keeps Reality.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 827 Spring 2020

QNo2:-Write a detailed Note on what structures are developed at formal operational stage?­

Ans:-
The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulating ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958).

He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions.

An example of the distinction between concrete and formal operational stages is the answer to the question “If Kelly is taller than Ali and Ali is taller than Jo, who is tallest?”  This is an example of inferential reasoning, which is the ability to think about things which the child has not actually experienced and to draw conclusions from its thinking.

The child who needs to draw a picture or use objects is still in the concrete operational stage, whereas children who can reason the answer in their heads are using formal operational thinking.

Formal Operational Thought

Hypothetico Deductive Reasoning

Hypothetico deductive reasoning is the ability to think scientifically through generating predictions, or hypotheses, about the world to answer questions.

The individual will approach problems in a systematic and organized manner, rather than through trial-and-error.

Abstract Thought

Concrete operations are carried out on things whereas formal operations are carried out on ideas. The individual can think about hypothetical and abstract concepts they have yet to experience. Abstract thought is important for planning regarding the future.

How Did Piaget Test Formal Operations?

Piaget (1970) devised several tests of formal operational thought. One of the simplest was the ‘third eye problem’.  Children were asked where they would put an extra eye, if they were able to have a third one, and why.

Schaffer (1988) reported that when asked this question, 9-year-olds all suggested that the third eye should be on the forehead.  However, 11-year-olds were more inventive, for example suggesting that a third eye placed on the hand would be useful for seeing round corners.

Formal operational thinking has also been tested experimentally using the pendulum task (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). The method involved a length of string and a set of weights. Participants had to consider three factors (variables) the length of the string, the heaviness of the weight and the strength of push.

The task was to work out which factor was most important in determining the speed of swing of the pendulum.

Participants can vary the length of the pendulum string, and vary the weight. They can measure the pendulum speed by counting the number of swings per minute.

To find the correct answer the participant has to grasp the idea of the experimental method -that is to vary one variable at a time (e.g. trying different lengths with the same weight). A participant who tries different lengths with different weights is likely to end up with the wrong answer.

Children in the formal operational stage approached the task systematically, testing one variable (such as varying the length of the string) at a time to see its effect. However, younger children typically tried out these variations randomly or changed two things at the same time.

Piaget concluded that the systematic approach indicated the children were thinking logically, in the abstract, and could see the relationships between things. These are the characteristics of the formal operational stage.

Critical Evaluation

Psychologists who have replicated this research, or used a similar problem, have generally found that children cannot complete the task successfully until they are older.

Robert Siegler (1979) gave children a balance beam task in which some discs were placed either side of the center of balance. The researcher changed the number of discs or moved them along the beam, each time asking the child to predict which way the balance would go.

He studied the answers given by children from five years upwards, concluding that they apply rules which develop in the same sequence as, and thus reflect, Piaget’s findings.

Like Piaget, he found that eventually the children were able to take into account the interaction between the weight of the discs and the distance from the center, and so successfully predict balance. However, this did not happen until participants were between 13 and 17 years of age.

He concluded that children’s cognitive development is based on acquiring and using rules in increasingly more complex situations, rather than in stages.

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APA Style References

Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (1958). Adolescent thinking.

Piaget, J. (1970). Science of education and the psychology of the child. Trans. D. Coltman.

Schaffer, H. R. (1988). Child Psychology: the future. In S. Chess & A. Thomas (eds), Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development. NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Siegler, R. S. & Richards, D. (1979). Devlopment of time, speed and distance concepts. Developmental Psychology, 15, 288-298

One task involved having children of different ages balance a scale by hooking weights on each end. To balance the scale, the children needed to understand that both the heaviness of the weights and distance from the center played a role.2

Younger children around the ages of 3 and 5 were unable to complete the task because they did not understand the concept of balance. Seven-year-olds knew that they could adjust the scale by placing weights on each end, but failed to understand that where they put the weights was also important. By age 10, the kids considered location as well as weight but had to arrive at the correct answer using trial-and-error.2

It wasn’t until around age 13 that children could use logic to form a hypothesis about where to place the weights to balance the scale and then complete the task.2

Abstraction of Ideas

In another experiment on formal operational thought, Piaget asked children to imagine where they would want to place a third eye if they had one. Younger children said that they would put the imagined third eye in the middle of their forehead. Older children, however, were able to come up with a variety of creative ideas about where to place this hypothetical eye and various ways the eye could be used.3

For example, an eye in the middle of one’s hand would be useful for looking around corners. An eye at the back of one’s head could be helpful for seeing what is happening in the background.

Creative ideas represent the use of abstract and hypothetical thinking, both important indicators of formal operational thought.

Deductive Logic

Piaget believed that deductive reasoning becomes necessary during the formal operational stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular outcome. Science and mathematics often require this type of thinking about hypothetical situations and concepts.

Abstract Thought

While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning.

Problem-Solving

In earlier stages, children used trial-and-error to solve problems. During the formal operational stage, the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges. Children at the formal operational stage of cognitive development are often able to plan quickly an organized approach to solving a problem.

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Piaget believed that what he referred to as “hypothetical-deductive reasoning” was essential at this stage of intellectual development. At this point, teens become capable of thinking about abstract and hypothetical ideas. They often ponder “what-if” type situations and questions and can think about multiple solutions or possible outcomes.

While kids in the previous stage (concrete operations) are very particular in their thoughts, kids in the formal operational stage become increasingly abstract in their thinking.

As children gain greater awareness and understanding of their own thought processes, they develop what is known as metacognition, or the ability to think about their thoughts as well as the ideas of others.

Current Observations

The following observations were made about the formal operational stage of cognitive development:

From Neil J. Salkind, Ph.D., author of An Introduction to Theories of Human Development: “The formal operational thinker has the ability to consider many different solutions to a problem before acting. This greatly increases efficiency, because the individual can avoid potentially unsuccessful attempts at solving a problem. The formal operational person considers past experiences, present demands, and future consequences in attempting to maximize the success of his or her adaptation to the world.”4

From Christine Brain and Priscilla Mukherji, authors of Understanding Child Psychology: “In the formal operational stage, actual (concrete) objects are no longer required and mental operations can be undertaken ‘in the head’ using abstract terms. For example, children at this stage can answer questions such as: ‘if you can imagine something made up of two quantities, and the whole thing remains the same when one quantity is increased, what happens to the second quantity?’ This type of reasoning can be done without thinking about actual objects.

QNo3. How curriculum organised at different stages of education?

Ans:- Two types of evaluation are included in the Phases and Steps illustration: (1) Formative provides feedback during the process of developing the curriculum, and (2) Summative answers questions about changes (impact) that have occurred in learners because of their learning experiences. Summative evaluation provides evidence for what works, what does not work, and what needs to be improved.

In every step of the curriculum development process, the most important task is to keep the learner (in this case, youth) in mind and involve them in process. For example, the curriculum team members, who have direct knowledge of the target audience, should be involved in con­ducting the needs assessment. From the needs assessment process, the problem areas are iden­tified, gaps between what youth know and what they need to know are identified, and the scope of the problem is clarified and defined. The results may prompt decision makers to allocate resources for a curriculum development team to prepare curriculum materials.

A brief description of each of the curriculum development steps is described below. After reviewing these descriptions, you should have a very clear idea of how the steps occur in each of the phases and what each step includes.

PHASE I: PLANNING

“Nobody plans to fail but failure results from a failure to plan.”

The planning phase lays the foundation for all of the curriculum development steps. The steps in this phase include:

(1)  Identify Issue/Problem/Need

↪(2) Form Curriculum Development Team

↪(3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis

 

(1)   Identify Issue/Problem/Need

The need for curriculum development usually emerges from a concern about a major issue or problem of one or more target audience. This section explores some of the questions that need to be addressed to define the issue and to develop a statement that will guide the selection of the members of a curriculum development team. The issue statement also serves to broadly identify, the scope (what will be included) of the curriculum content.

(2)   Form Curriculum Development Team

Once the nature and scope of the issue has been broadly defined, the members of the curriculum development team can be selected. Topics covered in this section include: (1) the roles and functions of team members, (2) a process for selecting members of the curriculum development team, and (3) principles of collaboration and teamwork. The goal is to obtain expertise for the areas included in the scope of the curriculum content among the team members and develop an effective team.

(3)   Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis

There are two phases in the needs assessment process. The first is procedures for conducting a needs assessment. A number of techniques are aimed toward learning what is needed and by whom relative to the identified issue. Techniques covered in this section include: KAP – Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey; focus groups; and environmental scanning.

Analysis, the second part of this needs assessment step, describes techniques on how to use the data and the results of the information gathered. Included are: ways to identify gaps between knowledge and practice; trends emerging from the data; a process to prioritize needs; and identification of the characteristics of the target audience.

“As the twig is bent, so grows the tree”

PHASE II: CONTENT AND METHODS

Phase II determines intended outcomes (what learners will be able to do after participation in curriculum activities), the content (what will be taught), and the methods (how it will be taught). Steps include:

(4) State Intended Outcomes

↪ (5) Select Content

↪(6) Design Experiential Methods

 

(4) State Intended Outcomes

Once the issue is defined, the curriculum team is formed, the needs assessed, analyzed and prioritized, the next step is to refine and restate the issue, if needed, and develop the intended outcomes or educational objectives. An intended outcome states what the learner will be able to do as a result of participating in the curriculum activities.

This section includes: (1) a definition of intended outcomes, (2) the components of intended outcomes (condition, performance, and standards), (3) examples of intended outcomes, and (4) an overview of learning behaviors. A more complete explanation of the types and levels of learning behaviours is included in the Addendum as well as intended outcome examples from FAO population education materials.

(5)   Select Content

The next challenge in the curriculum development process is selecting content that will make a real difference in the lives of the learner and ultimately society as a whole. At this point, the primary questions are: “If the intended outcome is to be attained, what will the learner need to know? What knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviours will need to be acquired and practiced?”

The scope (breadth of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviours) and the sequence (order) of the content are also discussed. Intended outcomes of population education with content topics is provided in the Addendum section as an example and application of how intended outcomes are linked with content.

(6)   Design Experiential Methods

After the content is selected, the next step is to design activities (learning experiences) to help the learner achieve appropriate intended outcomes. An experiential learning model and it’s components (i.e., experience, share, process, generalize, and apply) are discussed in this section.

Additional topics include:

learning styles and activities appropriate for each style;

a list of types of activities (with descriptions);

an activity design worksheet for facilitators; and

brief discussions on learning environments and delivery modes.

Ten population education sample activity sheets along with tips for facilitators working with youth and dealing with sensitive topics are included in the Addendum.

PHASE III:IMPLEMENTATION

(7) Produce Curriculum Product

↪(8) Test and Revise Curriculum

↪(9) Recruit and Train Facilitators

↪(10) Implement Curriculum

 

(7)   Produce Curriculum Product

Once the content and experiential methods have been agreed upon, the actual production of curriculum materials begins. This section includes: 1) suggestions for finding and evaluating existing materials; 2) evaluation criteria; and 3) suggestions for producing curriculum materials.

(8)   Test and Revise Curriculum

This step includes suggestions to select test sites and conduct a formative evaluation of curriculum materials during the production phase. A sample evaluation form is provided.

(9)   Recruit and Train Facilitators

It is a waste of resources to develop curriculum materials if adequate training is not provided for facilitators to implement it. Suggestions for recruiting appropriate facilitators are provided with a sample three-day training program.

(10)    Implement Curriculum

Effective implementation of newly developed curriculum products is unlikely to occur without planning. Strategies to promote and use the curriculum are discussed in this step.

PHASE IV: EVALUATION AND REPORTING

(11) Design Evaluation Strategies

↪(12) Reporting and Securing Resources

 

(11)    Design Evaluation Strategies

Evaluation is a phase in the curriculum development model as well as a specific step. Two types of evaluation, formative and summative, are used during curriculum development. Formative evaluations are used during the needs assessment, product development, and testing steps. Summative evaluations are undertaken to measure and report on the outcomes of the curriculum. This step reviews evaluation strategies and suggests simple procedures to produce valid and reliable information. A series of questions are posed to guide the summative evaluation process and a sample evaluation format is suggested.

(12)    Reporting and Securing Resources

The final element in an evaluation strategy is “delivering the pay off (i.e., getting the results into the hands of people who can use them). In this step, suggestions for what and how to report to key shareholders, especially funding and policy decision makers, are provided and a brief discussion on how to secure resources for additional programming.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 827 Spring 2020

QNo4:- Discuss the difference in internal examination and external examination.

Ans:- As a general principle, the ‘Charter of students’ (Statuto delle studentesse e degli studenti) in secondary schools sets out the right of students to ‘transparent and rapid evaluation aimed at starting a process of self-evaluation to identify his/her own strengths and weaknesses and improve his/her own performance’.

Students assessment at upper secondary level is regulated by law 107/2015 and subsequent Legislative Decree 62/2017 that partially amended the previous legislation, in particular the Presidential Decree 122/2009.

Students’ assessment is both formative and summative and focuses on students’ learning processes as well as on their overall learning outcomes and conduct. It should also be consistent with the learning objectives established in the educational offer plan (Piano triennale dell’offerta formativa – PTOF) of each school, with the Guidelines for each type of upper secondary course of study and with students’ personalised plans. In the PTOF, the Teachers’ Assembly of each school also defines the methods and criteria for assuring that assessment is equal, transparent and fair.

The assessment of students’ conduct refers to the development of citizenship competences, according to what established by the ‘Charter of students’, by the ‘Joint responsibility agreement’ signed by pupils and parents at enrolment, and by each school regulations.

Class teachers are responsible for daily, periodic and final assessment of pupils as well as for verifying the students’ competences at the end of compulsory education and during the course of study.

Periodic assessment takes place at the end of each term. For assessment purposes the school year is divided into three-month or four-month terms, as established by each school.

Final assessment takes place at the end of each school year and at final State examinations held at the end of the course of study (fifth grade).

Special dispositions apply for the assessment of pupils with special educational needs and of hospitalised pupils. In the case of hospitalised pupils, if the period in hospital is longer than the time spent in class, the student’s assessment is carried out directly by the hospital teachers. They work always in collaboration with the school teachers who provide all the useful elements for the pupil’s assessment. The same applies in case of hospitalization during the final examinations and to pupils who receive education at home because they are unable to attend school for health reasons.

Periodic/annual assessment

At the end of every term and every school year, the Class Council, made up of all the teachers for a given class, assigns marks to each student for each subject and conduct (the procedure is known as scrutinio). Each subject teacher proposes the mark for a given student for the relevant subject to the Class Council. The latter approves marks by majority vote. If no majority is reached, the vote of the school manager prevails.

Marks range from 0 to 10. A mark of 6/10 corresponds to a pass. Students with a mark below 6/10 in conduct can neither progress to the following grade nor access the final examination.

In addition, at the end of each of the last three years of study, students receive a score in credits called ‘school credit’ (credito scolastico). The school credit corresponds to the average of the student’s final marks, including the mark in conduct, and takes into account other aspects such as school attendance, extracurricular activities etc.

The number of credits obtained at the end of each year is called ‘school credit’ (credito scolastico). Students gain a maximum of 12 credits in the third grade, 13 in the fourth grade and 15 in the fifth and last grade, up to a total of 40 credits altogether for the last three years of study.

The Ministry provides schools with the table for the conversion of average marks into credits (annex A to the decree 62/2017)

Average markCredits for the 3rd gradeCredits for the 4th gradeCredits for the 5th grade
A < 67-8
A = 67-88-99-10
6< A ≤78-99-1010-11
7< A ≤89-1010-1111-12
8< A ≤910-1111-1212-13
9< A ≤1011-1212-1314-15

In addition, students receive ‘training credits’ (crediti formativi) for any approved experience gained outside of school (e.g. training in cultural activities, the arts, sports, etc.). Such experiences must be duly documented and be related to the specialisation of the State examination. ‘Training credits’ contribute, along with ‘school credits’, to the final score in the final State examination.

Finally, the National Institute for the Evaluation of the Education System (Istituto nazionale per la valutazione del sistema di istruzione e formazione – INVALSI) carries out the external assessment of students. National standardised testing takes place during the second and fifth grades. The national testing verifies the learning attainments of students in Italian, Mathematics and English. According to the Decree n. 62/2017, the participation in the national testing in the fifth grade is one of the mandatory requirements for the admission to the final examination. Students who cannot, for serious and motivated reasons, sit for the external assessment tests can take the tests in a supplementary session. This disposition will apply from school year 2019/2020.

All students participate in standardised testing, included those attending home education for testing held during compulsory education and to access the final State exam as external candidates. For students with disabilities and for students with specific learning disorders, the Class council can foresee specific compensation tools and dispensation measures.

Upper secondary education leaving exam (State exam)

At the end of both general and vocational upper secondary school, students sit for a State examination.

The final State examination verifies the knowledge and skills gained during the last year of the study path, according to the general and specific objectives of each branch of study, as well as the general cultural knowledge and the critical skills of candidates.

The law 107/2015 has partially reformed the final State examination. The following sections describe the final State exam as regulated by the most recent legislation.

Admission of internal candidates

Students who have attended the last year of upper secondary education, either general or vocational, at State or paritarie schools (licei) sit for the final examination as internal candidates. Exams take place at the school they have attended.

The Class council of each school decides for students’ admission to the state examination in the occasion of the final assessment at the end of the fifth grade of the course of study. Students access the final exam if they:

have attended at least 75% of the annual teaching time;

have obtained a mark of 6/10 or higher in each subject or group of subjects assessed with a single mark, and in their conduct;

have taken part in the external standardised testing held during the last year;

have carried out the traineeship activities foreseen for each course of studies.

In exceptional cases, the Class council can admit to the exam students with an attendance lower than 75%, unless the absences prevent a regular assessment.

The Class council can admit a student to the State exam even in case of marks lower than 6/10 in one or in a group of subject. The decision must be duly motivated and involves all class teachers, included teachers of Catholic religion and of the alternative subjects. In case a student has a mark lower than 6/10 in conduct, the Class council must refuse the admission to the exam.

The Class council decides whether or not to admit the student to the final examination after an overall assessment that takes into consideration also the school credits assigned to the student. The outcome of the final assessment, along with the indication <admitted> or <not admitted>, is posted on the school notice board. The marks assigned for each subject and for conduct are included on the student’s assessment document.

Students enrolled in the penultimate year sit, upon their own request, for the State examination if they:

have gained a mark equal to 8/10 or higher in each subject, except for Catholic religion, and conduct in their final assessment;

have attended upper secondary school regularly;

have obtained marks equal to 7/10 or higher in each subject and 8/10 conduct in the final assessment of the previous two years.

These students receive the maximum number of credits (15) for the last grade they have not attended.

Admission of external candidates

Those who meet one of the following requirements can access the final State exam as external candidates:

turning 19 in the calendar year in which the state examination takes place and have completed compulsory education;

holding a first-cycle certification, issued at least the same number of years previously as the duration of their current course, irrespective of the age;

holding any other qualification obtained at the end of a four-year upper secondary programme, either in the education system – ‘old’ programmes – or in the regional vocational training system;

leaving school before 15 March of the fifth and last year of studies.

Finally, candidates who have not attended the last grade, although in possession of the admission to the last grade itself, are required to pass the preliminary examination on all subjects included in the curriculum of the last grade of the relevant course of study. In case candidates lack the promotion to one of the grades previous to the last one, they are required to pass a preliminary examination on the subjects of the lacking grade/grades and in the study programme of the last grade.

External candidates submit their request of admission to the State examinations to the head of the relevant Regional School Office. The head of the Regional School Office will then assign the students to the institutes of the municipalities they live in (or of the Province or of the Region). Students take preliminary examinations, if required, in the institute where they take the exam.

The examination board

The examination board for the state leaving examination is made up of six members and one chairman. One examination board examines students from two class groups. Three members and the chairman are external, while three members are teachers of each class group. The director of the Regional School Office appoints all members of the examination board, in accordance with criteria established at central level by the Ministry of education. The chairman is either a school manager or  a teacher of an upper secondary state school, while external members are teachers of upper secondary state schools. Anyhow, the examination board must include teachers of the subjects assessed with the final examination. In fact, each year the Ministry of education selects the subjects that will be examined.

The examination board takes its decision at absolute majority of votes.

Contents of the State examination

The state examination includes two written national tests and an interview. The tracks for the first and second written tests are selected by the Minister among a range of tracks drawn up by an ad hoc commission. The Ministry delivers the selected tracks to schools through data communication.

The examination board assigns a maximum of 20 marks out of 100 for each test, for a total of 60 marks.

Every year, the Ministry of education publishes the calendar with the dates for the written exams and the starting dates of the interviews. The examination procedures must end within the month of July.

The purpose of the first written national test is to verify the proficiency in Italian or in the language of teaching, as well as the expressive, logical-linguistic and critical skills of the candidate.

The Examination board submits to students three types of tracks:

Type A – analysis and interpretation of a piece of Italian literature.

Type B – analysis of a text and production of a written comment on it.

Type C – critical comment on recent events.

The three types of tracks cover the fields of arts, literature, history, philosophy, sciences, technology, economics and social issues.

Students have six hours to complete the first written test.

The second written test aims at verifying the student’s knowledge and competences in one or more of the main subjects of the programme he/she has attended. The Ministry of education has established a range of subjects specific for each type of programme – general or vocational – and for each branch of study (Ministerial Decree no. 10/2015). Among this range of subjects, within the month of January of each year, the Minister chooses the one or more subjects that will be assessed in the second test. For example, for the scientific branch, the subjects of the second test can be either mathematics or physics or both.

In the arts and in the music and dance paths, ‘written test’ means that students may be asked to provide a graphic work or a musical/dance performance.

The duration of the second test ranges from six hours in one day to more days, depending on the branch of study. For example, in the arts branch, the test can last up to six hours/day for three days.

The interview is about all the subjects of the curriculum of the final year of studies. Through the analysis and critical discussion of documents, texts, projects and experiences, the commission verifies the students’ knowledge and skills related to each curricular subject, as well as the student’s ability to link this knowledge to each other.

The commission also verifies students’ knowledge and competences referred to the cross-curricular teaching ‘Citizenship and Constitution’.

Finally, students present a brief report and/or a multi-media work on their traineeship experience.

Examination results

At the end of the state examination, the commission assigns the student the final mark in hundredths.

The final mark is the sum of the points given in the tests – a maximum 20 points for each written test and the interview for a total of 60 points – and the school credit (maximum 40 points).

A final mark of 60/100 is the minimum required to pass the final examination.

The school publishes the results of the written tests on the notice board at least two days before the start of the oral tests.

The examination committee can award a maximum of five supplementary points to the final mark if the candidate has obtained a school credit of at least 30 points and a minimum overall score of 50 in the tests. The reasons for this decision must be accounted for.

The examination committee can, upon unanimous decision, award a merit (lode) to students who have gained the maximum score of 100 with no supplementary points if they obtain the maximum score for the school credit upon unanimous decision.

Once the examination procedures have ended, the school publishes the results for each class on the notice board showing the mark obtained by each students and, in case of fail, reporting only the words ‘non graduate’.

Outstanding students may be awarded one of the following:

free or subsidised access to libraries, museums and cultural centres;

admission to training courses;

admission to special initiatives organised by science centres throughout the country;

educational trips and visits to specialist centres;

economic benefits;

other benefits by special agreement with public or private organisations.

Finally, outstanding students may be awarded 25 marks out of 105 for university admission tests.

Candidates who pass the examination receive a diploma and a document called ‘student’s curriculum’.

Specific dispositions for students with disabilities and with specific learning disorders

Students with disabilities and students with specific learning disorders access the final State exams as all the other internal candidates.

The examination board prepares the tests for these students taking into consideration the documentation provided by the Class council.

In particular, for students with disabilities, such documentation describes the activities the student has carried out, the student’s assessment and the type of measures used for supporting his/her autonomy. The Class council also establishes the type of tests and their equivalence to mainstream tests.

For students with specific learning disorders, the Class council describes the compensation/dispensation measures taken for their assessments during the school year. In case of serious disorders, students undergo non-equivalent tests.

If tests are equivalent, both students with disabilities and students with SLD obtain the final Diploma without mentioning the differences in the tests taken by the student.

If tests are not equivalent, or the student does not sit all or part of the the examinations, he/she receive a certification attesting the course of study, its duration and the subjects included in the study plan.

Progression of students

For the school year to be valid, students must attend at least three quarters of the annual teaching time. In exceptional cases, schools can autonomously provide for justified derogations. However, if the number of absences jeopardises the possibility of a regular assessment, the student cannot be admitted to the next grade or to the State examination at the end of the second cycle of education. Before the start of each school year, schools must define the annual teaching time to be used to calculate the 75% attendance required to validate that school year. At the same time, the school also defines the circumstances for derogations.

Admission to the following grade requires, besides the minimum school attendance, marks equal to or higher than 6/10 in each subject, or group of subjects assessed with a single mark, and conduct.

The assessment is suspended if a student obtains a mark just below 6/10 in one or more subjects. In this case, the student is re-assessed before the start of the following school year in each subject in which he or she has a fail. Schools can autonomously organise catch-up courses or activities. Students with a minimum score of 6/10 pass to the next grade.

Students with a fail in conduct (a mark below 6/10), usually assigned in serious cases which must be duly explained, are always refused admission to the following grade and to the final examination.

Students are entitled to transfer to another school of the same or different type. In the latter case, students have to pass a supplementary examination on all or part of the subjects not included in the curriculum of the type of school of origin.

From the first or second year of study, schools offer integrative activities to students who wish to transfer to a different type of school. Teachers from both schools work together to design support activities, which usually take place in the school of origin. On completion of these special courses, the student receives a certificate attesting that they have acquired the knowledge, skills and abilities required to change course.

Certification

Schools autonomously establish how to inform students and their parents on the results obtained in periodic and final assessments. Communication must be efficient and transparent. Generally, students and their families receive an individual assessment document with the marks obtained in each subject and conduct. Schools deliver the assessment paper in electronic format at the end of both each term and school year and usually parents discuss the results with teachers.

Students who have attended optional Catholic religion receive a separate assessment report by the teacher. The report describes the interest shown by the student in the subject and the results achieved.

The personal assessment paper delivered at the end of each school year also indicates the student’s admission or non-admission to the following year or to the final State examination if released at the end of the last year of studies.

Students who pass the final State examination, receive a diploma (Diploma liceale). The Diploma is delivered together with the ‘student’s curriculum’ (‘curriculum dello studente’).

The Diploma includes the student’s personal details and certifies the pathway attended (i.e. the type of liceo and, in case, the specific option), the length of the whole course of study and the mark obtained in the final examination.

The Diploma allows access to tertiary education.

The student’s curriculum contains the following information:

the curricular subjects and the total number of teaching hours of each subject,

the learning levels achieved in the national standardised testing, in each subject (Italian, mathematics and English) and the certification of competences in English,

competences and knowledge acquired through out-of-school cultural activities, including volunteering, sports and musical experiences,

compulsory traineeship activities,

any other certification.

Schools release the diploma and the curriculum after the completion of all examination procedures that must always end within the month of July.

The same dispositions on the diploma and the student’s curriculum apply to students with disabilities and students with specific learning disorders who have undergone an examination with personalised tests equivalent to the tests done by all other students.

The Ministry of education delivers to schools the models for drawing up the diploma and the student’s curriculum.

While waiting for the Ministry to make the curriculum model available, the schools will deliver, alongside the Diploma, the ‘Europass certificate supplement’. The supplement describes, for each type of upper secondary school, the official course of study attended, the correspondent EQF level, general and specific competences expected and career opportunities.

Finally, at the end of compulsory education, i.e. after two years of upper secondary education, upon students’ request, schools draft and deliver the certification of the levels of competences (basic, intermediate and advanced) acquired by students after 10 years of compulsory education.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 827 Spring 2020

QNo5:-Write a note on scientific inductive reasoning?

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References

Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning

By Alina Bradford – Live Science Contributor July 25, 2017

 

During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Another type of reasoning, inductive, is also used. Often, people confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning, and vice versa. It is important to learn the meaning of each type of reasoning so that proper logic can be identified.

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to California State University. The scientific method uses deduction to test hypotheses and theories. “In deductive inference, we hold a theory and based on it we make a prediction of its consequences. That is, we predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct. We go from the general — the theory — to the specific — the observations,” said Dr. Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, a researcher and professor emerita at Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

Deductive reasoning usually follows steps. First, there is a premise, then a second premise, and finally an inference. A common form of deductive reasoning is the syllogism, in which two statements — a major premise and a minor premise — reach a logical conclusion. For example, the premise “Every A is B” could be followed by another premise, “This C is A.” Those statements would lead to the conclusion “This C is B.” Syllogisms are considered a good way to test deductive reasoning to make sure the argument is valid.

For example, “All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal.” For deductive reasoning to be sound, the hypothesis must be correct. It is assumed that the premises, “All men are mortal” and “Harold is a man” are true. Therefore, the conclusion is logical and true. In deductive reasoning, if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.

According to California State University, deductive inference conclusions are certain provided the premises are true. It’s possible to come to a logical conclusion even if the generalization is not true. If the generalization is wrong, the conclusion may be logical, but it may also be untrue. For example, the argument, “All bald men are grandfathers. Harold is bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather,” is valid logically but it is untrue because the original statement is false.

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations. Basically, there is data, then conclusions are drawn from the data. This is called inductive logic, according to Utah State University.

“In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general. We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory,” Wassertheil-Smoller told Live Science. “In science, there is a constant interplay between inductive inference (based on observations) and deductive inference (based on theory), until we get closer and closer to the ‘truth,’ which we can only approach but not ascertain with complete certainty.”

An example of inductive logic is, “The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. That coin is a penny. A third coin from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies.”

Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: “Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald.” The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements.

Inductive reasoning has its place in the scientific method. Scientists use it to form hypotheses and theories. Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theories to specific situations.

Abductive reasoning

Another form of scientific reasoning that doesn’t fit in with inductive or deductive reasoning is abductive. Abductive reasoning usually starts with an incomplete set of observations and proceeds to the likeliest possible explanation for the group of observations, according to Butte College. It is based on making and testing hypotheses using the best information available. It often entails making an educated guess after observing a phenomenon for which there is no clear explanation.

For example, a person walks into their living room and finds torn up papers all over the floor. The person’s dog has been alone in the room all day. The person concludes that the dog tore up the papers because it is the most likely scenario. Now, the person’s sister may have brought by his niece and she may have torn up the papers, or it may have been done by the landlord, but the dog theory is the more likely conclusion.

Abductive reasoning is useful for forming hypotheses to be tested. Abductive reasoning is often used by doctors who make a diagnosis based on test results and by jurors who make decisions based on the evidence presented to them.

 

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