AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

ہم آپکو فری اسائنمنٹس دے رہے ہيں براۓ مہربانی ہماری ويب سائٹ کو لائک کريں شکریہ

AIOU Solved Assignments code 806  Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course: Advanced Macroeconomics (806)   Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  1& 2
Advanced Macroeconomics (806)    Semester
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

Q.No.1 Which variables will shift the position of the IS schedule? Explain how a change in each variable will shift the schedule?

ANS.

The previous module explored how price affects the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied. The result was the demand curve and the supply curve. Price, however, is not the only thing that influences demand. Nor is it the only thing that influences supply. For example, how is demand for vegetarian food affected if, say, health concerns cause more consumers to avoid eating meat? Or how is the supply of diamonds affected if diamond producers discover several new diamond mines? What are the major factors, in addition to the price, that influence demand or supply?

Visit this website to read a brief note on how marketing strategies can influence supply and demand of products.

WHAT FACTORS AFFECT DEMAND?

We defined demand as the amount of some product a consumer is willing and able to purchase at each price. That suggests at least two factors in addition to price that affect demand. Willingness to purchase suggests a desire, based on what economists call tastes and preferences. If you neither need nor want something, you will not buy it. Ability to purchase suggests that income is important. Professors are usually able to afford better housing and transportation than students, because they have more income. Prices of related goods can affect demand also. If you need a new car, the price of a Honda may affect your demand for a Ford. Finally, the size or composition of the population can affect demand. The more children a family has, the greater their demand for clothing. The more driving-age children a family has, the greater their demand for car insurance, and the less for diapers and baby formula.

These factors matter both for demand by an individual and demand by the market as a whole. Exactly how do these various factors affect demand, and how do we show the effects graphically? To answer those questions, we need the ceteris paribus assumption.

THE CETERIS PARIBUS ASSUMPTION

demand curve or a supply curve is a relationship between two, and only two, variables: quantity on the horizontal axis and price on the vertical axis. The assumption behind a demand curve or a supply curve is that no relevant economic factors, other than the product’s price, are changing. Economists call this assumption ceteris paribus, a Latin phrase meaning “other things being equal.” Any given demand or supply curve is based on the ceteris paribus assumption that all else is held equal. A demand curve or a supply curve is a relationship between two, and only two, variables when all other variables are kept constant. If all else is not held equal, then the laws of supply and demand will not necessarily hold, as the following Clear It Up feature shows.

When does ceteris paribus apply?

Ceteris paribus is typically applied when we look at how changes in price affect demand or supply, but ceteris paribus can be applied more generally. In the real world, demand and supply depend on more factors than just price. For example, a consumer’s demand depends on income and a producer’s supply depends on the cost of producing the product. How can we analyze the effect on demand or supply if multiple factors are changing at the same time—say price rises and income falls? The answer is that we examine the changes one at a time, assuming the other factors are held constant.

For example, we can say that an increase in the price reduces the amount consumers will buy (assuming income, and anything else that affects demand, is unchanged). Additionally, a decrease in income reduces the amount consumers can afford to buy (assuming price, and anything else that affects demand, is unchanged). This is what the ceteris paribus assumption really means. In this particular case, after we analyze each factor separately, we can combine the results. The amount consumers buy falls for two reasons: first because of the higher price and second because of the lower income.

HOW DOES INCOME AFFECT DEMAND?

Let’s use income as an example of how factors other than price affect demand. Figure 1 shows the initial demand for automobiles as D0. At point Q, for example, if the price is $20,000 per car, the quantity of cars demanded is 18 million. D0 also shows how the quantity of cars demanded would change as a result of a higher or lower price. For example, if the price of a car rose to $22,000, the quantity demanded would decrease to 17 million, at point R.

The original demand curve D0, like every demand curve, is based on the ceteris paribus assumption that no other economically relevant factors change. Now imagine that the economy expands in a way that raises the incomes of many people, making cars more affordable. How will this affect demand? How can we show this graphically?

Return to Figure 1. The price of cars is still $20,000, but with higher incomes, the quantity demanded has now increased to 20 million cars, shown at point S. As a result of the higher income levels, the demand curve shifts to the right to the new demand curve D1, indicating an increase in demand. Table 4 shows clearly that this increased demand would occur at every price, not just the original one.

Figure 1. Shifts in Demand: A Car Example. Increased demand means that at every given price, the quantity demanded is higher, so that the demand curve shifts to the right from D0 to D1. Decreased demand means that at every given price, the quantity demanded is lower, so that the demand curve shifts to the left from D0 to D2.

PriceDecrease to D2Original Quantity Demanded D0Increase to D1
$16,00017.6 million22.0 million24.0 million
$18,00016.0 million20.0 million22.0 million
$20,00014.4 million18.0 million20.0 million
$22,00013.6 million17.0 million19.0 million
$24,00013.2 million16.5 million18.5 million
$26,00012.8 million16.0 million18.0 million
Table 4. Price and Demand Shifts: A Car Example

Now, imagine that the economy slows down so that many people lose their jobs or work fewer hours, reducing their incomes. In this case, the decrease in income would lead to a lower quantity of cars demanded at every given price, and the original demand curve D0 would shift left to D2. The shift from D0 to D2 represents such a decrease in demand: At any given price level, the quantity demanded is now lower. In this example, a price of $20,000 means 18 million cars sold along the original demand curve, but only 14.4 million sold after demand fell.

When a demand curve shifts, it does not mean that the quantity demanded by every individual buyer changes by the same amount. In this example, not everyone would have higher or lower income and not everyone would buy or not buy an additional car. Instead, a shift in a demand curve captures an pattern for the market as a whole.

In the previous section, we argued that higher income causes greater demand at every price. This is true for most goods and services. For some—luxury cars, vacations in Europe, and fine jewelry—the effect of a rise in income can be especially pronounced. A product whose demand rises when income rises, and vice versa, is called a normal good. A few exceptions to this pattern do exist. As incomes rise, many people will buy fewer generic brand groceries and more name brand groceries. They are less likely to buy used cars and more likely to buy new cars. They will be less likely to rent an apartment and more likely to own a home, and so on. A product whose demand falls when income rises, and vice versa, is called an inferior good. In other words, when income increases, the demand curve shifts to the left.

OTHER FACTORS THAT SHIFT DEMAND CURVES

Income is not the only factor that causes a shift in demand. Other things that change demand include tastes and preferences, the composition or size of the population, the prices of related goods, and even expectations. A change in any one of the underlying factors that determine what quantity people are willing to buy at a given price will cause a shift in demand. Graphically, the new demand curve lies either to the right (an increase) or to the left (a decrease) of the original demand curve. Let’s look at these factors.

Changing Tastes or Preferences

From 1980 to 2014, the per-person consumption of chicken by Americans rose from 48 pounds per year to 85 pounds per year, and consumption of beef fell from 77 pounds per year to 54 pounds per year, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Changes like these are largely due to movements in taste, which change the quantity of a good demanded at every price: that is, they shift the demand curve for that good, rightward for chicken and leftward for beef.

Changes in the Composition of the Population

The proportion of elderly citizens in the United States population is rising. It rose from 9.8% in 1970 to 12.6% in 2000, and will be a projected (by the U.S. Census Bureau) 20% of the population by 2030. A society with relatively more children, like the United States in the 1960s, will have greater demand for goods and services like tricycles and day care facilities. A society with relatively more elderly persons, as the United States is projected to have by 2030, has a higher demand for nursing homes and hearing aids. Similarly, changes in the size of the population can affect the demand for housing and many other goods. Each of these changes in demand will be shown as a shift in the demand curve.

The demand for a product can also be affected by changes in the prices of related goods such as substitutes or complements. A substitute is a good or service that can be used in place of another good or service. As electronic books, like this one, become more available, you would expect to see a decrease in demand for traditional printed books. A lower price for a substitute decreases demand for the other product. For example, in recent years as the price of tablet computers has fallen, the quantity demanded has increased (because of the law of demand). Since people are purchasing tablets, there has been a decrease in demand for laptops, which can be shown graphically as a leftward shift in the demand curve for laptops. A higher price for a substitute good has the reverse effect.

Other goods are complements for each other, meaning that the goods are often used together, because consumption of one good tends to enhance consumption of the other. Examples include breakfast cereal and milk; notebooks and pens or pencils, golf balls and golf clubs; gasoline and sport utility vehicles; and the five-way combination of bacon, lettuce, tomato, mayonnaise, and bread. If the price of golf clubs rises, since the quantity demanded of golf clubs falls (because of the law of demand), demand for a complement good like golf balls decreases, too. Similarly, a higher price for skis would shift the demand curve for a complement good like ski resort trips to the left, while a lower price for a complement has the reverse effect.

Changes in Expectations about Future Prices or Other Factors that Affect Demand

While it is clear that the price of a good affects the quantity demanded, it is also true that expectations about the future price (or expectations about tastes and preferences, income, and so on) can affect demand. For example, if people hear that a hurricane is coming, they may rush to the store to buy flashlight batteries and bottled water. If people learn that the price of a good like coffee is likely to rise in the future, they may head for the store to stock up on coffee now. These changes in demand are shown as shifts in the curve. Therefore, a shift in demand happens when a change in some economic factor (other than price) causes a different quantity to be demanded at every price. The following Work It Out feature shows how this happens.

Shift in Demand

A shift in demand means that at any price (and at every price), the quantity demanded will be different than it was before. Following is an example of a shift in demand due to an income increase.

Step 1. Draw the graph of a demand curve for a normal good like pizza. Pick a price (like P0). Identify the corresponding Q0. An example is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Demand Curve. The demand curve can be used to identify how much consumers would buy at any given price.

Step 2. Suppose income increases. As a result of the change, are consumers going to buy more or less pizza? The answer is more. Draw a dotted horizontal line from the chosen price, through the original quantity demanded, to the new point with the new Q1. Draw a dotted vertical line down to the horizontal axis and label the new Q1. An example is provided in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Demand Curve with Income Increase. With an increase in income, consumers will purchase larger quantities, pushing demand to the right.

Step 3. Now, shift the curve through the new point. You will see that an increase in income causes an upward (or rightward) shift in the demand curve, so that at any price the quantities demanded will be higher, as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Demand Curve Shifted Right. With an increase in income, consumers will purchase larger quantities, pushing demand to the right, and causing the demand curve to shift right.

SUMMING UP FACTORS THAT CHANGE DEMAND

Six factors that can shift demand curves are summarized in Figure 5. The direction of the arrows indicates whether the demand curve shifts represent an increase in demand or a decrease in demand. Notice that a change in the price of the good or service itself is not listed among the factors that can shift a demand curve. A change in the price of a good or service causes a movement along a specific demand curve, and it typically leads to some change in the quantity demanded, but it does not shift the demand curve.

Figure 5. Factors That Shift Demand Curves. (a) A list of factors that can cause an increase in demand from D0 to D1. (b) The same factors, if their direction is reversed, can cause a decrease in demand from D0 to D1.

When a demand curve shifts, it will then intersect with a given supply curve at a different equilibrium price and quantity. We are, however, getting ahead of our story. Before discussing how changes in demand can affect equilibrium price and quantity, we first need to discuss shifts in supply curves.

HOW PRODUCTION COSTS AFFECT SUPPLY

A supply curve shows how quantity supplied will change as the price rises and falls, assuming ceteris paribus so that no other economically relevant factors are changing. If other factors relevant to supply do change, then the entire supply curve will shift. Just as a shift in demand is represented by a change in the quantity demanded at every price, a shift in supply means a change in the quantity supplied at every price.

In thinking about the factors that affect supply, remember what motivates firms: profits, which are the difference between revenues and costs. Goods and services are produced using combinations of labor, materials, and machinery, or what we call inputs or factors of production. If a firm faces lower costs of production, while the prices for the good or service the firm produces remain unchanged, a firm’s profits go up. When a firm’s profits increase, it is more motivated to produce output, since the more it produces the more profit it will earn. So, when costs of production fall, a firm will tend to supply a larger quantity at any given price for its output. This can be shown by the supply curve shifting to the right.

Take, for example, a messenger company that delivers packages around a city. The company may find that buying gasoline is one of its main costs. If the price of gasoline falls, then the company will find it can deliver messages more cheaply than before. Since lower costs correspond to higher profits, the messenger company may now supply more of its services at any given price. For example, given the lower gasoline prices, the company can now serve a greater area, and increase its supply.

Conversely, if a firm faces higher costs of production, then it will earn lower profits at any given selling price for its products. As a result, a higher cost of production typically causes a firm to supply a smaller quantity at any given price. In this case, the supply curve shifts to the left.

Consider the supply for cars, shown by curve S0 in Figure 6. Point J indicates that if the price is $20,000, the quantity supplied will be 18 million cars. If the price rises to $22,000 per car, ceteris paribus, the quantity supplied will rise to 20 million cars, as point K on the S0 curve shows. The same information can be shown in table form, as in Table 5.

Figure 6. Shifts in Supply: A Car Example. Decreased supply means that at every given price, the quantity supplied is lower, so that the supply curve shifts to the left, from S0 to S1. Increased supply means that at every given price, the quantity supplied is higher, so that the supply curve shifts to the right, from S0 to S2.

PriceDecrease to S1Original Quantity Supplied S0Increase to S2
$16,00010.5 million12.0 million13.2 million
$18,00013.5 million15.0 million16.5 million
$20,00016.5 million18.0 million19.8 million
$22,00018.5 million20.0 million22.0 million
$24,00019.5 million21.0 million23.1 million
$26,00020.5 million22.0 million24.2 million
Table 5. Price and Shifts in Supply: A Car Example

Now, imagine that the price of steel, an important ingredient in manufacturing cars, rises, so that producing a car has become more expensive. At any given price for selling cars, car manufacturers will react by supplying a lower quantity. This can be shown graphically as a leftward shift of supply, from S0 to S1, which indicates that at any given price, the quantity supplied decreases. In this example, at a price of $20,000, the quantity supplied decreases from 18 million on the original supply curve (S0) to 16.5 million on the supply curve S1, which is labeled as point L.

Conversely, if the price of steel decreases, producing a car becomes less expensive. At any given price for selling cars, car manufacturers can now expect to earn higher profits, so they will supply a higher quantity. The shift of supply to the right, from S0 to S2, means that at all prices, the quantity supplied has increased. In this example, at a price of $20,000, the quantity supplied increases from 18 million on the original supply curve (S0) to 19.8 million on the supply curve S2, which is labeled M.

OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT SUPPLY

In the example above, we saw that changes in the prices of inputs in the production process will affect the cost of production and thus the supply. Several other things affect the cost of production, too, such as changes in weather or other natural conditions, new technologies for production, and some government policies.

The cost of production for many agricultural products will be affected by changes in natural conditions. For example, in 2014 the Manchurian Plain in Northeastern China, which produces most of the country’s wheat, corn, and soybeans, experienced its most severe drought in 50 years. A drought decreases the supply of agricultural products, which means that at any given price, a lower quantity will be supplied; conversely, especially good weather would shift the supply curve to the right.

When a firm discovers a new technology that allows the firm to produce at a lower cost, the supply curve will shift to the right, as well. For instance, in the 1960s a major scientific effort nicknamed the Green Revolution focused on breeding improved seeds for basic crops like wheat and rice. By the early 1990s, more than two-thirds of the wheat and rice in low-income countries around the world was grown with these Green Revolution seeds—and the harvest was twice as high per acre. A technological improvement that reduces costs of production will shift supply to the right, so that a greater quantity will be produced at any given price.

Government policies can affect the cost of production and the supply curve through taxes, regulations, and subsidies. For example, the U.S. government imposes a tax on alcoholic beverages that collects about $8 billion per year from producers. Taxes are treated as costs by businesses. Higher costs decrease supply for the reasons discussed above. Other examples of policy that can affect cost are the wide array of government regulations that require firms to spend money to provide a cleaner environment or a safer workplace; complying with regulations increases costs.

A government subsidy, on the other hand, is the opposite of a tax. A subsidy occurs when the government pays a firm directly or reduces the firm’s taxes if the firm carries out certain actions. From the firm’s perspective, taxes or regulations are an additional cost of production that shifts supply to the left, leading the firm to produce a lower quantity at every given price. Government subsidies reduce the cost of production and increase supply at every given price, shifting supply to the right. The following Work It Out feature shows how this shift happens.

Shift in Supply

We know that a supply curve shows the minimum price a firm will accept to produce a given quantity of output. What happens to the supply curve when the cost of production goes up? Following is an example of a shift in supply due to a production cost increase.

Step 1. Draw a graph of a supply curve for pizza. Pick a quantity (like Q0). If you draw a vertical line up from Q0 to the supply curve, you will see the price the firm chooses. An example is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Supply Curve. The supply curve can be used to show the minimum price a firm will accept to produce a given quantity of output.

Step 2. Why did the firm choose that price and not some other? One way to think about this is that the price is composed of two parts. The first part is the average cost of production, in this case, the cost of the pizza ingredients (dough, sauce, cheese, pepperoni, and so on), the cost of the pizza oven, the rent on the shop, and the wages of the workers. The second part is the firm’s desired profit, which is determined, among other factors, by the profit margins in that particular business. If you add these two parts together, you get the price the firm wishes to charge. The quantity Q0 and associated price P0 give you one point on the firm’s supply curve, as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Setting Prices. The cost of production and the desired profit equal the price a firm will set for a product.

Step 3. Now, suppose that the cost of production goes up. Perhaps cheese has become more expensive by $0.75 per pizza. If that is true, the firm will want to raise its price by the amount of the increase in cost ($0.75). Draw this point on the supply curve directly above the initial point on the curve, but $0.75 higher, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. Increasing Costs Leads to Increasing Price. Because the cost of production and the desired profit equal the price a firm will set for a product, if the cost of production increases, the price for the product will also need to increase.

Step 4. Shift the supply curve through this point. You will see that an increase in cost causes an upward (or a leftward) shift of the supply curve so that at any price, the quantities supplied will be smaller, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. Supply Curve Shifts. When the cost of production increases, the supply curve shifts upwardly to a new price level.

SUMMING UP FACTORS THAT CHANGE SUPPLY

Changes in the cost of inputs, natural disasters, new technologies, and the impact of government decisions all affect the cost of production. In turn, these factors affect how much firms are willing to supply at any given price.

Figure 11 summarizes factors that change the supply of goods and services. Notice that a change in the price of the product itself is not among the factors that shift the supply curve. Although a change in price of a good or service typically causes a change in quantity supplied or a movement along the supply curve for that specific good or service, it does not cause the supply curve itself to shift.

Figure 11. Factors That Shift Supply Curves. (a) A list of factors that can cause an increase in supply from S0 to S1. (b) The same factors, if their direction is reversed, can cause a decrease in supply from S0 to S1.

Because demand and supply curves appear on a two-dimensional diagram with only price and quantity on the axes, an unwary visitor to the land of economics might be fooled into believing that economics is about only four topics: demand, supply, price, and quantity. However, demand and supply are really “umbrella” concepts: demand covers all the factors that affect demand, and supply covers all the factors that affect supply. Factors other than price that affect demand and supply are included by using shifts in the demand or the supply curve. In this way, the two-dimensional demand and supply model becomes a powerful tool for analyzing a wide range of economic circumstances.

KEY CONCEPTS AND SUMMARY

Economists often use the ceteris paribus or “other things being equal” assumption: while examining the economic impact of one event, all other factors remain unchanged for the purpose of the analysis. Factors that can shift the demand curve for goods and services, causing a different quantity to be demanded at any given price, include changes in tastes, population, income, prices of substitute or complement goods, and expectations about future conditions and prices. Factors that can shift the supply curve for goods and services, causing a different quantity to be supplied at any given price, include input prices, natural conditions, changes in technology, and government taxes, regulations, or subsidies.

Self-Check Questions

  1. Why do economists use the ceteris paribus assumption?
  2. In an analysis of the market for paint, an economist discovers the facts listed below. State whether each of these changes will affect supply or demand, and in what direction.
    1. There have recently been some important cost-saving inventions in the technology for making paint.
    2. Paint is lasting longer, so that property owners need not repaint as often.
    3. Because of severe hailstorms, many people need to repaint now.
    4. The hailstorms damaged several factories that make paint, forcing them to close down for several months.
  3. Many changes are affecting the market for oil. Predict how each of the following events will affect the equilibrium price and quantity in the market for oil. In each case, state how the event will affect the supply and demand diagram. Create a sketch of the diagram if necessary.
    1. Cars are becoming more fuel efficient, and therefore get more miles to the gallon.
    2. The winter is exceptionally cold.
    3. A major discovery of new oil is made off the coast of Norway.
    4. The economies of some major oil-using nations, like Japan, slow down.
    5. A war in the Middle East disrupts oil-pumping schedules.
    6. Landlords install additional insulation in buildings.
    7. The price of solar energy falls dramatically.
    8. Chemical companies invent a new, popular kind of plastic made from oil.

Review Questions

  1. When analyzing a market, how do economists deal with the problem that many factors that affect the market are changing at the same time?
  2. Name some factors that can cause a shift in the demand curve in markets for goods and services.
  3. Name some factors that can cause a shift in the supply curve in markets for goods and services.

Critical Thinking Questions

  1. Consider the demand for hamburgers. If the price of a substitute good (for example, hot dogs) increases and the price of a complement good (for example, hamburger buns) increases, can you tell for sure what will happen to the demand for hamburgers? Why or why not? Illustrate your answer with a graph.
  2. How do you suppose the demographics of an aging population of “Baby Boomers” in the United States will affect the demand for milk? Justify your answer.
  3. We know that a change in the price of a product causes a movement along the demand curve. Suppose consumers believe that prices will be rising in the future. How will that affect demand for the product in the present? Can you show this graphically?
  4. Suppose there is soda tax to curb obesity. What should a reduction in the soda tax do to the supply of sodas and to the equilibrium price and quantity? Can you show this graphically? Hint: assume that the soda tax is collected from the sellers

Problems

  1. Table 6 shows information on the demand and supply for bicycles, where the quantities of bicycles are measured in thousands.
PriceQdQs
$1205036
$1504040
$1803248
$2102856
$2402470
Table 6. Demand and Supply for Bicycles
    1. What is the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied at a price of $210?
    2. At what price is the quantity supplied equal to 48,000?
    3. Graph the demand and supply curve for bicycles. How can you determine the equilibrium price and quantity from the graph? How can you determine the equilibrium price and quantity from the table? What are the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity?
    4. If the price was $120, what would the quantities demanded and supplied be? Would a shortage or surplus exist? If so, how large would the shortage or surplus be?
  1. The computer market in recent years has seen many more computers sell at much lower prices. What shift in demand or supply is most likely to explain this outcome? Sketch a demand and supply diagram and explain your reasoning for each.
    1. A rise in demand
    2. A fall in demand
    3. A rise in supply
    4. A fall in supply

REFERENCES

Landsburg, Steven E. The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life. New York: The Free Press. 2012. specifically Section IV: How Markets Work.

National Chicken Council. 2015. “Per Capita Consumption of Poultry and Livestock, 1965 to Estimated 2015, in Pounds.” Accessed April 13, 2015. http://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/about-the-industry/statistics/per-capita-consumption-of-poultry-and-livestock-1965-to-estimated-2012-in-pounds/.

Wessel, David. “Saudi Arabia Fears $40-a-Barrel Oil, Too.” The Wall Street Journal. May 27, 2004, p. 42. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB108561000087822300.

GLOSSARY

ceteris paribus

other things being equal

complements

goods that are often used together so that consumption of one good tends to enhance consumption of the other

factors of production

the combination of labor, materials, and machinery that is used to produce goods and services; also called inputs

inferior good

a good in which the quantity demanded falls as income rises, and in which quantity demanded rises and income falls

inputs

the combination of labor, materials, and machinery that is used to produce goods and services; also called factors of production

normal good

a good in which the quantity demanded rises as income rises, and in which quantity demanded falls as income falls

shift in demand

when a change in some economic factor (other than price) causes a different quantity to be demanded at every price

shift in supply

when a change in some economic factor (other than price) causes a different quantity to be supplied at every price

substitute

a good that can replace another to some extent, so that greater consumption of one good can mean less of the other

Solutions

Answers to Self-Check Questions

  1. To make it easier to analyze complex problems. Ceteris paribusallows you to look at the effect of one factor at a time on what it is you are trying to analyze. When you have analyzed all the factors individually, you add the results together to get the final answer.
    1. An improvement in technology that reduces the cost of production will cause an increase in supply. Alternatively, you can think of this as a reduction in price necessary for firms to supply any quantity. Either way, this can be shown as a rightward (or downward) shift in the supply curve.
    2. An improvement in product quality is treated as an increase in tastes or preferences, meaning consumers demand more paint at any price level, so demand increases or shifts to the right. If this seems counterintuitive, note that demand in the future for the longer-lasting paint will fall, since consumers are essentially shifting demand from the future to the present.
    3. An increase in need causes an increase in demand or a rightward shift in the demand curve.
    4. Factory damage means that firms are unable to supply as much in the present. Technically, this is an increase in the cost of production. Either way you look at it, the supply curve shifts to the left.
    1. More fuel-efficient cars means there is less need for gasoline. This causes a leftward shift in the demand for gasoline and thus oil. Since the demand curve is shifting down the supply curve, the equilibrium price and quantity both fall.
    2. Cold weather increases the need for heating oil. This causes a rightward shift in the demand for heating oil and thus oil. Since the demand curve is shifting up the supply curve, the equilibrium price and quantity both rise.
    3. A discovery of new oil will make oil more abundant. This can be shown as a rightward shift in the supply curve, which will cause a decrease in the equilibrium price along with an increase in the equilibrium quantity. (The supply curve shifts down the demand curve so price and quantity follow the law of demand. If price goes down, then the quantity goes up.)
    4. When an economy slows down, it produces less output and demands less input, including energy, which is used in the production of virtually everything. A decrease in demand for energy will be reflected as a decrease in the demand for oil, or a leftward shift in demand for oil. Since the demand curve is shifting down the supply curve, both the equilibrium price and quantity of oil will fall.
    5. Disruption of oil pumping will reduce the supply of oil. This leftward shift in the supply curve will show a movement up the demand curve, resulting in an increase in the equilibrium price of oil and a decrease in the equilibrium quantity.
    6. Increased insulation will decrease the demand for heating. This leftward shift in the demand for oil causes a movement down the supply curve, resulting in a decrease in the equilibrium price and quantity of oil.
    7. Solar energy is a substitute for oil-based energy. So if solar energy becomes cheaper, the demand for oil will decrease as consumers switch from oil to solar. The decrease in demand for oil will be shown as a leftward shift in the demand curve. As the demand curve shifts down the supply curve, both equilibrium price and quantity for oil will fall.
    8. A new, popular kind of plastic will increase the demand for oil. The increase in demand will be shown as a rightward shift in demand, raising the equilibrium price and quantity of oil.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

Q.No.2 Give examples of demand side factors that would not affect the level of output and employment.

Ans:-    Markets for labor have demand and supply curves, just like markets for goods. The law of demand applies in labor markets this way: A higher salary or wage—that is, a higher price in the labor market—leads to a decrease in the quantity of labor demanded by employers, while a lower salary or wage leads to an increase in the quantity of labor demanded. The law of supply functions in labor markets, too: A higher price for labor leads to a higher quantity of labor supplied; a lower price leads to a lower quantity supplied.

EQUILIBRIUM IN THE LABOR MARKET

In 2013, about 34,000 registered nurses worked in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, Minnesota-Wisconsin metropolitan area, according to the BLS. They worked for a variety of employers: hospitals, doctors’ offices, schools, health clinics, and nursing homes. Figure 1 illustrates how demand and supply determine equilibrium in this labor market. The demand and supply schedules in Table 1 list the quantity supplied and quantity demanded of nurses at different salaries.

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Figure 1. Labor Market Example: Demand and Supply for Nurses in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington. The demand curve (D) of those employers who want to hire nurses intersects with the supply curve (S) of those who are qualified and willing to work as nurses at the equilibrium point (E). The equilibrium salary is $70,000 and the equilibrium quantity is 34,000 nurses. At an above-equilibrium salary of $75,000, quantity supplied increases to 38,000, but the quantity of nurses demanded at the higher pay declines to 33,000. At this above-equilibrium salary, an excess supply or surplus of nurses would exist. At a below-equilibrium salary of $60,000, quantity supplied declines to 27,000, while the quantity demanded at the lower wage increases to 40,000 nurses. At this below-equilibrium salary, excess demand or a surplus exists.

Annual SalaryQuantity DemandedQuantity Supplied
$55,00045,00020,000
$60,00040,00027,000
$65,00037,00031,000
$70,00034,00034,000
$75,00033,00038,000
$80,00032,00041,000
Table 1. Demand and Supply of Nurses in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

The horizontal axis shows the quantity of nurses hired. In this example, labor is measured by number of workers, but another common way to measure the quantity of labor is by the number of hours worked. The vertical axis shows the price for nurses’ labor—that is, how much they are paid. In the real world, this “price” would be total labor compensation: salary plus benefits. It is not obvious, but benefits are a significant part (as high as 30 percent) of labor compensation. In this example, the price of labor is measured by salary on an annual basis, although in other cases the price of labor could be measured by monthly or weekly pay, or even the wage paid per hour. As the salary for nurses rises, the quantity demanded will fall. Some hospitals and nursing homes may cut back on the number of nurses they hire, or they may lay off some of their existing nurses, rather than pay them higher salaries. Employers who face higher nurses’ salaries may also try to replace some nursing functions by investing in physical equipment, like computer monitoring and diagnostic systems to monitor patients, or by using lower-paid health care aides to reduce the number of nurses they need.

As the salary for nurses rises, the quantity supplied will rise. If nurses’ salaries in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington are higher than in other cities, more nurses will move to Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington to find jobs, more people will be willing to train as nurses, and those currently trained as nurses will be more likely to pursue nursing as a full-time job. In other words, there will be more nurses looking for jobs in the area.

At equilibrium, the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded are equal. Thus, every employer who wants to hire a nurse at this equilibrium wage can find a willing worker, and every nurse who wants to work at this equilibrium salary can find a job. In Figure 1, the supply curve (S) and demand curve (D) intersect at the equilibrium point (E). The equilibrium quantity of nurses in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington area is 34,000, and the equilibrium salary is $70,000 per year. This example simplifies the nursing market by focusing on the “average” nurse. In reality, of course, the market for nurses is actually made up of many smaller markets, like markets for nurses with varying degrees of experience and credentials. Many markets contain closely related products that differ in quality; for instance, even a simple product like gasoline comes in regular, premium, and super-premium, each with a different price. Even in such cases, discussing the average price of gasoline, like the average salary for nurses, can still be useful because it reflects what is happening in most of the submarkets.

When the price of labor is not at the equilibrium, economic incentives tend to move salaries toward the equilibrium. For example, if salaries for nurses in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington were above the equilibrium at $75,000 per year, then 38,000 people want to work as nurses, but employers want to hire only 33,000 nurses. At that above-equilibrium salary, excess supply or a surplus results. In a situation of excess supply in the labor market, with many applicants for every job opening, employers will have an incentive to offer lower wages than they otherwise would have. Nurses’ salary will move down toward equilibrium.

In contrast, if the salary is below the equilibrium at, say, $60,000 per year, then a situation of excess demand or a shortage arises. In this case, employers encouraged by the relatively lower wage want to hire 40,000 nurses, but only 27,000 individuals want to work as nurses at that salary in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington. In response to the shortage, some employers will offer higher pay to attract the nurses. Other employers will have to match the higher pay to keep their own employees. The higher salaries will encourage more nurses to train or work in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington. Again, price and quantity in the labor market will move toward equilibrium.

SHIFTS IN LABOR DEMAND

The demand curve for labor shows the quantity of labor employers wish to hire at any given salary or wage rate, under the ceteris paribus assumption. A change in the wage or salary will result in a change in the quantity demanded of labor. If the wage rate increases, employers will want to hire fewer employees. The quantity of labor demanded will decrease, and there will be a movement upward along the demand curve. If the wages and salaries decrease, employers are more likely to hire a greater number of workers. The quantity of labor demanded will increase, resulting in a downward movement along the demand curve.

Shifts in the demand curve for labor occur for many reasons. One key reason is that the demand for labor is based on the demand for the good or service that is being produced. For example, the more new automobiles consumers demand, the greater the number of workers automakers will need to hire. Therefore the demand for labor is called a “derived demand.” Here are some examples of derived demand for labor:

  • The demand for chefs is dependent on the demand for restaurant meals.
  • The demand for pharmacists is dependent on the demand for prescription drugs.
  • The demand for attorneys is dependent on the demand for legal services.

As the demand for the goods and services increases, the demand for labor will increase, or shift to the right, to meet employers’ production requirements. As the demand for the goods and services decreases, the demand for labor will decrease, or shift to the left. Table 2 shows that in addition to the derived demand for labor, demand can also increase or decrease (shift) in response to several factors.

FactorsResults
Demand for OutputWhen the demand for the good produced (output) increases, both the output price and profitability increase. As a result, producers demand more labor to ramp up production.
Education and TrainingA well-trained and educated workforce causes an increase in the demand for that labor by employers. Increased levels of productivity within the workforce will cause the demand for labor to shift to the right. If the workforce is not well-trained or educated, employers will not hire from within that labor pool, since they will need to spend a significant amount of time and money training that workforce. Demand for such will shift to the left.
TechnologyTechnology changes can act as either substitutes for or complements to labor. When technology acts as a substitute, it replaces the need for the number of workers an employer needs to hire. For example, word processing decreased the number of typists needed in the workplace. This shifted the demand curve for typists left. An increase in the availability of certain technologies may increase the demand for labor. Technology that acts as a complement to labor will increase the demand for certain types of labor, resulting in a rightward shift of the demand curve. For example, the increased use of word processing and other software has increased the demand for information technology professionals who can resolve software and hardware issues related to a firm’s network. More and better technology will increase demand for skilled workers who know how to use technology to enhance workplace productivity. Those workers who do not adapt to changes in technology will experience a decrease in demand.
Number of CompaniesAn increase in the number of companies producing a given product will increase the demand for labor resulting in a shift to the right. A decrease in the number of companies producing a given product will decrease the demand for labor resulting in a shift to the left.
Government RegulationsComplying with government regulations can increase or decrease the demand for labor at any given wage. In the healthcare industry, government rules may require that nurses be hired to carry out certain medical procedures. This will increase the demand for nurses. Less-trained healthcare workers would be prohibited from carrying out these procedures, and the demand for these workers will shift to the left.
Price and Availability of Other InputsLabor is not the only input into the production process. For example, a salesperson at a call center needs a telephone and a computer terminal to enter data and record sales. The demand for salespersons at the call center will increase if the number of telephones and computer terminals available increases. This will cause a rightward shift of the demand curve. As the amount of inputs increases, the demand for labor will increase. If the terminal or the telephones malfunction, then the demand for that labor force will decrease. As the quantity of other inputs decreases, the demand for labor will decrease. Similarly, if prices of other inputs fall, production will become more profitable and suppliers will demand more labor to increase production. The opposite is also true. Higher input prices lower demand for labor
Table 2. Factors That Can Shift Demand

Click here to read more about “Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century.”

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SHIFTS IN LABOR SUPPLY

The supply of labor is upward-sloping and adheres to the law of supply: The higher the price, the greater the quantity supplied and the lower the price, the less quantity supplied. The supply curve models the tradeoff between supplying labor into the market or using time in leisure activities at every given price level. The higher the wage, the more labor is willing to work and forego leisure activities. Table 3 lists some of the factors that will cause the supply to increase or decrease.

FactorsResults
Number of WorkersAn increased number of workers will cause the supply curve to shift to the right. An increased number of workers can be due to several factors, such as immigration, increasing population, an aging population, and changing demographics. Policies that encourage immigration will increase the supply of labor, and vice versa. Population grows when birth rates exceed death rates; this eventually increases supply of labor when the former reach working age. An aging and therefore retiring population will decrease the supply of labor. Another example of changing demographics is more women working outside of the home, which increases the supply of labor.
Required EducationThe more required education, the lower the supply. There is a lower supply of PhD mathematicians than of high school mathematics teachers; there is a lower supply of cardiologists than of primary care physicians; and there is a lower supply of physicians than of nurses.
Government PoliciesGovernment policies can also affect the supply of labor for jobs. On the one hand, the government may support rules that set high qualifications for certain jobs: academic training, certificates or licenses, or experience. When these qualifications are made tougher, the number of qualified workers will decrease at any given wage. On the other hand, the government may also subsidize training or even reduce the required level of qualifications. For example, government might offer subsidies for nursing schools or nursing students. Such provisions would shift the supply curve of nurses to the right. In addition, government policies that change the relative desirability of working versus not working also affect the labor supply. These include unemployment benefits, maternity leave, child care benefits and welfare policy. For example, child care benefits may increase the labor supply of working mothers. Long term unemployment benefits may discourage job searching for unemployed workers. All these policies must therefore be carefully designed to minimize any negative labor supply effects.
Table 3. Factors that Can Shift Supply

A change in salary will lead to a movement along labor demand or labor supply curves, but it will not shift those curves. However, other events like those outlined here will cause either the demand or the supply of labor to shift, and thus will move the labor market to a new equilibrium salary and quantity.

TECHNOLOGY AND WAGE INEQUALITY: THE FOUR-STEP PROCESS

Economic events can change the equilibrium salary (or wage) and quantity of labor. Consider how the wave of new information technologies, like computer and telecommunications networks, has affected low-skill and high-skill workers in the U.S. economy. From the perspective of employers who demand labor, these new technologies are often a substitute for low-skill laborers like file clerks who used to keep file cabinets full of paper records of transactions. However, the same new technologies are a complement to high-skill workers like managers, who benefit from the technological advances by being able to monitor more information, communicate more easily, and juggle a wider array of responsibilities. So, how will the new technologies affect the wages of high-skill and low-skill workers? For this question, the four-step process of analyzing how shifts in supply or demand affect a market (introduced in Demand and Supply) works in this way:

Step 1. What did the markets for low-skill labor and high-skill labor look like before the arrival of the new technologies? In Figure 2 (a) and Figure 2 (b), S0 is the original supply curve for labor and D0 is the original demand curve for labor in each market. In each graph, the original point of equilibrium, E0, occurs at the price W0 and the quantity Q0.

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Figure 2. Technology and Wages: Applying Demand and Supply (a) The demand for low-skill labor shifts to the left when technology can do the job previously done by these workers. (b) New technologies can also increase the demand for high-skill labor in fields such as information technology and network administration.

Step 2. Does the new technology affect the supply of labor from households or the demand for labor from firms? The technology change described here affects demand for labor by firms that hire workers.

Step 3. Will the new technology increase or decrease demand? Based on the description earlier, as the substitute for low-skill labor becomes available, demand for low-skill labor will shift to the left, from D0 to D1. As the technology complement for high-skill labor becomes cheaper, demand for high-skill labor will shift to the right, from D0 to D1.

Step 4. The new equilibrium for low-skill labor, shown as point E1 with price W1 and quantity Q1, has a lower wage and quantity hired than the original equilibrium, E0. The new equilibrium for high-skill labor, shown as point E1 with price W1 and quantity Q1, has a higher wage and quantity hired than the original equilibrium (E0).

So, the demand and supply model predicts that the new computer and communications technologies will raise the pay of high-skill workers but reduce the pay of low-skill workers. Indeed, from the 1970s to the mid-2000s, the wage gap widened between high-skill and low-skill labor. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 1980, for example, a college graduate earned about 30% more than a high school graduate with comparable job experience, but by 2012, a college graduate earned about 60% more than an otherwise comparable high school graduate. Many economists believe that the trend toward greater wage inequality across the U.S. economy was primarily caused by the new technologies.

Visit this website to read about ten tech skills that have lost relevance in today’s workforce.

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PRICE FLOORS IN THE LABOR MARKET: LIVING WAGES AND MINIMUM WAGES

In contrast to goods and services markets, price ceilings are rare in labor markets, because rules that prevent people from earning income are not politically popular. There is one exception: sometimes limits are proposed on the high incomes of top business executives.

The labor market, however, presents some prominent examples of price floors, which are often used as an attempt to increase the wages of low-paid workers. The U.S. government sets a minimum wage, a price floor that makes it illegal for an employer to pay employees less than a certain hourly rate. In mid-2009, the U.S. minimum wage was raised to $7.25 per hour. Local political movements in a number of U.S. cities have pushed for a higher minimum wage, which they call a living wage. Promoters of living wage laws maintain that the minimum wage is too low to ensure a reasonable standard of living. They base this conclusion on the calculation that, if you work 40 hours a week at a minimum wage of $7.25 per hour for 50 weeks a year, your annual income is $14,500, which is less than the official U.S. government definition of what it means for a family to be in poverty. (A family with two adults earning minimum wage and two young children will find it more cost efficient for one parent to provide childcare while the other works for income. So the family income would be $14,500, which is significantly lower than the federal poverty line for a family of four, which was $23,850 in 2014.)

Supporters of the living wage argue that full-time workers should be assured a high enough wage so that they can afford the essentials of life: food, clothing, shelter, and healthcare. Since Baltimore passed the first living wage law in 1994, several dozen cities enacted similar laws in the late 1990s and the 2000s. The living wage ordinances do not apply to all employers, but they have specified that all employees of the city or employees of firms that are hired by the city be paid at least a certain wage that is usually a few dollars per hour above the U.S. minimum wage.

Figure 3 illustrates the situation of a city considering a living wage law. For simplicity, we assume that there is no federal minimum wage. The wage appears on the vertical axis, because the wage is the price in the labor market. Before the passage of the living wage law, the equilibrium wage is $10 per hour and the city hires 1,200 workers at this wage. However, a group of concerned citizens persuades the city council to enact a living wage law requiring employers to pay no less than $12 per hour. In response to the higher wage, 1,600 workers look for jobs with the city. At this higher wage, the city, as an employer, is willing to hire only 700 workers. At the price floor, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, and a surplus of labor exists in this market. For workers who continue to have a job at a higher salary, life has improved. For those who were willing to work at the old wage rate but lost their jobs with the wage increase, life has not improved. Table 4 shows the differences in supply and demand at different wages.

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Figure 3. A Living Wage: Example of a Price Floor The original equilibrium in this labor market is a wage of $10/hour and a quantity of 1,200 workers, shown at point E. Imposing a wage floor at $12/hour leads to an excess supply of labor. At that wage, the quantity of labor supplied is 1,600 and the quantity of labor demanded is only 700.

WageQuantity Labor DemandedQuantity Labor Supplied
$8/hr1,900500
$9/hr1,500900
$10/hr1,2001,200
$11/hr9001,400
$12/hr7001,600
$13/hr5001,800
$14/hr4001,900
Table 4. Living Wage: Example of a Price Floor

THE MINIMUM WAGE AS AN EXAMPLE OF A PRICE FLOOR

The U.S. minimum wage is a price floor that is set either very close to the equilibrium wage or even slightly below it. About 1% of American workers are actually paid the minimum wage. In other words, the vast majority of the U.S. labor force has its wages determined in the labor market, not as a result of the government price floor. But for workers with low skills and little experience, like those without a high school diploma or teenagers, the minimum wage is quite important. In many cities, the federal minimum wage is apparently below the market price for unskilled labor, because employers offer more than the minimum wage to checkout clerks and other low-skill workers without any government prodding.

Economists have attempted to estimate how much the minimum wage reduces the quantity demanded of low-skill labor. A typical result of such studies is that a 10% increase in the minimum wage would decrease the hiring of unskilled workers by 1 to 2%, which seems a relatively small reduction. In fact, some studies have even found no effect of a higher minimum wage on employment at certain times and places—although these studies are controversial.

Let’s suppose that the minimum wage lies just slightly below the equilibrium wage level. Wages could fluctuate according to market forces above this price floor, but they would not be allowed to move beneath the floor. In this situation, the price floor minimum wage is said to be nonbinding —that is, the price floor is not determining the market outcome. Even if the minimum wage moves just a little higher, it will still have no effect on the quantity of employment in the economy, as long as it remains below the equilibrium wage. Even if the minimum wage is increased by enough so that it rises slightly above the equilibrium wage and becomes binding, there will be only a small excess supply gap between the quantity demanded and quantity supplied.

These insights help to explain why U.S. minimum wage laws have historically had only a small impact on employment. Since the minimum wage has typically been set close to the equilibrium wage for low-skill labor and sometimes even below it, it has not had a large effect in creating an excess supply of labor. However, if the minimum wage were increased dramatically—say, if it were doubled to match the living wages that some U.S. cities have considered—then its impact on reducing the quantity demanded of employment would be far greater. The following Clear It Up feature describes in greater detail some of the arguments for and against changes to minimum wage.

What’s the harm in raising the minimum wage?

Because of the law of demand, a higher required wage will reduce the amount of low-skill employment either in terms of employees or in terms of work hours. Although there is controversy over the numbers, let’s say for the sake of the argument that a 10% rise in the minimum wage will reduce the employment of low-skill workers by 2%. Does this outcome mean that raising the minimum wage by 10% is bad public policy? Not necessarily.

If 98% of those receiving the minimum wage have a pay increase of 10%, but 2% of those receiving the minimum wage lose their jobs, are the gains for society as a whole greater than the losses? The answer is not clear, because job losses, even for a small group, may cause more pain than modest income gains for others. For one thing, we need to consider which minimum wage workers are losing their jobs. If the 2% of minimum wage workers who lose their jobs are struggling to support families, that is one thing. If those who lose their job are high school students picking up spending money over summer vacation, that is something else.

Another complexity is that many minimum wage workers do not work full-time for an entire year. Imagine a minimum wage worker who holds different part-time jobs for a few months at a time, with bouts of unemployment in between. The worker in this situation receives the 10% raise in the minimum wage when working, but also ends up working 2% fewer hours during the year because the higher minimum wage reduces how much employers want people to work. Overall, this worker’s income would rise because the 10% pay raise would more than offset the 2% fewer hours worked.

Of course, these arguments do not prove that raising the minimum wage is necessarily a good idea either. There may well be other, better public policy options for helping low-wage workers. (The Poverty and Economic Inequality chapter discusses some possibilities.) The lesson from this maze of minimum wage arguments is that complex social problems rarely have simple answers. Even those who agree on how a proposed economic policy affects quantity demanded and quantity supplied may still disagree on whether the policy is a good idea.

KEY CONCEPTS AND SUMMARY

In the labor market, households are on the supply side of the market and firms are on the demand side. In the market for financial capital, households and firms can be on either side of the market: they are suppliers of financial capital when they save or make financial investments, and demanders of financial capital when they borrow or receive financial investments.

In the demand and supply analysis of labor markets, the price can be measured by the annual salary or hourly wage received. The quantity of labor can be measured in various ways, like number of workers or the number of hours worked.

Factors that can shift the demand curve for labor include: a change in the quantity demanded of the product that the labor produces; a change in the production process that uses more or less labor; and a change in government policy that affects the quantity of labor that firms wish to hire at a given wage. Demand can also increase or decrease (shift) in response to: workers’ level of education and training, technology, the number of companies, and availability and price of other inputs.

The main factors that can shift the supply curve for labor are: how desirable a job appears to workers relative to the alternatives, government policy that either restricts or encourages the quantity of workers trained for the job, the number of workers in the economy, and required education.

Self-Check Questions

  1. In the labor market, what causes a movement along the demand curve? What causes a shift in the demand curve?
  2. In the labor market, what causes a movement along the supply curve? What causes a shift in the supply curve?
  3. Why is a living wage considered a price floor? Does imposing a living wage have the same outcome as a minimum wage?

Review Questions

  1. What is the “price” commonly called in the labor market?
  2. Are households demanders or suppliers in the goods market? Are firms demanders or suppliers in the goods market? What about the labor market and the financial market?
  3. Name some factors that can cause a shift in the demand curve in labor markets.
  4. Name some factors that can cause a shift in the supply curve in labor markets.

Critical Thinking Questions

  1. Other than the demand for labor, what would be another example of a “derived demand?”
  2. Suppose that a 5% increase in the minimum wage causes a 5% reduction in employment. How would this affect employers and how would it affect workers? In your opinion, would this be a good policy?
  3. What assumption is made for a minimum wage to be a nonbinding price floor? What assumption is made for a living wage price floor to be binding?

Problems

  1. Identify each of the following as involving either demand or supply. Draw a circular flow diagram and label the flows A through F. (Some choices can be on both sides of the goods market.)
    1. Households in the labor market
    2. Firms in the goods market
    3. Firms in the financial market
    4. Households in the goods market
    5. Firms in the labor market
    6. Households in the financial market
  2. Predict how each of the following events will raise or lower the equilibrium wage and quantity of coal miners in West Virginia. In each case, sketch a demand and supply diagram to illustrate your answer.
    1. The price of oil rises.
    2. New coal-mining equipment is invented that is cheap and requires few workers to run.
    3. Several major companies that do not mine coal open factories in West Virginia, offering a lot of well-paid jobs.
    4. Government imposes costly new regulations to make coal-mining a safer job.

REFERENCES

American Community Survey. 2012. “School Enrollment and Work Status: 2011.” Accessed April 13, 2015. http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr11-14.pdf.

National Center for Educational Statistics. “Digest of Education Statistics.” (2008 and 2010). Accessed December 11, 2013. nces.ed.gov.

GLOSSARY

minimum wage

a price floor that makes it illegal for an employer to pay employees less than a certain hourly rate

Solutions

Answers to Self-Check Questions

  1. Changes in the wage rate (the price of labor) cause a movement along the demand curve. A change in anything else that affects demand for labor (e.g., changes in output, changes in the production process that use more or less labor, government regulation) causes a shift in the demand curve.
  2. Changes in the wage rate (the price of labor) cause a movement along the supply curve. A change in anything else that affects supply of labor (e.g., changes in how desirable the job is perceived to be, government policy to promote training in the field) causes a shift in the supply curve.
  3. Since a living wage is a suggested minimum wage, it acts like a price floor (assuming, of course, that it is followed). If the living wage is binding, it will cause an excess supply of labor at that wage rate.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

 

Q.No.3 What is the MPN curve? How this curve related to production function? How it is related to labor demand?

Ans:- The marginal product of labor is the change in output that results from employing an added unit of labor.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Define the marginal product of labor

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Key Points

  • The marginal product of labor is not always equivalent to the output directly produced by that added unit of labor.
  • When production is discrete, we can define the marginal product of labor (MPL) as ΔY/ΔL.
  • When production is continuous, the MPL is the first derivative of the production function in terms of L.
  • Graphically, the MPL is the slope of the production function.
  • The law of diminishing marginal returns ensures that in most industries, the MPL will eventually be decreasing.

Key Terms

  • returns to scale: A term referring to changes in output resulting from a proportional change in all inputs (where all inputs increase by a constant factor).
  • marginal product: The extra output that can be produced by using one more unit of the input.

In economics, the marginal product of labor (MPL) is the change in output that results from employing an added unit of labor. This is not always equivalent to the output directly produced by that added unit of labor; for example, employing an additional cook at a restaurant may make the other cooks more efficient by allowing more specialization of tasks, creating a marginal product that is greater than that produced directly by the new employee. Conversely, hiring an additional worker onto an already crowded factory floor may make the other employees less productive, leading to a marginal product that is lower than the work done by the additional employee.

When production is discrete, we can define the marginal product of labor as ΔY/ΔL where Y is output. If a factory that is initially producing 100 widgets hires another employee and is then able to produce 106 widgets, the MPL is simply six. When production is continuous, the MPL is the first derivative of the production function in terms of L. Graphically, the MPL is the slope of the production function.

gives another example of marginal product of labor. The second column shows total production with different quantities of labor, while the third column shows the increase (or decrease) as labor is added to the production process.

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Marginal Product of Labor: This table shows hypothetical returns and marginal product of labor. Note that in reality this firm would never hire more than seven employees, since a negative marginal product is bad for the firm regardless of the wage rate.

The law of diminishing marginal returns ensures that in most industries, the MPL will eventually be decreasing. The law states that “as units of one input are added (with all other inputs held constant) a point will be reached where the resulting additions to output will begin to decrease; that is marginal product will decline.” The law of diminishing marginal returns applies regardless of whether the production function exhibits increasing, decreasing or constant returns to scale. The key factor is that the variable input is being changed while all other factors of production are being held constant. Under such circumstances diminishing marginal returns are inevitable at some level of production.

Marginal Product of Labor (Revenue)

The marginal revenue product of labor is the change in revenue that results from employing an additional unit of labor.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Define the marginal product of labor under the marginal revenue productivity theory of wages

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Key Points

  • The marginal revenue product of a worker is equal to the product of the marginal product of labor (MP:) and the marginal revenue (MR) of output.
  • The marginal revenue productivity theory states that a profit maximizing firm will hire workers up to the point where the marginal revenue product is equal to the wage rate.
  • The change in output from hiring one more employee is not limited to that directly attributable to the additional worker.

Key Terms

  • marginal product: The extra output that can be produced by using one more unit of the input.
  • diminishing marginal returns: The decrease in the per-unit output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is increased.

The marginal revenue product of labor (MRPL) is the change in revenue that results from employing an additional unit of labor, holding all other inputs constant. The marginal revenue product of a worker is equal to the product of the marginal product of labor (MPL) and the marginal revenue (MR) of output, given by MR×MP: = MRPL. This can be used to determine the optimal number of workers to employ at an exogenously determined market wage rate. Theory states that a profit maximizing firm will hire workers up to the point where the marginal revenue product is equal to the wage rate, because it is not efficient for a firm to pay its workers more than it will earn in revenues from their labor.

For example, if a firm can sell t-shirts for $10 each and the wage rate is $20/hour, the firm will continue to hire workers until the marginal product of an additional hour of work is two t-shirts. If the MPL is three t-shirts the first will hire more workers until the MPL reaches two; if the MPL is one t-shirt then the firm will remove workers until the MPL reaches two.

Let TR=Total Revenue; L=Labor; Q=Quantity. Mathematically:

  • MRPL= ∆TR/∆L
  • MR = ∆TR/∆Q
  • MPL = ∆Q/∆L
  • MR x MPL = (∆TR/∆Q) x (∆Q/∆L) = ∆TR/∆L

Note that the change in output is not limited to that directly attributable to the additional worker. Assuming that the firm is operating with diminishing marginal returns then the addition of an extra worker reduces the average productivity of every other worker (and every other worker affects the marginal productivity of the additional worker) – in other words, everybody is getting in each other’s way.

Because the MRPL is equal to the marginal product of labor times the price of output, any variable that affects either MPL or price will affect the MRPL. For example, changes in technology or the quantity of other inputs will change the marginal product of labor, and changes in the product demand or changes in the price of complements or substitutes will affect the price of output. These will all cause shifts in the MRPL.

Deriving the Labor Demand Curve

Firms will demand labor until the marginal revenue product of labor is equal to the wage rate.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Explain how a company uses marginal revenue product in hiring decisions

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Key Points

  • The marginal revenue product of labor (MRPL) is the additional amount of revenue a firm can generate by hiring one additional employee. It is found by multiplying the marginal product of labor by the price of output.
  • Firms will demand labor until the MRPL equals the wage rate.
  • The demand curve for labor can be shifted by shifted by changes in the productivity of labor, the relative price of labor, or the price of the output.
  • It will also change as a result of a change in technology, a change in the price of the good being produced, or a change in the number of firms hiring the labor.

Key Terms

  • marginal revenue product: The change in total revenue earned by a firm that results from employing one more unit of labor.
  • factor of production: A resource employed to produce goods and services, such as labor, land, and capital.

Firms demand labor and an input to production. The cost of labor to a firm is called the wage rate. This can be thought of as the firm’s marginal cost. The additional revenue generated by hiring one more unit of labor is the marginal revenue product of labor (MRPL). This can be thought of as the marginal benefit.

The marginal revenue product of labor (MRPL) is the additional amount of revenue a firm can generate by hiring one additional employee. It is found by multiplying the marginal product of labor (MPL) – the amount of additional output one additional worker can generate – by the price of output. If an employee of a customer support call center can take eight calls an hour (the MPL) and each call earns the company $3, then the MRPL is $24.

We can use the MRPL curve to determine the quantity of labor a company will hire. Suppose workers are available at an hourly rate of $10. The amount a factor adds to a firm’s total cost per period is the marginal cost of that factor, so in this case the marginal cost of labor is $10. Firms maximize profit when marginal costs equal marginal revenues, and in the labor market this means that firms will hire more employees until the wage rate (marginal cost of labor) equals the MRPL. At a price of $10, the company will hire workers until the last worker hired gives a marginal revenue product of $10.

graph 1

Marginal Product of Labor: The MPL falls as the amount of labor employed increases. The optimum demand for labor falls where the real wage rate (w/P) is equal to the MPL.

Thus, the downward-sloping portion of the marginal revenue product curve shows the number of employees a company will hire at each price (wage), so we can interpret this part of the curve as the firm’s demand for labor. As with other demand curves, the market demand curve for labor is the sum of all firm’s individual demand curves.

Shifting the Demand for Labor

There are three main reasons why the demand curve for labor may shift:

  1. Changes to the marginal productivity of labor: Technology, for instance, may increase the marginal productivity of labor, shifting the demand curve to the right. For example, computer technology has increased the productivity (marginal product) of many types of workers. This has led to an increase in the marginal revenue product of labor for these jobs, shifting firms’ demand for labor to the right. This both increases the number of employed workers and increases the wage rate.
  2. The prices of other factors of production: The change in the relative price of labor will increase or decrease demand for labor. For example, is capital becomes more expensive relative to labor, the demand for labor will increase as firms seek to substitute labor for capital.
  3. The price of the firm’s output: Since the price of the output is a component of MRPL, changes will shift the demand curve for labor. If the price that a firm can charge for its output increases, for example, the MRPL will increase. This is reflected in an outward shift of the demand for labor.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

Q.No.4 Discuss the role of fiscal policy to eliminate unemployment.

  • Ans:- In response to the recession, there is a rise in personal savings as firms cut back on investment and households cut back on consumer spending.
  • This reduction in spending causes a negative multiplier effect and magnifies the initial fall in unemployment.
  • This leads to a negative output gap, with unemployed resources.

In this situation, the government can usually borrow from the private sector at a relatively low cost of borrowing. The government can spend money on infrastructure projects. This injects money and spending into the circular flow – causing a rise in aggregate demand.

graph 1

Fiscal policy (cutting taxes and/or increasing spending) can lead to an increase in AD and rise in real GDP.

The increase in economic growth will cause increased demand for workers, providing employment and reducing unemployment.

Limitations of fiscal policy for solving unemployment

Fiscal policy cannot solve supply-side unemployment. (the natural rate)

If there is frictional or structural unemployment, fiscal policy will not solve this. For example, suppose some former miners are unemployed. The problem here is lack of skills and geographical immobilities. Therefore, what is needed is supply-side policies. Increasing AD and economic growth does not solve the mismatch of skills. Therefore, when the economy is at full capacity, classical economists are correct. If the economy is growing and the government pursue fiscal policy, it is likely to be ineffective in reducing unemployment.

  • At close to full employment, higher government borrowing will cause crowding out (government borrowing reduces the size of the private sector and reduces private sector investment). Also, with a growing economy, higher government borrowing may push up bond yields and higher interest rates may reduce private sector investment.
  • Also, if the economy is at full employment, and the government pursue expansionary fiscal policy, we will see higher inflation.

graph 1 1

(Impact of fiscal policy, if the economy is at full employment.)

Other limitations of fiscal policy

  • Tax cuts may be saved not spent. In a deep recession, consumers may be reluctant to spend – even if you cut taxes. It may also depend on which taxes you cut. Low-income workers have a higher marginal propensity to consume. Therefore, cutting taxes will have a bigger effect on improving spending.
  • Time Lags. Fiscal policy can take time to implement. The government have to decide which projects to follow, and there will be time before the project gets off the ground.
  • See: Criticism of fiscal policy for more details

However, despite these limitations, it can play a role in increasing AD and reducing cyclical unemployment.

Case study

US Fiscal policy in 2009

In February 2009, Congress approved President Obama’s $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This was a package of tax cuts and spending increases – financed by higher borrowing. It involved tax cuts of $288 billion. Extended unemployment benefits of $213 and $275 billion in federal contracts, grants, and loans. The package wasn’t implemented immediately and took several months for the higher spending to be spread throughout the economy. The government also approved a bailout of the automobile industry which helped avoid job losses in that sector.

Strong recovery in the US.

Limitations of fiscal policy

  • The fall in unemployment wasn’t just due to this expansionary fiscal policy.
  • At the same time, there was also a loosening of monetary policy – with interest rates cut to 0.5% and a policy of quantitative easing. This monetary easing also contributed to the economic recovery.
  • Also, the natural economic cycle is for the economy to recover after a period of economic downturn.
  • Some economists, such as Paul Krugman argued that the expansionary fiscal policy was insufficient and only a small % of the US economy. A bigger fiscal package would have enabled a stronger recovery.

However, compared to the Eurozone – which didn’t pursue expansionary fiscal policy, the US recovery was stronger.

 

Given the time lags involved, the package was successful in limiting the scope of the 2009 recession and creating an economic recovery. As a result of the economic recovery, unemployment fell at the end of 2009 and consistently fell into 2017.

graph 1 2

 

Also, some economist such as  John Taylor of Stanford, and Eugene Fama of the University of Chicago were more suspicious of fiscal policy arguing it leads to higher borrowing costs, crowding out and just ends up with higher government borrowing. However, despite the rise in US borrowing, bond yields fell during this periods, and the budget deficit fell with the economic recovery.

US Federal Deficit

graph 1 3

Higher debt did not cause higher bond yields but falling bond yields, suggesting there was strong demand for buying government debt.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 806 Spring 2020

Q.No.5 Differentiate briefly among all consumption theories.

Ans The consumption function, or Keynesian consumption function, is an economic formula that represents the functional relationship between total consumption and gross national income. It was introduced by British economist John Maynard Keynes, who argued the function could be used to track and predict total aggregate consumption expenditures.

Consumption Function

Understanding the Consumption Function

The classic consumption function suggests consumer spending is wholly determined by income and the changes in income. If true, aggregate savings should increase proportionally as gross domestic product (GDP) grows over time. The idea is to create a mathematical relationship between disposable income and consumer spending, but only on aggregate levels.

The stability of the consumption function, based in part on Keynes’ Psychological Law of Consumption, especially when contrasted with the volatility of investment, is a cornerstone of Keynesian macroeconomic theory. Most post-Keynesians admit the consumption function is not stable in the long run since consumption patterns change as income rises.

Calculating the Consumption Function

The consumption function is represented as:

\begin{aligned}&C\ =\ A\ +\ MD\\&\textbf{where:}\\&C=\text{consumer spending}\\&A=\text{autonomous consumption}\\&M=\text{marginal propensity to consume}\\&D=\text{real disposable income}\end{aligned}​C = A + MDwhere:C=consumer spendingA=autonomous consumptionM=marginal propensity to consumeD=real disposable income​

Assumptions and Implications

Much of the Keynesian doctrine centers around the frequency with which a given population spends or saves new income. The multiplier, the consumption function, and the marginal propensity to consume are each crucial to Keynes’ focus on spending and aggregate demand.

The consumption function is assumed stable and static; all expenditures are passively determined by the level of national income. The same is not true of savings, which Keynes called “investment,” not to be confused with government spending, another concept Keynes often defined as investment.

For the model to be valid, the consumption function and independent investment must remain constant long enough for national income to reach equilibrium. At equilibrium, business expectations and consumer expectations match up. One potential problem is that the consumption function cannot handle changes in the distribution of income and wealth. When these change, so too might autonomous consumption and the marginal propensity to consume.

Other Versions

Over time, other economists have made adjustments to the Keynesian consumption function. Variables such as employment uncertainty, borrowing Fiscal Multiplier Definition

The fiscal multiplier measures the effect that increases in fiscal spending will have on a nation’s economic output, or gross domestic product (GDP).

more

limits, or even life expectancy can be incorporated to modify the older, cruder function.

For example, many standard models stem from the so-called “life cycle” theory of consumer behavior as pioneered by Franco Modigliani. His model made adjustments based on how income and liquid cash balances affect an individual’s marginal propensity to consume. This hypothesis stipulated that poorer individuals likely spend new income at a higher rate than wealthy individuals.

Milton Friedman offered his own simple version of the consumption function, which he called the “permanent income hypothesis.” Notably, the Friedman model distinguished between permanent and temporary income. It also extended Modigliani’s use of life expectancy to infinity.

More sophisticated functions may even substitute disposable income, which takes into account taxes, transfers, and other sources of income. Still, most empirical tests fail to match up with the consumption function’s predictions. Statistics show frequent and sometimes dramatic adjustments in the consumption function.

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Related Terms

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all finished goods and services made within a country during a specific period.

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Keynesian Economics Definition

Keynesian Economics is an economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation developed by John Maynard Keynes.

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Life-Cycle Hypothesis (LCH)

The life-cycle hypothesis (LCH) is an economic theory that pertains to the spending and saving habits of people over the course of a lifetime.

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How Multipliers Impact Economics

A multiplier refers to an economic input that amplifies the effect of some other variable.

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Franco Modigliani Definition

Franco Modigliani was a Neo-Keynesian economist who was born in 1918 in Rome and won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1985.

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