AIOU Solved Assignments code 627 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2 Course: ICT in Education (627) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
ICT in Education (627) Semester
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 627 Spring 2020
Q.1 Explain functions and components of central processing unit.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features −
- CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.
- CPU performs all types of data processing operations.
- It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).
- It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.
CPU itself has following three components.
- Memory or Storage Unit
- Control Unit
- ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
Memory or Storage Unit
This unit can store instructions, data, and intermediate results. This unit supplies information to other units of the computer when needed. It is also known as internal storage unit or the main memory or the primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM).
Its size affects speed, power, and capability. Primary memory and secondary memory are two types of memories in the computer. Functions of the memory unit are −
- It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing.
- It stores intermediate results of processing.
- It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
- All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the main memory.
This unit controls the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry out any actual data processing operations.
Functions of this unit are −
- It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.
- It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.
- It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.
- It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.
- It does not process or store data.
Components of Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit has the following features –
- CPU carries out all forms of data processing tasks.
- It saves information, intermediate results and instructions.
- CPU monitors the functionality of all computer components.
CPU has the following 3 components
- Memory or storage unit
- Control unit
- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Memory or Storage Unit
The memory unit stores all the instructions and data. This unit provides data to other units of the computer if necessary.
It is sometimes referred to as the internal storage unit or main memory, or the primary storage or RAM (Random Access Memory).
- All the data and instructions required for processing are stored in the memory unit.
- Intermediate results of any data processing are stored in the memory unit.
- Once the final results are processed before the results are released to output devices, the memory unit stores it.
- The main memory transfers all the inputs and outputs.
This unit monitors all computing processes but does not execute actual data processing.
Following are the functions of the Control unit –
- It regulates the transfer of data and instructions among other computer units.
- All the units of the computer is managed and coordinated by the control unit.
- It interacts with input and output devices for data transfer.
- The control unit gets the memory instructions, interprets the instructions and controls the computer operations.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
This unit is the most important part that does all the calculations and makes the decisions.
This computer processing unit (CPU) is the fundamental building block of the computer. Modern CPUs contain highly complicated and efficient ALUs.
Modern CPUs have a control unit (CU) in addition to ALUs. ALUs consists of following subsections –
- Arithmetic Section
- Logic Section
The arithmetic section performs all the mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This section handles all the complex calculations.
The logic section’s purpose is to carry out logical activities such as data comparison, collection, matching and merging.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 627 Spring 2020
Q.2 Define and explain communication process with examples.
Communications is fundamental to the existence and survival of humans as well as to an organization. It is a process of creating and sharing ideas, information, views, facts, feelings, etc. among the people to reach a common understanding. Communication is the key to the Directing function of management.
Communications is a continuous process which mainly involves three elements viz. sender, message, and receiver. The elements involved in the communication process are explained below in detail:
The sender or the communicator generates the message and conveys it to the receiver. He is the source and the one who starts the communication
It is the idea, information, view, fact, feeling, etc. that is generated by the sender and is then intended to be communicated further.
The message generated by the sender is encoded symbolically such as in the form of words, pictures, gestures, etc. before it is being conveyed.
It is the manner in which the encoded message is transmitted. The message may be transmitted orally or in writing. The medium of communication includes telephone, internet, post, fax, e-mail, etc. The choice of medium is decided by the sender.
It is the process of converting the symbols encoded by the sender. After decoding the message is received by the receiver.
He is the person who is last in the chain and for whom the message was sent by the sender. Once the receiver receives the message and understands it in proper perspective and acts according to the message, only then the purpose of communication is successful.
Once the receiver confirms to the sender that he has received the message and understood it, the process of communication is complete.
It refers to any obstruction that is caused by the sender, message or receiver during the process of communication. For example, bad telephone connection, faulty encoding, faulty decoding, inattentive receiver, poor understanding of message due to prejudice or inappropriate gestures, etc.
Importance of Communication
1. The Basis of Co-ordination
The manager explains to the employees the organizational goals, modes of their achievement and also theinterpersonal relationships amongst them. This provides coordination between various employees and also departments. Thus, communications act as a basis for coordination in the organization.
2. Fluent Working
A manager coordinates the human and physical elements of an organization to run it smoothly and efficiently. This coordination is not possible without proper communication.
3. The Basis of Decision Making
Proper communication provides information to the manager that is useful for decision making. No decisions could be taken in the absence of information. Thus, communication is the basis for taking the right decisions.
4. Increases Managerial Efficiency
The manager conveys the targets and issues instructions and allocates jobs to the subordinates. All of these aspects involve communication. Thus, communication is essential for the quick and effective performance of the managers and the entire organization.
5. Increases Cooperation and Organizational Peace
The two-way communication process promotes co-operation and mutual understanding amongst the workers and also between them and the management. This leads to less friction and thus leads to industrial peace in the factory and efficient operations.
6. Boosts Morale of the Employees
Good communication helps the workers to adjust to the physical and social aspect of work. It also improves good human relations in the industry. An efficient system of communication enables the management to motivate, influence and satisfy the subordinates which in turn boosts their morale and keeps them motivated.
Types of Communication
1. Formal Communication
Formal communications are the one which flows through the official channels designed in the organizational chart. It may take place between a superior and a subordinate, a subordinate and a superior or among the same cadre employees or managers. These communications can be oral or in writing and are generally recorded and filed in the office.
Formal communication may be further classified as Vertical communication and Horizontal communication.
Vertical Communications as the name suggests flows vertically upwards or downwards through formal channels. Upward communication refers to the flow of communication from a subordinate to a superior whereas downward communication flows from a superior to a subordinate.
Application for grant of leave, submission of a progress report, request for loans etc. are some of the examples of upward communication. Sending notice to employees to attend a meeting, delegating work to the subordinates, informing them about the company policies, etc. are some examples of downward communication.
Horizontal or lateral communication takes place between one division and another. For example, a production manager may contact the finance manager to discuss the delivery of raw material or its purchase.
Types of communication networks in formal communication:
- Single chain:In this type of network communications flows from every superior to his subordinate through a single chain.
- Wheel:In this network, all subordinates under one superior communicate through him only. They are not allowed to talk among themselves.
- Circular:In this type of network, the communication moves in a circle. Each person is able to communicate with his adjoining two persons only.
- Free flow:In this network, each person can communicate with any other person freely. There is no restriction.
- Inverted V:In this type of network, a subordinate is allowed to communicate with his immediate superior as well as his superior’s superior also. However, in the latter case, only ordained communication takes place.
2. Informal Communication
Any communication that takes place without following the formal channels of communication is said to be informal communication. The Informal communication is often referred to as the ‘grapevine’ as it spreads throughout the organization and in all directions without any regard to the levels of authority.
The informal communication spreads rapidly, often gets distorted and it is very difficult to detect the source of such communication. It also leads to rumors which are not true. People’s behavior is often affected by the rumors and informal discussions which sometimes may hamper the work environment.
However, sometimes these channels may be helpful as they carry information rapidly and, therefore, may be useful to the manager at times. Informal channels are also used by the managers to transmit information in order to know the reactions of his/her subordinates.
Types of Grapevine network:
- Single strand: In this network, each person communicates with the other in a sequence.
- Gossip network: In this type of network, each person communicates with all other persons on a non-selective basis.
- Probability network: In this network, the individual communicates randomly with other individuals.
- Cluster Network: In this network, the individual communicates with only those people whom he trusts. Out of these four types of networks, the Cluster network is the most popular in organizations.
Barriers to Communication
The communication barriers may prevent communication or carry incorrect meaning due to which misunderstandings may be created. Therefore, it is essential for a manager to identify such barriers and take appropriate measures to overcome them. The barriers to communication in organizations can be broadly grouped as follows:
1. Semantic Barriers
These are concerned with the problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of a message into words or impressions. Normally, such barriers result due to use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations, etc.
For example, a manager has to communicate with workers who have no knowledge of the English language and on the other side, he is not well conversant with the Hindi language. Here, language is a barrier to communication as the manager may not be able to communicate properly with the workers.
2. Psychological Barriers
Emotional or psychological factors also act as barriers to communication. The state of mind of both sender and receiver of communication reflects in effective communication. A worried person cannot communicate properly and an angry recipient cannot understand the message properly.
Thus, at the time of communication, both the sender and the receiver need to be psychologically sound. Also, they should trust each other. If they do not believe each other, they cannot understand each other’s message in its original sense.
3. Organizational Barriers
The factors related to organizational structure, rules and regulations authority relationships, etc. may sometimes act as barriers to effective communication. In an organization with a highly centralized pattern, people may not be encouraged to have free communication. Also, rigid rules and regulations and cumbersome procedures may also become a hurdle to communication.
4. Personal Barriers
The personal factors of both sender and receiver may act as a barrier to effective communication. If a superior thinks that a particular communication may adversely affect his authority, he may suppress such communication.
Also, if the superiors do not have confidence in the competency of their subordinates, they may not ask for their advice. The subordinates may not be willing to offer useful suggestions in the absence of any reward or appreciation for a good suggestion.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 627 Spring 2020
Q.3 Explain the use of ICT tools for organizing and storing teaching learning resources.
Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools contribute to high quality lessons since they have potential to increase students’ motivation, connect students to many information sources, support active in-class and out-class learning environments, and let instructors to allocate more time for facilitation. Therefore, use of ICT tools in teaching and learning process becomes a great area of research for many educators. These technologies increase students’ motivation, self-confidence and self esteem to learn. Additionally, new technologies usually encourage independent and active learning, as a result, the students feel more responsible for their own learning. Considerable number of research on the contribution of ICT in modernizing learning and teaching, triggers attempts to incorporate these technologies in order to benefit in terms of quality of education, flexibility, access, and its cost.
Therefore, this study aims to:
(1) reveal to what extend instructors use ICT tools in their courses and determine what ICT tools they utilize
(2) assess the contribution of ICT to learning and teaching both from students and instructors’ perspectives.
As a qualitative case study research, semi-structured interviews were carried with participants. The participants were purposively selected since the researchers needed experienced instructors on these issues. The students participated in the study voluntarily. All interview sessions were type recorded and the data was transcribed verbatim. Both students’ and instructors’ responses indicated that there is a common belief that when these tools are employed, students’ success will increase. Students verified that the use of educational technologies makes them to feel more successful. Instructors stated that such tools crates more organized learning and alert instructor to search for best tools for students, and let course materials accessible whenever students need. One of the students stated that when instructor uses such tools, learning environments become more stimulating when compared to traditional settings. Similarly, instructors stated that although there are number of factors impeding the whole utilization of ICT tools, they agree that traditional teaching is old fashioned and ineffective in these days. Based on the responses obtained, we can state that instructors lacks in explaining and evaluating carefully the impact of ICT tools that may enhance or support students’ in-depth learning. Their statements are generally anecdotal rather than data driven. Also, lack of motivation among faculty members was perceived as obstacle to fully adopt ICT. Our work-in-progress attempts will address many other issues and direct valuable recommendations for further studies.
Schools use a diverse set of ICT tools to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.(6) In some contexts, ICT has also become integral to the teaching-learning interaction, through such approaches as replacing chalkboards with interactive digital whiteboards, using students’ own smartphones or other devices for learning during class time, and the “flipped classroom” model where students watch lectures at home on the computer and use classroom time for more interactive exercises.
When teachers are digitally literate and trained to use ICT, these approaches can lead to higher order thinking skills, provide creative and individualized options for students to express their understandings, and leave students better prepared to deal with ongoing technological change in society and the workplace.(18)
ICT issues planners must consider include: considering the total cost-benefit equation, supplying and maintaining the requisite infrastructure, and ensuring investments are matched with teacher support and other policies aimed at effective ICT use.(16)
Issues and Discussion
Digital culture and digital literacy: Computer technologies and other aspects of digital culture have changed the ways people live, work, play, and learn, impacting the construction and distribution of knowledge and power around the world.(14) Graduates who are less familiar with digital culture are increasingly at a disadvantage in the national and global economy. Digital literacy—the skills of searching for, discerning, and producing information, as well as the critical use of new media for full participation in society—has thus become an important consideration for curriculum frameworks.(8)
In many countries, digital literacy is being built through the incorporation of information and communication technology (ICT) into schools. Some common educational applications of ICT include:
- One laptop per child: Less expensive laptops have been designed for use in school on a 1:1 basis with features like lower power consumption, a low cost operating system, and special re-programming and mesh network functions.(42) Despite efforts to reduce costs, however, providing one laptop per child may be too costly for some developing countries.(41)
- Tablets: Tablets are small personal computers with a touch screen, allowing input without a keyboard or mouse. Inexpensive learning software (“apps”) can be downloaded onto tablets, making them a versatile tool for learning.(7)(25) The most effective apps develop higher order thinking skills and provide creative and individualized options for students to express their understandings.(18)
- Interactive White Boards or Smart Boards: Interactive white boards allow projected computer images to be displayed, manipulated, dragged, clicked, or copied.(3) Simultaneously, handwritten notes can be taken on the board and saved for later use. Interactive white boards are associated with whole-class instruction rather than student-centred activities.(38) Student engagement is generally higher when ICT is available for student use throughout the classroom.(4)
- E-readers: E-readers are electronic devices that can hold hundreds of books in digital form, and they are increasingly utilized in the delivery of reading material.(19) Students—both skilled readers and reluctant readers—have had positive responses to the use of e-readers for independent reading.(22) Features of e-readers that can contribute to positive use include their portability and long battery life, response to text, and the ability to define unknown words.(22) Additionally, many classic book titles are available for free in e-book form.
- Flipped Classrooms: The flipped classroom model, involving lecture and practice at home via computer-guided instruction and interactive learning activities in class, can allow for an expanded curriculum. There is little investigation on the student learning outcomes of flipped classrooms.(5) Student perceptions about flipped classrooms are mixed, but generally positive, as they prefer the cooperative learning activities in class over lecture.(5)(35)
ICT and Teacher Professional Development: Teachers need specific professional development opportunities in order to increase their ability to use ICT for formative learning assessments, individualized instruction, accessing online resources, and for fostering student interaction and collaboration.(15) Such training in ICT should positively impact teachers’ general attitudes towards ICT in the classroom, but it should also provide specific guidance on ICT teaching and learning within each discipline. Without this support, teachers tend to use ICT for skill-based applications, limiting student academic thinking.(32) To support teachers as they change their teaching, it is also essential for education managers, supervisors, teacher educators, and decision makers to be trained in ICT use.(11)
Ensuring benefits of ICT investments: To ensure the investments made in ICT benefit students, additional conditions must be met. School policies need to provide schools with the minimum acceptable infrastructure for ICT, including stable and affordable internet connectivity and security measures such as filters and site blockers. Teacher policies need to target basic ICT literacy skills, ICT use in pedagogical settings, and discipline-specific uses.(21) Successful implementation of ICT requires integration of ICT in the curriculum. Finally, digital content needs to be developed in local languages and reflect local culture.(40) Ongoing technical, human, and organizational supports on all of these issues are needed to ensure access and effective use of ICT.(21)
Resource Constrained Contexts: The total cost of ICT ownership is considerable: training of teachers and administrators, connectivity, technical support, and software, amongst others.(42) When bringing ICT into classrooms, policies should use an incremental pathway, establishing infrastructure and bringing in sustainable and easily upgradable ICT.(16) Schools in some countries have begun allowing students to bring their own mobile technology (such as laptop, tablet, or smartphone) into class rather than providing such tools to all students—an approach called Bring Your Own Device.(1)(27)(34) However, not all families can afford devices or service plans for their children.(30) Schools must ensure all students have equitable access to ICT devices for learning.
Digital Divide: The digital divide refers to disparities of digital media and internet access both within and across countries, as well as the gap between people with and without the digital literacy and skills to utilize media and internet.(23)(26)(31) The digital divide both creates and reinforces socio-economic inequalities of the world’s poorest people. Policies need to intentionally bridge this divide to bring media, internet, and digital literacy to all students, not just those who are easiest to reach.
Minority language groups: Students whose mother tongue is different from the official language of instruction are less likely to have computers and internet connections at home than students from the majority. There is also less material available to them online in their own language, putting them at a disadvantage in comparison to their majority peers who gather information, prepare talks and papers, and communicate more using ICT.(39) Yet ICT tools can also help improve the skills of minority language students—especially in learning the official language of instruction—through features such as automatic speech recognition, the availability of authentic audio-visual materials, and chat functions.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 627 Spring 2020
Q.4 Differentiate among curriculum plan, unit plan and lesson plan.
A Lesson Plan is a daily strategy designed by teachers, usually for a day, to perfect appropriate and proper in-class and in-home teaching and learning methods for students. It acts as a map to control and oversee lessons that need to be taught and assignments that must to given. It is a far-reaching graph of classroom activities with a flexible methodology for teaching ideas, skills, and abilities.
There are two different types of Lesson Plans, and creating them requires adequate focus. Elements such as lesson objectives, anticipated problems from students, materials required, time allocation for each activity, and period of student-student and student-teacher interactions are essential to be considered.
EduSys is an effective automatic Lesson Planner for teachers who are dedicated to impart real-time classroom experience for students. The application motivates and empowers teachers to design an efficient subject-wise, class-wise and grade-wise plan keeping a student’s needs and necessities in mind. With it teachers can ensure the plan goals are compatible with the development of every student at the same time allow students to reach the achievement expectations.
A Unit Plan follows similar format as the lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work for weeks, months or a semester. It is imperative to demonstrate the principle objectives of a curriculum and how to exercise, assess and commence sessions for students in different classes. Henceforth, Unit designs are frequently utilized for making syllabus and instructional year plans.
Unit Planning is a process of systematically arranging subjects. Wikipedia defines it as a series of learning experiences that are linked to achieve the aims composed by methodology and contents. In any case, it is appropriate to many or all teachers and the individuals who assume the administrative position and is viable for a semester.
EduSys is the best application platform for creating and systemizing Unit Plans. The application incorporates sophisticated teaching tools for teachers to create classroom lesson plans and unit plans.
A Lesson Plan explains, fundamentally, the objectives of a specific lesson and how teaching must be planned in an approach to accomplish those objectives. A Unit Plan, then again, covers a more extensive zone; a unit that can incorporate numerous lessons.
|LESSON PLAN||UNIT PLAN|
|Definition: A teacher’s plan for teaching an individual lesson||Definition: Plan for a unit, which consists of many lessons|
|Created By: Individual Teacher||Created By: Sectional Head or Head of the Department|
|Time Consumed: Covers only one lesson and takes only few hours to create||Time Consumed: Covers numerous lesson and takes longer hours to create|
|Aim & Objective: Can include personal aim for teacher development||Aim & Objective: Can be used for curriculum review|
A lesson plan is usually prepared by the teacher who conducts a lesson for students to make sure a lesson meets its objectives and learning takes place effectively. A lesson plan includes lesson objectives, anticipated problems from students, time allocation for each task within the lesson, activity types, and interactions that take place during activities such as student-student, teacher–student, and material that will be used for the lesson, etc. Apart from these, a lesson plan may also include personal aims that focus on personal development of the teacher. Furthermore, a well-planned lesson may have a board plan that is to be displayed in the class for students to record. Thus, it is clear that a lesson plan paves the way for the teacher who conducts the lesson to be well organized beforehand.
A lesson plan elaborates, basically, on objectives of a particular lesson and how teaching is planned in a way to achieve those objectives. A unit plan, on the other hand, covers a wider area; a unit that can include many lessons. Furthermore, a unit plan includes goals broken down in terms of lessons, the outline of the content intended to cover and cross-curricular references, etc. A lesson plan is usually prepared by the teacher who teaches that particular lesson the class. However, a unit plan is applicable to many teachers and those who play administrative roles in a school and is effective for a semester. Moreover, a lesson plan can include personal aims for teacher development, unlike unit plans.
Curriculum planning is a complex process where faculty define intended learning outcomes, assessments, content and pedagogic requirements necessary for student success across an entire curriculum. The Teaching and Learning Centre’s educational consultants provide curriculum support to Faculties and departments to facilitate high-quality learning experiences for students.
The process concerned with making decisions about what to learn, why, and how to organize the teaching and learning process taking into account existing curriculum requirements and the resources available. At the general level, it often results in the definition of a broad curriculum framework, as well as a syllabus for each subject to be used as reference by individual schools. At the school level, it involves developing course and assessment plans for different subjects. At the classroom level, it involves developing more detailed plans for learning units, individual lessons and lesson sequences.
Sometimes, life in the classroom seems so dynamic and hectic that it might feel as though all plans can go astray. As a teacher, it’s easy to get caught up in the day-to-day and forget about the big picture, and curriculum is the big picture. In other words, curriculum is the sum total of skills and concepts that students learn, explicitly as well as implicitly. Losing track of the big picture of a curriculum plan is totally understandable, but at the same time, having an overarching plan is an important way to make sure you don’t lose track of what matters most in a particular unit of study. Sensible curriculum planning will bring focus to your teaching, and it will also make it easier to figure out what activities, projects, and lessons you do each day. Follow along with novice teacher Mr. Geller as he discovers what curriculum planning is.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 627 Spring 2020
Q.5 Discuss advantages and limitations of E-assessment in schools.
Advantages of online assessments
The use of online assessments saves companies a lot of time and money. Often the assessments can be completed in less time, multiple candidates can complete the online assessment at the same time and there is no need for specialized (and expensive) personnel. Also, the test takers are able to take the assessment during class, or at home, using their own devices. You get to see their results and answers and get instant feedback about your chosen topic. That helps you, as a researcher, recruiter, teacher or trainer, to learn more about your users and adapt to their needs, strengths and weaknesses.
Disadvantages of online assessments
Not much can be said about the disadvantages of online assessments, since the advantages outweigh them by far. But there might be some, for example, you need to be computer literate (or able to use a computer well) in order to create and take an assessment. Technology is not always reliable, there might be connection or internet problems, energy breaks and other things like that. Also, there’s a cost involved in online assessment software.
Online assessments has some pros and cons. It’s up to you to decide what is the best option in your case, that is, keep using hard copy assessments or go for the online option. Although some financial investment in online assessment software is needed, we believe the benefits outweigh the costs by far. It’s a value for money acquisition, since you, as a professional, will save a lot of time and money in many other ways.
Also, online assessments allow the test takers to take on mobile learning, which means, they are able to take the assessments anywhere, anytime. And they receive their results immediately by email. You can see their results and download them into an Excel file.
E- assessment can
- supply immediate and focused feedback on students’ work
- allow students more than one attempt at an answer
- present questions in a predetermined or random order
- be used for diagnostic, formative or summative assessment
- guide students to further reading or resources if they are having difficulty
- increase students’ digital literacy
- increase student engagement
- record highly detailed student learning analytics and present them to the lecturer in real time
- manage lecturer workload and corrections
Online assessments are based on using computer technology and the networking ability of the Internet to deliver and score tests. Many different question formats are available and can be implemented within the same test, such as multiple choice, multiple response, fill in the blank and true/false. Online assessments are given by employers to test applicant’s prior knowledge, in schools, and as a part of online seminars.
Advantages for Students
Online assessments can give you instant feedback, unlike paper examinations in a traditional classroom learning session. Automated online assessments give you the option of taking practice tests whenever you want. Students don’t always have to be in a classroom setting to take assessments. Some assessments are Internet-based, which allows the student to take the test at home or anywhere else he likes.
Advantages for Teachers
Teachers can distribute multiple versions of the exams and assignments without having to manually monitor which students got which tests. This cuts down on cheating. Electronic assessments allow teachers to quickly evaluate the performance for the group against the individual. Report-generating capabilities help teachers identify learning problem areas for the group and individual students. Online assessments take up less storage space in respect to keeping records than paper. All data can be stored on a single server. Teachers can mix and match the question styles on exams, including graphics and make them more interactive than paper exams. Eliminates human error in grading.
Disadvantages for Students
Answers on online assessments can only be right or wrong. There is no room for explaining your answer or getting partial credit. For example, in a geometry or calculus exams on paper, a teacher can see how you worked out your equation. He can identify where you went wrong to come up with the wrong answer. In this case, he can give you partial credit. Online assessments don’t give teachers the options to see your line of thinking to get to your answer.
Disadvantages for Teachers
Technology isn’t always reliable. Information can be lost if a system breaks down. In some cases, teachers need some technical expertise to create exams. The costs to set up an electronic assessment system in a learning institution or business training environment can cost thousands, even tens of thousands. Testing online is not suitable for essay writing and analysis or cognitive thinking testing.