Aiou solved assignments code 1425 Autumn 2019. aiou solved old past papers code1425 Basics of Technical English Autumn 2018.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 1425
Basics of Technical English Autumn 2018
Level: B.A/BS Code: 1425
Assignment No. 1
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Q.1 Read Chapter 1 and explain the term technical writing. Explain the major traits of technical writing in detail.
Technical writing refers to a type of writing where the author outlines the details and operations of administrative, technical, mechanical, or scientific systems. The main goal of technical writing is to educate, direct, and give others the ability to use a certain system.
Technical writing is straightforward, easy to understand explanations and/or instructions dealing with a particular subject. It is an efficient and clear way of explaining something and how it works.
The subject of technical writing can either be:
Tangible – Something that can be seen or touched, such as a computer or software program, or information on how to assemble a piece of furniture.
Abstract – Something that involved a series of steps that aren’t related to a tangible object. One example of this might be steps required to complete an office process.
Some examples of technical writing include:
Reports of analysis
Instructions for assembling a product
A summarization of a long report that highlights and shortens the most important elements Major traits of technical writing
Knowing the characteristics of technical writing is very important if you are a person that is interested in writing professionally. There are many different types of writing and each type has a purpose. Technical writing is different from other types of writing in that it is more informative. The purpose of this type of writing is to explain a variety of topics to other people. Technical writing is commonly seen in how to manuals and other pieces that provide direction. Learning the characteristics of technical writing is essential if you want to build a successful writing career.
Purpose of Technical Writing
Every type of writing has a goal. There are some forms of writing that are geared to telling a story and there are other forms of writing that are geared to expressing opinions.
The main purpose of technical writing is to provide sometimes complex information. This is the type of writing that will:
Assist a person with understanding more about a particular item, such as a computer or a new drug or a new piece of technology.
Technical writing is targeted to readers who are looking for information on a particular topic. The goal in targeting this group is to make sure that the information provided is clear, concise and easy for anyone to understand.
This type of writing is somewhat difficult for some people as it requires that you are able to translate information that is sometimes hard to comprehend into terms that anyone will be able to read and follow along with, without an issue. While there are different types of writing that are informative, technical writing is the type that most clearly focuses on presenting information in a specific way so that people can use the information for a variety of purposes.
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Characteristics of Technical Writing
Technical writing, just as any other form of writing, has certain characteristics which distinguish it from other types of writing. It is very different from writing opinion pieces, essays, prose, non-fiction or fiction.
It is clear and straight forward. If you are interested in technical writing for professional purposes, it is very important to know that this type of writing requires that the writer stick to the subject matter and relay information in a clear and concise manner.
The language is very direct and straight to the point. The writing will avoid words that people do not understand and will avoid an eloquent writing style.
It is very detailed and informative. The perfect example of technical writing is a textbook. The written content of most textbooks is geared to providing information by describing the subject matter as fully as possible.
It is very structured. This type of writing has a very obvious composition that makes it easy for the reader to follow along. Solid structure is needed with technical writing as it allows the audience to easily access the information as needed.
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Q.2 a) What can be the different purposes of a memo? Describe the major elements of
b) Write a memo to inform the school staff about the new policy introduced by the
school administration about use of computer in computer laboratory.
A memo (or memorandum, meaning “reminder”) is normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization. It is often written from a one-to-all perspective (like mass communication), broadcasting a message to an audience, rather than a one-on-one, interpersonal communication. It may also be used to update a team on activities for a given project, or to inform a specific group within a company of an event, action, or observance.
A memo’s purpose is often to inform, but it occasionally includes an element of persuasion or a call to action. All organizations have informal and formal communication networks. The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization is often called the grapevine, and it is often characterized by rumour, gossip, and innuendo. On the grapevine, one person may hear that someone else is going to be laid off and start passing the news around. Rumours change and transform as they are passed from person to person, and before you know it, the word is that they are shutting down your entire department.
One effective way to address informal, unofficial speculation is to spell out clearly for all employees what is going on with a particular issue. If budget cuts are a concern, then it may be wise to send a memo explaining the changes that are imminent. If a company wants employees to take action, they may also issue a memorandum. For example, on February 13, 2009, upper management at the Panasonic Corporation issued a declaration that all employees should buy at least $1,600 worth of Panasonic products. The company president noted that if everyone supported the company with purchases, it would benefit all (Lewis, 2009).
While memos do not normally include a call to action that requires personal spending, they often represent the business or organization’s interests. They may also include statements that align business and employee interest, and underscore common ground and benefit.
Major elements of memos
A good memo organizes the information to be conveyed both for the reader’s convenience and ease of understanding and to achieve the writer’s purpose in the most effective way.
The heading for every memo follows the same basic format:
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TO: [Reader’s name and job title]
cc: [List others who are receiving copies]
FROM: [Your name and job title]
DATE: [Day, month, and year, spelt out]
SUBJECT: [Topic of the memo]
Your subject line should be brief, no more than a few words, but explicit, so that there is no chance for misunderstanding. “Ordering Pizza” as a subject line, for example, might lead your readers to think that your memo will provide instructions on the correct procedure for ordering takeaway on late nights at the office when, in fact, you’re passing on complaints from the cleaning staff about the tomato sauce on the carpet and the boxes strewn all over the floor. Something like “Clean up your mess before leaving” announces the main point of the memo.
The opening sentences or paragraphs of a memo tell readers the context of the issue, the suggested assignment or task, and the purpose of the memo:
The context you describe is the event, situation, or background of the problem or issue you are addressing. Whether it takes a sentence or a paragraph will depend on the complexity of the situation. For example, the context may begin with:
The cleaning company has complained that it takes too long to clean our floors…
Be clear and direct, providing only as much information as your readers need.
Your task or assignment statement describes what you are doing to solve the problem, issue, or situation. If your reader asked that you act, you might say:
You asked me to look at…
If you want to present alternatives for employees to consider, you might say:
We need to consider alternatives that will satisfy the cleaning company without…
Your purpose statement explains why you are writing the memo and leads in to the remainder of it. You need to be direct, and avoid trying to downplaythe information. Your statement might begin with: This memo describes my understanding of the cleaning company’s complaint, proposes several ways of accommodating these people, and my own recommendations for resolving the problem.
If the memo will be so long that adding section headings will make it easier to follow the organization of the information, by all means, do so.
When the purpose of a memo is to convince your readers that there is a real problem, avoid going into more detail than the situation requires. If you discover that you’re having difficulty describing the task, you may need to do more thinking before you write the memo. If you decide to break your memo into segments, be sure that they the most important points.
Wait until you’ve written the main body of your memo to write a summary section. If your memo is one page or less, a summary may not be necessary. If, however, you’ve covered several important issues or events, or your analysis is fairly detailed, a summary paragraph is appropriate.
If the memo is a short report on research you’ve done on an issue or for a project, this is a good place to sum up methods and sources you’ve used so far. Remember, though, that this is a summation. Keep it brief and don’t needlessly repeat detailed information.
After you’ve adequately covered the basic presentation of your topic, here is where you lay out all the details—facts, statistics, hypotheses—that support the ideas you’ve discussed. In this section you demonstrate your ability to think creatively and critically by presenting your ideas.
Begin with the most important or most telling information, proceeding from your strongest fact to the weakest (or, if you’re providing historical background, from oldest to newest information).
These paragraphs are also the place where you make your recommendations, acknowledge others’ recommendations, and describe future problems that might occur and how your suggestions will ensure that such problems simply don’t happen.
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It often helps to put important facts or details into numbered or bulleted lists, again going from strongest point to weakest.
Once you’ve given your readers all the information relevant to the subject of your memo, use a courteousclosing that describes the actions you want them to take, and point out how those actions will benefit everyone. This one-paragraph closing might begin with:
We can discuss my recommendations in greater detail at our next meeting…
Should you need more information, I’ll be glad to….
Provide whatever documentation or additional information your readers will need to come to their own understanding of the event, issue, or problem you’ve described, and list such attachments at the end. For example, if there has been an exchange of letters regarding your subject, include copies of them (if doing so will not breach confidentiality or if they contain information that your readers need to know). If you’ve created graphs of facts or statistics or diagrams that illustrate physical relationships, attach those. You can also refer to such graphs, diagrams, or illustrations at appropriate points in your memo. Do not attach materials that do not bear directly on the subject of the memo.
Memo to inform the school staff about the new policy introduced by the school administration about use of computer in computer laboratory
To: All school staff
Subject: Computer Use Policy Implementation in laboratory
I’m very pleased to announce the introduction of our school computer use Policy Team, chaired by(name/title). The team is charged with leading the implementation of our school laboratory policy, which addresses computer lab rules for use of computer. Teachers will be expected to closely monitor student activity by frequent screen checks. If using the Internet—use URL’s that have been visited and have found to be appropriate for the assignment and student’s age. Teachers should report any nonfunctioning technology equipment to their ITRT via the online Technology Support site. Students must save to their H drive (network drive) and not to the hard drive. Saving to the hard drive will cause the student to lose all of their work. Students should only send the print command to the printer once. If information is not printing, there is a reason. Students must close all open windows, applications, and log out before leaving the lab.Teachers, should when using computer labs clean the whiteboard, turn off the digital projector, and return the room key after doors have been locked. Doors to computer labs must be locked when not in use.Everyone will adhere to federal copyright laws. Computer users should not unplug and switch mouse for left handed students. Simply have student move the mouse to the left side of the keyboard and replace on right side when done.
Our lab policy is a very positive and exciting step for our school. Some prominent rules or using computer are stated in this document:
Log-on with your username and password for your use only. Never share your username and password.
Chewing gum, food, or drinks are not allowed in the computer lab or anywhere near a computer.
Respect the equipment. Do not remove or disconnect parts, cables, or labels.
Internet use is limited to teacher assigned activities or classwork.
Personal Internet use for chat rooms, instant messaging (IM), or email is strictly prohibited. (This is against our Acceptable Use Policy.)
Do not download or install any programs, games, or music. (This is against out Acceptable Use Policy.)
Do not personalize the computer settings. (This includes desktop, screen saver, etc.)
Ask permission to print.
If by mistake you get to an inappropriate Internet site, turn off your monitor immediately and raise your hand.
CD-ROMs, thumb drives, or other multimedia equipment are for school work only. Do not use them for playing music or other recreational activities.
Do not run programs that continue to execute after you log off
Log-off — leave the computer ready for the next person to use. Pick-up your materials and push in the chair.
We will have regular reports from the laboratory by Policy Team at staff meetings. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me.
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Question No. 3
Suppose you are head teacher of a mixed ability large classroom. It is difficult for you to manage them and keep them all at the same pace as some of them are more and some less intelligent. Write an internal proposal to cope with this problem so that the teaching task could be done smoothly. While writing the proposal, identify the problem, its background, significance of the problem its solution and other components of the proposal.
Mixed-ability classes refer to classes where students differ in their achievement, participation and their readiness to learn the foreign language. Educators give different explanations and definitions for mixed-ability classes. Some define them as synonymous with multi-level or heterogeneous classes where students differ clearly in the level and achievement. Bremner (2008) pointed out that mixed-ability classes do not just contain students with different abilities, but also students with a range of learning styles and preferences. Mixed ability classes refer to classes which learners have clear differences in their language levels. “There are differences in the level of their abilities in the receptive and productive skills, fluency and accuracy work, grammatical knowledge, size of vocabulary, command of pronunciation and so on” (Valentic, 2005, p.74). Moreover, Mattews-Aydinli & Home (2006) defined mixed ability or multilevel classes as the classes where students with wide range of levels are placed together. They vary in their levels of competence in listening, reading, speaking and writing. Students differ in their competence, motivation for learning English, needs, interest, styles of learning and experiences. Students have different needs and learning styles. There are learners who are bright and can comprehend easily, learners who can hardly understand basic information and learners who fall somewhere in between these two extremes (Reyes & Rodriguez, 2005). In a classroom, the teacher can find students who are motivated- an essential factor in language acquisition- as well as others who do not have interest for learning a new language (Simanova, 2010). Students differ in their language proficiency and they even differ in their attitudes towards learning a language and they differ in self- discipline (Valentic, 2005). Moreover, Gordon (2010) defines mixed-ability classes as a descriptor used to describe students who are in the same grade and have similar background, but they differ in their abilities in the subject area. Mixed- ability classes are considered as a universal phenomenon. Students are set in classes according to their age and year of study. They are grouped randomly regardless of their attainment and levels of ability (Lyle, 1999; Bremner, 2008). Therefore, every class is multileveled. Some classes might be more multileveled than others and as a result they are more challenging for the teachers (Tomlinson, 2012 and 2014). Teachers face challenges as they are not equipped with the necessary skills and methodologies to deal with mixed ability students. They lack the training programs that would help them deal with this situation (Butterworth, 2010; Xanthou & Pavlou (2010). This heterogeneity may create situations that challenge teachers while trying to give all learners the opportunity to learn and succeed (Hernandez, 2012; Ur, 1991; Ellis, 1994; Skehan, 2002; Lington and Spada, 2002, Reyes and Rodriguez, 2005; Simanova, 2010; Umair, 2010; Harris, 2012; Woodward, 2005; and Montes Reyes, P., & Rodriguez Formoso, 2006).
This problem can be coped in various ways the irst is the appropriate planning. Considering mixed
ability classes and ways to plan for teaching them depends not only on students’ levels, but also on the
subject matter. Good and Brophy 1987) pointed out that teaching languages and mathematics is more
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challenging than teaching other subjects. The content in both languages and mathematics is almost abstract and hierarchically organized when compared to subjects such as history, literature or social studies where the curriculum materials can be related to everyday experience and commonsense explanations. Therefore, teachers of languages and mathematics are faced with more challenges than other teachers. Language teachers feel confused when some learners acquire features of the language fast while other learners in the same class show little or no improvement. The reason could be related to second language acquisition as there are many factors that could influence learning outcomes in language classrooms. Learners’ aptitude and motivation towards learning a new language are the main factors that affect their performance in language classes (Ellis, 1994).
Recommendations according to me are as elaborated. Since EFL teachers face different challenges in their classes and they are do not apply the different strategies frequently, the researchers propose the following recommendations to be implemented. The teachers need to: – Be aware of students’ different abilities in acquiring the foreign language and the pace they need for comprehension. – Have knowledge about their students’ needs and interests. – Establish a good relationship with students to reduce their fear and anxiety of learning a foreign language. – Encourage students to participate and express their needs through discussion, questionnaires, journals, etc. – Train students to be self-reflective and teach them techniques for self and peer-assessment. – Teach learners effective techniques in order to improve their levels and be active learners. – Be supportive and enthusiastic so students can feel confident during English classes. – Update their knowledge and information about the use of different strategies. – Discuss their experiences together in order to support their learners. Have effective techniques in selecting tasks that can fit different levels.
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Solved Assignments Code 1425 Autumn 2018
Question No. 4
Preparing a job resume one of the most important task of person career. Unit 4 of your text book teaches you how to prepare job resumes. Prepare a detailed job resume for yourself. Answer:-
Name: Muhammad Abbas Contact: 0333-4211530 E-mail: email@example.com
Qualified and experienced Writer with expertise in product and instruction manuals. Highly organized, precise and logical, I am confident and capable in researching technologies and disseminating a range of product and process information with clarity and concision. I am seeking a full-time role where I can utilize and further develop my skills.
Graduate Certificate of BS AIOU University
Present: Doing internship as Technical Writer, LB Appliances
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Create written content for user manuals, catalogues, product updates, process documentation, training packages and safety data
Supply documentation for all projects in a timely and efficient manner
Liaise with publishing manager, engineers, designers, manufacturing and retail staff
Contribute to documentation and process improvement
Identified problem areas and acted as chief writer for a complete re-writing of user manuals for five of Bausch’s most popular products
Received commendation for my clear and concise writing and accurate product diagrams
Performed proofreading and editing functions for Holmes Manufacturing, covering a broad range of their product literature for a diverse selection of products
Identified areas for improvement in existing literature and proofread and edited new material
Translated technical data into simple, user-friendly language
Proofread and edited other forms of written documentation
Maintained effective and regular communication with project managers
Juggled multiple projects simultaneously and successfully met all deadlines
MS Office — Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint Adobe In Design, Photoshop
MS Visio, CAD
Available upon request.
Aiou Solved Assignments Basics of Technical English Autumn 2018
Q 5: workplace communication is very important to companies because it allows companies to be productive and operate effectively. Employees can experience an increase in morale, productivity and commitment if they are able to communicate up and down the communication chain in an organization. Explain a few guidelines which can be useful for making business communication clear and precise. Read unit 6 of yopur text book.
Answer: Guidelines for making Business Communication Clear and Precise
All of us communicate every day. The better we communicate, the more credibility we’ll have with our clients, our boss, and our colleagues.
Use the 7 Cs of Communication as a checklist for all of your communication. By doing this, you’ll stay clear, concise, concrete, correct, coherent, complete, and courteous.
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According to the 7 Cs, communication needs to be:
Each 7 Cs element of communication with both good and bad examples are illustrated below:
When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person? If you’re not sure, then your audience won’t be sure either.
To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it’s easy for your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn’t have to “read between the lines” and make assumptions on their own to understand what you’re trying to say.
I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who’s working in your department. He’s a great asset, and I’d like to talk to you more about him when you have time.
What is this email about? Well, we’re not sure. First, if there are multiple Daniels in John’s department, John won’t know who Skip is talking about.
Next, what is Daniel doing, specifically, that’s so great? We don’t know that either. It’s so vague that John will definitely have to write back for more information.
Last, what is the purpose of this email? Does Skip simply want to have an idle chat about Daniel, or is there some more specific goal here? There’s no sense of purpose to this message, so it’s a bit confusing.
I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kedar, who’s working in your department. In recent weeks, he’s helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time.
We’ve got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have his help with this work?
I’d appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further? Best wishes,
This second message is much clearer, because the reader has the information he needs to take action.
When you’re concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief Your audience doesn’t want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.
Are there any adjectives or “filler words” that you can delete? You can often eliminate words like “for instance,” “you see,” “definitely,” “kind of,” “literally,” “basically,” or “I mean.”
Are there any unnecessary sentences?
Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?
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I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company’s philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a sales pitch.
For instance, if we talk about the company’s efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity work we’re doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater.
What do you think?
This email is too long! There’s repetition, and there’s plenty of “filler” taking up space.
Watch what happens when we’re concise and take out the filler words:
I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our target market will want to know about the company’s philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to become sustainable and help local schools.
This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional sales pitch.
What do you think?
When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you’re telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there’s laser-like focus. Your message is solid.
Consider this advertising copy:
The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.
A statement like this probably won’t sell many of these products. There’s no passion, no vivid detail, nothing that creates emotion, and nothing that tells people in the audience why they should care. This message isn’t concrete enough to make a difference.
How much time do you spend every day packing your kids’ lunches? No more! Just take a complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to give your kids a healthy lunch and have more time to play or read with them!
This copy is better because there are vivid images. The audience can picture spending quality time with their kids — and what parent could argue with that? And mentioning that the product is stored in the refrigerator explains how the idea is practical. The message has come alive through these details.
When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.
Do the technical terms you use fit your audience’s level of education or knowledge?
Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won’t catch everything.
Are all names and titles spelled correctly?
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Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I’m looking forward to moving ahead on our project. I’m sure that the two-weak deadline won’t be an issue.
Thanks again, and I’ll speak to you soon!
If you read that example fast, then you might not have caught any errors. But on closer inspection, you’ll find two. Can you see them?
The first error is that the writer accidentally typed conservation instead of conversation. This common error can happen when you’re typing too fast. The other error is using weak instead of week.
Again, spell checkers won’t catch word errors like this, which is why it’s so important to proofread everything!
When your communication is coherent, it’s logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.
I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she wanted to make sure you knew about the department meeting we’re having this Friday. We’ll be creating an outline for the new employee handbook.
As you can see, this email doesn’t communicate its point very well. Where is Michelle’s feedback on Traci’s report? She started to mention it, but then she changed the topic to Friday’s meeting.
I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she let me know that there are a few changes that you’ll need to make. She’ll email you her detailed comments later this afternoon.
Notice that in the good example, Michelle does not mention Friday’s meeting. This is because the meeting reminder should be an entirely separate email. This way, Traci can delete the report feedback email after she makes her changes, but save the email about the meeting as her reminder to attend. Each email has only one main topic.
In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action
Does your message include a “call to action,” so that your audience clearly knows what you want them to do?
Have you included all relevant information — contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?
This message is not complete, for obvious reasons. What meeting? When is it? Where? Chris has left his team without the necessary information.
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I just wanted to remind you about tomorrow’s meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can’t attend
See you then,
Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader’s viewpoint in mind, and you’re empathetic to their needs.
I wanted to let you know that I don’t appreciate how your team always monopolizes the discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team’s progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven’t been able to do that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week?
Well, that’s hardly courteous! Messages like this can potentially start office-wide fights. And this email does nothing but create bad feelings, and lower productivity and morale. A little bit of courtesy, even in difficult situations, can go a long way.
I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team to highlight theirs. I’d really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to fully cover their progress reports.
Thanks so much, and please let me know if there’s anything I can do for you!
What a difference! This email is courteous and friendly, and it has little chance of spreading bad feelings around the office.
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