6411 AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn & Spring 2021 B.Ed

aiou solved assignment

AIOU solved assignment Autumn & Spring 2021 – Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) course code 6411 subject (Foundation of Education) Assignments No 1-2  semester Autumn & Spring 2021 B.Ed Level (1.5 Years, 2.5 Years and 4 Years) are available in soft copy (PDF file). All details related to AIOU Solved Assignments are as under:-

 

Semester

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Autumn & Spring 2021

Class

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B.Ed (1.5 Years, 2.5 years and 4 years)        

Course
Code

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6411

Subject

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Foundation of Education 

Assignment
#

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1-2

 

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Assignment 1

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Assignment 2

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AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6411 Autumn & Spring 2021

Q.1 Identify the important features of Islamic foundations of education.

The modern western society has developed by leaps and bounds in technological advancement
and organized institutions. Life has become fast, competitive and complex. With the rapid rise
of materialism, the concept of higher purpose of life is all but lost. As a result, societies are
losing many values and norms .We are in an era dictated by the philosophy of moral relativism.
In this moral maze spiritual bankruptcy should be considered serious challenge and danger for
human being, its learning and education. There does not seem to be any absolute values and
norms of life. Everything changes according to the needs and demands of people. While
societies are creating needs, consumerism is influencing societies. This has given rise to global
consumerism of an unparalleled strength. Human behavior is changing accordingly. The
vacuum created by the weakening of religious influence in the West since scientific revolution
must me overcame by well constructing the process of learning and education. While some
intend to substitute science to religion and make other things such as science as an absolute
alternative for religion some event in 20 century has proved and displayed that human life based
merely on science is suffering from critical condition.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6411 Autumn & Spring 2021

Teaching young generation to become good citizens of a society without helping them acquire universal values put forward by religion
is a common challenge for our century. History has witnessed the appalling brutalities carried
out by people who are called as ‘good citizens’ of society. According to some thinkers such as
Iqbal, the philosopher poet of the East, the exclusion of religion from public life gives rise to
atrocities. Ignorance and excessive enthusiasm in any religion may lead to similar disaster in
humanity as well. Therefore, religion here I mean the values which give direction human life
beyond mundane life and the perspective according to which human life is not limited to this
worldly universe and the nature of man is not confined to his bodily life too. According to
Islam, human being has a meaning and purpose on earth and he is the vicegerent or, caliph
(alQur’an 2:30) of God on earth. Man is created with the free will to choose between right and
wrong. Two inherent but contrasting natures is imbedded within him, the ability to do good or
evil (al-Qur’an 91:8). This is an immense test for him. But man is also born in nature (fitra), the
nature of submission to the will of his Creator. Thus, the main focus of education in Islam is
child-centered and bent on preparing him for that greater role in the most effective way. Islam
has, from its inception, recognized first order value for education and has enjoyed a long and
rich intellectual tradition. Knowledge occupies a significant position within Islam, as evidenced
by the more than 800 references to it in Islam’s most revered book, the Quran. The importance
of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Quran with frequent injunctions, such as “God will
exalt those of you who believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees” (58:11), “O my
Lord! Increase me in knowledge” (20:114), .Such verses provide a forceful stimulus for the
Islamic community to strive for education and learning. According to Islamic perspective the
mind of the child was believed to be “like a white clean paper, once anything is written on it,
right or wrong, it will be difficult to erase it or superimpose new writing upon it” (Abdul

Tibawi, 1972,p. 38). Learning and education in Islamic context is regarded as a process that
involves the complete person, including the rational, spiritual, and social dimensions. In Islamic
educational theory knowledge is gained in order to actualize and perfect all dimensions of the
human being and the goal of Islamic education is that people be able to live as he lived.
Education does prepare humankind for happiness in this life, “its ultimate goal is the abode of
permanence and all education points to the permanent world of eternity” (Nasr,1984,p. 7). To
ascertain truth by reason alone is restrictive, according to Islam, because spiritual and temporal
reality is two sides of the same sphere. Many Muslim educationists argue that favoring reason at
the expense of spirituality interferes with balanced growth. Exclusive training of the intellect,
for example, is inadequate in developing and refining elements of love, kindness, compassion,
and selflessness, which have an altogether spiritual ambiance and can be engaged only by
processes of spiritual training .Education in Islam is twofold: acquiring intellectual knowledge
(through the application of reason and logic) and developing spiritual knowledge (derived from
divine revelation and spiritual experience). According to the worldview of Islam, provision in
education must be made equally for both. Acquiring knowledge in Islam is not intended as an
end but as a means to stimulate a more elevated moral and spiritual consciousness, leading to
faith and righteous action. The point is that learning and education without values are blind so it
lead to darkness while religion promise to direct toward real life and enhance the life of human
being through learning and education. Religion gives true identity by virtue of which man is
able to achieve real life an extended life in bodily and spiritual direction. As it was indicated in
above there are many values in Holy Bible and Holy Quran that learning and education is not
directing the real goal without being taught and practiced in public and society. But to perceive
Biblical and Quraanic values truly it is necessary to understand how Holy Bible and Holy
Quran perceive human beings. According to the Bible, God creates the universe out of nothing
(ex nihilo) and not out of his own substance (ex Deo). This “nothing” has no ontological statute;
it is not a primordial substance, because prior to creation, nothing existed except God. Creation
ex nihilo is not an artifice of Judeo-Christian philosophy, but the only possibility compatible
with the existence of a personal God as Ultimate Reality. The creation of humans follows the
act of creating the physical universe, as is mentioned in the Genesis account:The Lord God
formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and
the man became a living being (Genesis 2,7). Unlike the physical world, the human being has a
physical dimension (the body) and a spiritual one (the soul). Both are created by God at the
same time, so the human being is not a pre-existent celestial soul fallen into a material body.
Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish
of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures
that move along the ground.” (Genesis 1,26-27).Of course he fact that humans were created in
the image and likeness of God does not imply that God has a physical nature. While God’s
image is imprinted on humans and remains in them as their personal character, the “likeness” is
defined as a way of being. It corresponds to a free will relationship of obedience to the creator.
While the image is an ontological fact of human nature, the likeness is an attribute that has to be
built up through exercising the relationship with God. Man does not have the nature of God, but
only qualities resembling his. Therefore, “the breath of life” (Genesis 2,7), which God has

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6411 Autumn & Spring 2021

transmitted to humans, is not a essence but the act of life giving, which marked the beginning of
experiencing self-consciousness. According to Christianity, human personhood has real and
unique value. Both body and soul define human personhood and neither of them is intrinsically
bad or illusory. The command says: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all
your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind” and “Love your neighbour as
yourself” (Luke 10,27). Nor do the elements of psycho-mental life have anything bad in
themselves, reason for which Christianity demands the renewal of mind (Romans 12,2),
discernment between good and bad feelings (Galatians 5,16-23) and using the will for good
purposes (Titus 3,8). Nowhere in the Holy Scripture is it taught that they should be annihilated
in order to grasp a higher impersonal Ultimate Reality. In Christianity like Islamic perspective,
mankind the sense of the “I” itself is not the cause of problems but its wrong usage, which
generates bad products, such as egoism. Without personhood and self-consciousness, in other
words without the quality that makes one person different from another, the idea of personal
communion with God, the very reason humans were created, is absurd. In conclusion,
Christianity brings a major novelty in defining human nature. Humans are created as personal
beings by a personal God, but without having the same essence with him. Personhood holds
nothing wrong in itself, but is the premise for grounding a personal relationship with the
creator. This perception is the base of biblical values that could not be ignored in learning and
education unless in some extent the destruction of public life and society is expected.
Q.2 Discuss idealism in the relevance of religious and moral development
The history of Western philosophy is checkered with disputes between those who have
defended forms of idealism and those who have opposed them. While there are certainly
significant similarities linking the variety of positions commonly described as realist, there
are also important differences which obstruct any straightforward general characterization
of idealism. Many, if not all, of these disputes may be seen as concerned in one way or
another with the relations between, on the one hand, human beings as thinkers and subjects
of experience and, on the other hand, the objects of their knowledge, belief, and
experience. Do sense perception and other forms of cognition, and the scientific theorizing
which attempts to make sense of their deliverances, provide knowledge of things which
exist and are as they are independently of people’s cognitive or investigative activities? It
is at least roughly true to say that philosophical realists are those who defend
an affirmative answer to the question, either across the board or with respect to certain
areas of knowledge or belief—e.g., the external world, scientific theories, mathematics,
or morality.
The affirmative answer may seem no more than the merest common sense, because the

vast majority of one’s beliefs are certainly most naturally taken to concern mind-
independent objects whose existence is an entirely objective matter. And this seems to be

so whether the beliefs in question are about mundane matters such as one’s immediate
surroundings or about theoretical scientific entities such as subatomic particles,
fundamental forces, and so on. Nevertheless, much argument and clarification of the issues
and concepts involved (e.g., objectivity and mind-independence) is required if the idealism
favoured by common sense is to be sustained as a philosophical position.

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