The post AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 204 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>**Course: ** Rozmarah Urdu **: Matric**

As Well As**Course Code: 204 Semester Autumn 2018 Assignment No. 1**

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Moreover,

AIOU Solved Assignments

Aiou Assignments Marks

The post AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 204 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>The post Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 1430 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>**Course: Business Statistics Level: B.A/BS**** Course Code: 1430 Semester Autumn 2018 Assignment No. 1**

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

**Q.1a) Distinguish between Primary and Secondary data, giving examples of each.Answer:**

Data collection plays a very crucial role in the statistical analysis. In research, there are different methods used to gather information, all of which fall into two categories, i.e. primary data, and secondary data. As the name suggests, primary data is one which is collected for the first time by the researcher while secondary data is the data already collected or produced by others.

There are many differences between primary and secondary data, which are discussed in this article. But the most important difference is that primary data is factual and original whereas secondary data is just the analysis and interpretation of the primary data. While primary data is collected with an aim for getting solution to the problem at hand, secondary data is collected for other purposes.

** Definition of Primary Data**

Primary data is data originated for the first time by the researcher through direct efforts and experience, specifically for the purpose of addressing his research problem. Also known as the first hand or raw data. Primary data collection is quite expensive, as the research is conducted by the organisation or agency itself, which requires resources like investment and manpower. The data collection is under direct control and supervision of the investigator.

The data can be collected through various methods like surveys, observations, physical testing, mailed questionnaires, questionnaire filled and sent by enumerators, personal interviews, telephonic interviews, focus groups, case studies, etc.

Definition of Secondary Data

Secondary data implies second-hand information which is already collected and recorded by any person other than the user for a purpose, not relating to the current research problem. It is the readily available form of data collected from various sources like censuses, government publications, internal records of the organisation, reports, books, journal articles, websites and so on

Secondary data offer several advantages as it is easily available, saves time and cost of the researcher. But there are some disadvantages associated with this, as the data is gathered for the purposes other than the problem in mind, so the usefulness of the data may be limited in a number of ways like relevance and accuracy.

Moreover, the objective and the method adopted for acquiring data may not be suitable to the current situation. Therefore, before using secondary data, these factors should be kept in mind.

Key Differences between Primary and Secondary Data

The fundamental differences between primary and secondary data are discussed in the following points:

The term primary data refers to the data originated by the researcher for the first time. Secondary data is the already existing data, collected by the investigator agencies and organisations earlier. Primary data is a real-time data whereas secondary data is one which relates to the past.

Primary data is collected for addressing the problem at hand while secondary data is collected for purposes other than the problem at hand.

Primary data collection is a very involved process. On the other hand, secondary data collection process is rapid and easy.

Primary data collection sources include surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaire, personal interview, etc. On the contrary, secondary data collection sources are government publications, websites, books, journal articles, internal records etc.

Page 1 of 16

Created by Universal Document Converter

Primary data collection requires a large amount of resources like time, cost and manpower. Conversely, secondary data is relatively inexpensive and quickly available.

Primary data is always specific to the researcher’s needs, and he controls the quality of research. In contrast, secondary data is neither specific to the researcher’s need, nor he has control over the data quality.

Primary data is available in the raw form whereas secondary data is the refined form of primary data. It can also be said that secondary data is obtained when statistical methods are applied to the primary data.

Data collected through primary sources are more reliable and accurate as compared to the secondary sources.

b) Enumirate the main sources of errors in statistics and give their effect?

Here are 5 common sources of errors in statistics

I. Population Specification

This type of error occurs when the researcher selects an inappropriate population or universe from which to obtain data.

Example: Packaged goods manufacturers often conduct surveys of housewives, because they are easier to contact, and it is assumed they decide what is to be purchased and also do the actual purchasing. In this situation there often is population specification error. The husband may purchase a significant share of the packaged goods, and have significant direct and indirect influence over what is bought. For this reason, excluding husbands from samples may yield results targeted to the wrong audience.

Sampling

Sampling error occurs when a probability sampling method is used to select a sample, but the resulting sample is not representative of the population concern. Unfortunately, some element of sampling error is unavoidable. This is accounted for in confidence intervals, assuming a probability sampling method is used.

Example: Suppose that we collected a random sample of 500 people from the general U.S. adult population to gauge their entertainment preferences. Then, upon analysis, found it to be composed of 70% females. This sample would not be representative of the general adult population and would influence the data. The entertainment preferences of females would hold more weight, preventing accurate extrapolation to the US general adult population. Sampling error is affected by the homogeneity of the population being studied and sampled from and by the size of the sample.

Selection Selection error is the sampling error for a sample selected by a nonprobability method.

Example: Interviewers conducting a mall intercept study have a natural tendency to select those respondents who are the most accessible and agreeable whenever there is latitude to do so. Such samples often comprise friends and associates who bear some degree of resemblance in characteristics to those of the desired population.

Non-responsive Nonresponse error can exist when an obtained sample differs from the original selected sample.

Example: In telephone surveys, some respondents are inaccessible because they are not at home for the initial call or call-backs. Others have moved or are away from home for the period of the survey. Not-at-home respondents are typically younger with no small children, and have a much higher proportion of working wives than households with someone at home. People who have moved or are away for the survey period have a higher geographic mobility than the average of the population. Thus, most surveys can anticipate errors from non-contact of respondents. Online surveys seek to avoid this error through e-mail distribution, thus eliminating not-at-home respondents.

Measurement

Measurement error is generated by the measurement process itself, and represents the difference between the information generated and the information wanted by the researcher.

Example: A retail store would like to assess customer feedback from at-the-counter purchases. The survey is developed but fails to target those who purchase in the store. Instead, results are skewed by customers who bought items online

**Q.2 a) What is measure of central tendency? What if the purpose served by it? What are its desirable qualities?**

**Ans:**

In statistics, a central tendency (or measure of central tendency) is a central or typical value for a probability distribution. It may also be called a center or location of the distribution. Colloquially, measures of central tendency are often called averages. The term central tendency dates from the late 1920s.

The most common measures of central tendency are the arithmetic mean, the median and the mode. A central tendency can be calculated for either a finite set of values or for a theoretical distribution, such as the normal distribution. Occasionally authors use central tendency to denote “the tendency of quantitative data to cluster around some central value.

The central tendency of a distribution is typically contrasted with its dispersion or variability; dispersion and central tendency are the often characterized properties of distributions. Analysts may judge whether data has a strong or a weak central tendency based on its dispersion.

Measures

The following may be applied to one-dimensional data. Depending on the circumstances, it may be

appropriate to transform the data before calculating a central tendency. Examples are squaring the

Page 3 of 16

rea ed by Universal Document Converter

values or taking logarithms. Whether a transformation is appropriate and what it should be, depend heavily on the data being analyzed.

Arithmetic mean or simply, mean

the sum of all measurements divided by the number of observations in the data set. Median

the middle value that separates the higher half from the lower half of the data set. The median and the mode are the only measures of central tendency that can be used for ordinal

data, in which values are ranked relative to each other but are not measured absolutely. Mode

the most frequent value in the data set. This is the only central tendency measure that can be used with nominal data, which have purely qualitative category assignments.

Geometric mean

the nth root of the product of the data values, where there are n of these. This measure is valid only for data that are measured absolutely on a strictly positive scale.

Harmonic mean

the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the data values. This measure too is valid only for data that are measured absolutely on a strictly positive scale.

Weighted arithmetic mean

an arithmetic mean that incorporates weighting to certain data elements.

Purpose of measures of central tendency

Measures of Central Tendency provide a summary measure that attempts to describe a whole set of data with a single value that represents the middle or centre of its distribution. There are three main measures of central tendency: the mean, the median and the mode.

When data is normally distributed, the mean, median and mode should be identical, and are all effective in showing the most typical value of a data set.

Desirable qualities of measure of central tendency Desirable qualities of a good measure of central tendency are:-

It should be rigidly defined.

It should include all observations.

it should be simple to understand and easy to calculate.

it should be capable of further mathematical treatment.

It should be least affected by extreme observations.

Page 4 of 16

reated by Universal Document Converter

- it should possess sampling stability.

b) Explain when median is more representative than mean? Calculate the median of the following distribution.

When median is more representative over the mean

The mean has one main disadvantage: it is particularly susceptible to the influence of outliers. These are values that are unusual compared to the rest of the data set by being especially small or large in numerical value. Another time when we usually prefer the median over the mean (or mode) is when our data is skewed (i.e., the frequency distribution for our data is skewed). If we consider the normal distribution – as this is the most frequently assessed in statistics – when the data is perfectly normal, the mean, median and mode are identical. Moreover, they all represent the most typical value in the data set. However, as the data becomes skewed the mean loses its ability to provide the best central location for the data because the skewed data is dragging it away from the typical value. However, the median best retains this position and is not as strongly influenced by the skewed values. This is explained in more detail in the skewed distribution section later in this guide.

Median

Classes Number Class boundaries F

100 -104 4 99.5 -104.5 4

105-109 14 104.5-109.5 18

110-114 60 109.5-114.5 78

115-119 138 114.5-119.5 216

120-124 236 119.5-124.5 452

125-129 298 124.5-129.5 750

130-134 380 129.5-134.5 1130

135-139 450 134.5-139.5 1580

140-144 500 139.5-144.5 2080

145-149 430 144.5-149.5 2510

150-154 260 149.5-154.5 2770

155-159 128 154.5-159.5 2898

160-164 66 159.5-164.5 2964

165-169 28 164.5-169.5 2992

170-174 12 169.5-174.5 3004

**Q.4 a) Discuss the different measures of dispersion? Describe the method of computation of any two of them with suitable example?****Answer:**

** Measures of Dispersion**

Measures of dispersion measure how spread out a set of data is.

For the study of dispersion, we need some measures which show whether the dispersion is small or large. There are two types of measure of dispersion, which are:

Absolute Measures of Dispersion

Relative Measures of Dispersion

Absolute Measures of Dispersion

These measures give us an idea about the amount of dispersion in a set of observations. They give the answers in the same units as the units of the original observations. When the observations are in kilograms, the absolute measure is also in kilograms. If we have two sets of observations, we cannot always use the absolute measures to compare their dispersions. We shall explain later as to when the absolute measures can be used for comparison of dispersion in two or more sets of data. The absolute measures which are commonly used are:

I. The Range

The Quartile Deviation

The Mean Deviation

The Standard Deviation and Variance

Page 6 of 16

Created by Universal Document Converter

Relative Measures of Dispersion

These measures are calculated for the comparison of dispersion in two or more sets of observations. These measures are free of the units in which the original data is measured. If the original data is in dollars or kilometers, we do not use these units with relative measures of dispersion. These measures are a sort of ratio and are called coefficients. Each absolute measure of dispersion can be converted into its relative measure. Thus the relative measures of dispersion are:

Coefficient of Range or Coefficient of Dispersion

111 Coefficient of Quartile Deviation or Quartile Coefficient of Dispersion 111 Coefficient of Mean Deviation or Mean Deviation of Dispersion

Coefficient of Standard Deviation or Standard Coefficient of Dispersion

Coefficient of Variation (a special case of Standard Coefficient of Dispersion METHODS OF DISPERTION:

There are various methods of measuring the dispersions of a series which can be broadly classified into three categories as under:

Method of limits

Method of computations

Method of graphs.

Dispersion by the method of limits

Under this method, the dispersion of a series are studied by taking into account the extreme limits of certain factors viz. value, quartiles, deciles, percentiles etc. of a series.

The following measures of dispersion come under this method : (i) Range, (ii) Inter-Quartile Range (iii) Semi-inter Quartile Range or Quartile Deviation, (iV) Decile Range, and (v) Percentile Range.

Dispersion by the method of computation

Under this method, the dispersal character of a series is studied through the process of computation. The following measures come under this calss:

3.Dispersion by the method of graphs

Under this method, the dispersion of a series is studied by drawing certain suitable, graphs, viz. Lorenz Curve:

Examples

Range

The simplest method of studying the variation in the distribution is the range. The range is defined as the difference between the largest item and the smallest item in the set of observations. So, in a set of observations if L is the largest item and S is the smallest item, then range is given by

Range = L — S

Page 7 of 16

reated by Universal Document Converter

In a grouped frequency distribution, range is the difference between the upper limit of the largest class and lower limit of the smallest class.

The range is the absolute measure of dispersion.It cannot be used to compare two distributions with different units.

Semi-Interquartile range or Quartile deviation

The measure of dispersion depending upon the lower and upper quartiles is known as the quartile deviation. The difference between the upper and lower quartile is known as the Interquartile range. Half the interquartile range is known as Semi-interquartile range or quartile deviation.

..Quartile deviation=Q3—Q12 /2

Mean Deviation (Average Deviation)

Mean deviation is defined as the arithmetic mean of the deviations of the items from mean, median and mode when all deviations are considered positive.

M.D. from mean=L/x—x In =L /d/n

M.D.f rom mean=L/x—x in = //d/n

Also M.D. from mean=/f/x—x /N= /f/d/N

b) Estimate the mean deviation from the arithematic mean of the following set of the

examination marks.

**Q.4 a) Define variance and standard deviation. Describe their properties.****Answer:**** Variance** is a terminology that is used in probability theory as well as in statistics. Variance is the measure of the spread of different data points among the given data set. It describes how far the data values are located from its mean position. As the name suggests, variance may be referred to the measure of degree of variation in the data. In this article, we shall go ahead and understand about the concept of variance, its properties and applications. **Variance**

Variance is a measurement of the spread between numbers in a data set. The variance measures how far each number in the set is from the mean. Variance is calculated by taking the differences between each number in the set and the mean, squaring the differences (to make them positive) and dividing the sum of the squares by the number of values in the set.

Variance Formula

Variance is calculated using the following formula:

**Q.5 a) What do you mean by absolute and relative measure of dispersion? State the uses of the co-efficient of variation in statistical analysis.****Answer:**- Absolute Measures of Dispersion
- These measures give us an idea about the amount of dispersion in a set of observations. They give the answers in the same units as the units of the original observations. When the observations are in kilograms, the absolute measure is also in kilograms. If we have two sets of observations, we cannot always use the absolute measures to compare their dispersions. We shall explain later as to when the absolute measures can be used for comparison of dispersion in two or more sets of data. The absolute measures which are commonly used are:
- The Range
- The Quartile Deviation
- The Mean Deviation
- The Standard Deviation and Variance
- Relative Measures of Dispersion

These measures are calculated for the comparison of dispersion in two or more sets of observations. These measures are free of the units in which the original data is measured. If the original data is in dollars or kilometers, we do not use these units with relative measures of dispersion. These measures are a sort of ratio and are called coefficients. Each absolute measure of dispersion can be converted into its relative measure. Thus the relative measures of dispersion are:

Coefficient of Range or Coefficient of Dispersion

171 Coefficient of Quartile Deviation or Quartile Coefficient of Dispersion

Coefficient of Mean Deviation or Mean Deviation of Dispersion

Coefficient of Standard Deviation or Standard Coefficient of Dispersion

Coefficient of Variation (a special case of Standard Coefficient of Dispersion

Uses of Coefficient of Variation

Coefficient of variation is used to know the consistency of the data. By consistency we mean the uniformity in the values of the data/distribution from the arithmetic mean of the data/distribution. A distribution with a smaller C.V than the other is taken as more consistent than the other.

C.V is also very useful when comparing two or more sets of data that are measured in different units of measurement.

The coefficient of variation of the observations is used to describe the level of variability within a population independently of the absolute values of the observations. If absolute values are similar, populations can be compared using their standard deviations. But if they differ markedly (for example, the weights of mice and elephants), or are of different variables (for example, weight and height), then you need to use a standardized measure – such as the coefficient of variation. The coefficient of variation (CV) for a sample is the standard deviation of the observations divided by the mean. The most common use of the coefficient of variation is to assess the precision of a technique. It is also used ass a measure of variability when the standard deviation is proportional to the mean, and as a means to compare variability of measurements made in different units.

The post Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 1430 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>The post 7 Benefits Of Hiring A Ghostwriter appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>Having the writing skills is really helpful when it comes to combining the thoughts and putting it down on the paper, expressing it with the best selection of the words, and articulating the emotions and feelings of the author. If someone has the interest and fine talent to write, then it would be a wise option if they will take this ability sincerely and make a career out of this talent.

** Advantages of Hiring Ghostwriter**

It is evident that becoming a successful writer in the first go would be a very challenging task, which is why there are other options available for writers that can help them with any difficulty that they face in their writing career. Some people face writer’s block and couldn’t manage to write anything, some people lack skills and need external help. Similarly, a writer/author can face countless problems with writing at any point in their profession.

Some people face writer’s block and couldn’t manage to write anything, some people lack skills and need external help. Similarly, a writer/author can face countless problems with writing at any point in their profession.

**Ghostwriting** is the best solution for people facing such problems. Some people feel reluctant and hesitate in taking the services of a ghostwriter, but there are many benefits for hiring a ghostwriter and taking fiction and nonfiction ghostwriting services to unravel the hurdles that arise in their work.

Some of these amazing benefits of taking ghostwriting services are discussed below that one can study and understand that how well things would work out if they would hire a ghostwriter.

Utmost Quality Will Be Served to You

As the **ghostwriter** will be a professional and skilled writer with some good experience, it will be more likely to happen that they will manage to provide quality in work. The only condition is that you need to hire the ghostwriter relevant to the field of work. If you want help with any academic work or nonfiction material, then it is imperative that you only take nonfiction ghostwriting services from a professional nonfiction ghostwriter. It will get the ghostwriters to work within their domain, and they will be able to provide the best quality.

Since the ghostwriters have been in this field for a while, they should be aware of all the guidelines and must know how to serve the clients well. There is a high chance that they will take care of the project well, provide quality, and also maintain the confidentiality of their clients.

If you are already facing too much difficulty with the work, and have already invested so much time but getting no solution out of it, then hiring the ghostwriter would be the only option to stop wasting more of the time and get the work done swiftly. As the ghostwriters are experts, they will do the work with the right speed without compromising the quality of the work.

Ghostwriters are so well-trained in the work they do that they can easily write unique content for more than one clients having a similar topic, and can provide quality in work as well.** Your Tone of Voice Will Be Carried Out Skillfully**

Many people have this concern that if someone else will do the work they might not be able to write the way the author is writing, or might not be able to carry their voice in the content. Ghostwriters are highly proficient in grasping other person’s tone of voice and then take it to write the material in the same way as the author wanted them to write.** Ghostwriters Will Make You Look At Different** & Better Aspects of the Work

It might happen that the storyline or the synopsis of the content you have in your mind is not that attractive, and it might require a different view or might need a different style for explaining things to the readers. A professional ghostwriter who has expertise in that area of topic will help you see a few things a little differently.

It might also happen that if you are stuck with any content and you could not possibly think of any new idea to write about then hiring a ghostwriter will help you, as they will suggest some innovative approaches to you on which you can write mutually.

The post 7 Benefits Of Hiring A Ghostwriter appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>The post How Many Weeks In A Year appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>One year has approximatly 52 weeks.

One calendar common year has 365 days:

1 common year = 365 days = (365 days) / (7 days/week) = 52.143 weeks = 52 weeks + 1 day

One calendar leap year occures every 4 years, except for years that are divisable by 100 as well as not divisable by 400. Moreover,

One calendar leap year has 366 days, when February has 29 days:

1 leap year = 366 days = (366 days) / (7 days/week) = 52.286 weeks = 52 weeks + 2 days

Year | LeapYear | Weeks ina Year |
---|---|---|

2013 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2014 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2015 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2016 | yes | 52weeks + 2days |

2017 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2018 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2019 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2020 | yes | 52weeks + 2days |

2021 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2022 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2023 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2024 | yes | 52weeks + 2days |

2025 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

2026 | no | 52weeks + 1day |

Any impatient soul counting down to their next birthday, annual holiday or festival is going to need 52 weeks’ worth of patience, because that’s the length of a complete year.

**A normal year in the ‘modern’ calendar has 365 days**, which, when divided by 7 (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday) equals **52.1428571 weeks**.

Every four years, there is a leap year*, adding an extra day into the calendar (pity those 17 year olds born on February 29th 2000, who have only had 4 true birthdays). In this case, the calculation is 366 divided by 7, which equals 52.2857, so it’s still just 52 weeks. Moreover,

This is all based upon the **Gregorian calendar** (introduced back in 1582), which cycles every 400 years. If you want to go a step further as well as work out the average number of weeks in a year across the full Gregorian calendar, you’ll find that a year works out at 365.2425 days. When divided by 7 it gives you a total of 52.1775 weeks. Moreover,

Year type | Number of days | Number of weeks | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

Lunar | 354.37 | 50.6242857 | Muslim calendar year |

Common year | 365 | 52.1428571 | |

Gregorian (average) | 365.2425 | 52.1775 | |

Julian | 365.25 | 52.1785714 | used in astronomy (computing the distance covered by a light-year, etc) |

Leap year | 366 | 52.2857143 |

Here’s a table to show you how common years from the Gregorian calendar are broken down into weeks as well as days:

Year | Number of weeks | Number of days | Leap year? |
---|---|---|---|

2015 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2016 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2017 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2018 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2019 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2020 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2021 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2022 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2023 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2024 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2025 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

The exception to the “fifty two weeks” rule pops up in case you’re the usage of a fancy instructional journal or office wall planner; on occasion they number the weeks based on them walking from sunday to saturday, or monday to sunday, breaking up the first as well as last weeks of the 12 months to fit this mildew. Even though there are nonetheless only fifty two weeks inside the 12 months, as well as time doesn’t magically sluggish down**, the manner a calendar like that counts fragments on the start as well as stop of the year might suggest that the weeks are numbered as high as 54. E.G.: Moreover,

Week 1: thursday 1 january, friday 2 january, saturday 3 january, sunday four january

Week 2: monday five january, tuesday 6 january….

Leap years exist to accurate a small margin of error in our annual calendars. A entire orbit of the solar honestly takes earth three hundred and sixty five days and five hours, 48 mins. To atone for the more time, every 4 years we add an extra day to the calendar to preserve accuracy (otherwise we’d be out with the aid of 24 more days every century). Moreover,

There are 3 standards to determine a soar yr. Julius caesar introduced the concept 2000 years in the past, defining any year which can be cleanly divided through four as a jump yr. However, this made too many soar years and would nevertheless create an imbalance of time, so there’s a tick list of 3 capabilities any jump yr need to have. Moreover,

- The number of the year is a factor of 4
- If the year is a factor of 100, then it’s NOT a leap year, except…
- If it’s also a factor of 400, in which case, OK, it’s a leap year.

How Many Working Weeks in a year

In 1752, europe changed into the use of the extra correct gregorian calendar, which we still use today, however britain changed into dragging its heels with the julian calendar. The large switch passed off in september that 12 months, however to capture up with every body else and to correct the amassed inaccuracy of the julian calendar, english folk went to mattress on wednesday 2d september 1752, and awakened on thursday 14th september 1752. A few assets declare that individuals of the general public rioted, outraged that their lives were ‘shortened’ via 11 days! Moreover

**How many Weekends are in a Year?**

One year has approximatly 52 weekends.

Furthermore, One calendar common year has 365 days:

1 common year = 365 days = (365 days) / (7 days/week) = 52.143 weeks = 52 weekends + 1 day

One calendar leap year occures every 4 years, except for years that are divisable by 100 and not divisable by 400. Moreover,

One calendar leap year has 366 days, when February has 29 days:

1 leap year = 366 days = (366 days) / (7 days/week) = 52.286 weeks = 52 weeks + 2 days

Year | LeapYear | Weeks ina Year |
---|---|---|

2019 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2020 | yes | 52weekends + 1day |

2021 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2022 | no | 52weekends + 2days |

2023 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2023 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2024 | Yes | 52weekends + 1day |

2020 | No | 52weekends + 2days |

2021 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2022 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2023 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2024 | yes | 52weekends + 2days |

2025 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

2026 | no | 52weekends + 1day |

Any impatient soul counting right down to their subsequent birthday, annual vacation or festival goes to want 52 weekends’ well worth of endurance, due to the fact it is the length of a whole 12 months. Moreover,

A regular year inside the ‘cutting-edge’ calendar has three hundred as well as sixty five days, which, whilst divided through 7 (monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, friday, saturday, sunday) equals 52.1428571 weeks. Moreover,

Every four years, there is a leap yr*, adding an additional day into the calendar (pity those 17 yr olds born on february 29th 2000, who have best had 4 genuine birthdays). In this example, the calculation is 366 divided by using 7, which equals fifty two.2857, so it is nonetheless just fifty two weeks. Moreover,

This is all based totally upon the gregorian calendar (brought back in 1582), which cycles each four hundred years. In case you want to head a step similarly as well as work out the average range of weeks in a 12 months across the total gregorian calendar, you will locate that a year works out at 365.2425 days. While divided with the aid of 7 it offers you a complete of fifty two.1775 weeks. Moreover,

Year type | Number of days | Number of weeks | Comments |
---|---|---|---|

Lunar | 354.37 | 50.6242857 | Muslim calendar year |

Common year | 365 | 52.1428571 | |

Gregorian (average) | 365.2425 | 52.1775 | |

Julian | 365.25 | 52.1785714 | used in astronomy (computing the distance covered by a light-year, etc) |

Leap year | 366 | 52.2857143 |

Here’s a table to show you how common years from the Gregorian calendar are broken down into weeks as well as days:

Year | Number of weeks | Number of days | Leap year? |
---|---|---|---|

2015 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2016 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2017 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2018 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2019 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2020 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2021 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2022 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2023 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

2024 | 52 weeks as well as 2 days | 366 | yes |

2025 | 52 weeks as well as 1 day | 365 | – |

The exception to the “fifty two weeks” rule pops up in case you’re using a elaborate instructional magazine or office wall planner; occasionally they wide variety the weeks primarily based on them walking from sunday to saturday, or monday to sunday, breaking up the primary and closing weeks of the 365 days to fit this mould. Even though there are despite the fact that simplest fifty two weeks within the 12 months, and time doesn’t magically sluggish down**, the manner a calendar like that counts fragments on the begin and forestall of the yr would possibly advise that the weeks are numbered as high as 54. E.G.:

Week 1: thursday 1 january, friday 2 january, saturday 3 january, sunday 4 january

Week 2: monday 5 january, tuesday 6 january….

*a further notice approximately soar years…

Jump years exist to correct a small margin of mistakes in our annual calendars. A whole orbit of the solar definitely takes earth three hundred and sixty 5 days and five hours, forty eight mins. To atone for the extra time, every four years we add an additional day to the calendar to keep accuracy (otherwise we’d be out with the useful resource of 24 more days every century).

There are three standards to determine a leap yr. Julius caesar added the idea 2000 years in the beyond, defining any yr which may be cleanly divided via four as a leap 12 months. However, this made too many leap years and would though create an imbalance of time, so there’s a tick list of three competencies any soar yr want to have…

Leap yr checklist

The quantity of the year is a component of 4

If the yr is a factor of one hundred, then it’s now not a soar year, except…

If it’s also a thing of 400, in which case, ok, it is a bounce yr.

How Many Weeks In A Year 2019

In 1752, europe modified into the usage of the extra correct gregorian calendar, which we still use these days, but britain modified into dragging its heels with the julian calendar. The big switch passed off in september that 12 months, but to capture up with all people else and to accurate the accumulated inaccuracy of the julian calendar, english people went to bed on wednesday 2d september 1752, and awakened on thursday 14th september 1752. A few property declare that people of the majority rioted, outraged that their lives have been ‘shortened’ thru 11 days!

The post How Many Weeks In A Year appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>The post AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 207 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>Course: Compulsory English-I Course Code 207

Level: Matric/SSC Semester: Autumn 2018

Assignment No. 1

Moreover: **AIOU Assignments**

**1: Read the dialogue from unit no 1 about Kamal Baig and then re-write the information about Ali in a paragraph form:**

ANSWER:

Ali’s surname is Butt. His middle name is Raza. He is from Lahore. He is a Lab Assistant at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital. His duty time is from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. His address is 196 Gulberg 3 Lahore. His cell Number is 0300-3064960. He is 25 years old and married.

Moreover: **AIOU Solved Assignments**

2: In** Unit 1, you have studied question forms, below is an activity related to question forms. Choose the correct WH Questions given in the box to complete each of the following question:**** ANSWER:**

When did you start School? I started school in Azad Kashmir in the year 1998.

Which subjects did you like best? I liked physics and the chemistry?

When did you finish school? I finished in 2008.

Where did you join the college? I joined the college in the Muree.

How many hours do you study? I study 8 hours day.

Why did you join college in Murree? It is near to my city.

What do you take in breakfast? I take paratha and egg.

Who prepares your breakfast? Our hostel’s cook prepares our Breakfast.

When are you leaving for your village? I am leaving aftr my exams.

Whose cell phone is in your hands? It is my father’s cell phone.

Moreover: **Aiou Assignments Marks**

**4: In unit 2, exercise 1, you ht,,, listened and read the dialogue between Major Haq and Soomro Sahab. Now fill in the blank spaces with the correct information. ANSWER:** Name of the owner: Mr. Allah Buksh Somro

Name of the interested tenant: Maj Inam ul Haq

Telephone number of the owner: 790099

Address of the house: Civil lines, Second house on the right of the civil line road.

**5: In Unit 2, page 47 you have read and listened to the recorded text 4. Now answer the questions based on the dialogue between Arifa and Riffat. ANSWER:**

i. Arifa has mother in law, two sisters in laws in her family.

ii. Sara is getting married.

iii.The wedding ceremony is scheduled to take place in December.

iv. Arifa is very busy.

v. Riffat’s father in law is bed ridden.

Moreover:

**6: Unit 3 deals with ‘Education and Career Plans’. Go to page 69, exercise 6, where an advertisement of job for a Superintendent is given. The administration requires the following information. Fill in the form given below with information about yourself.****Answer:**

**8: In Unit 3, page 73, you have read about Aziz’s success story. Here are some expressions, from this story. Now write a paragraph approximately 200 words using following expressions.Answer:**

Ahmad belonged to a poor family. WhenN was born, his father was working as a clerk in a private company. Ahmad had four siblings 4:0,11vas quite difficult for his father to support such a large family. They were living hands to mouth. Ahmad was born intelligent and hardworking. He never get afraid of his circumstances,,Ahcontinued to study in government school and working in a workshop in the evening. Living at kind of situation, they had to face another disaster. One day, while coming back from his office, his father died in a road accident. Now the whole family was depending on Ahmad. It was difficult for him defmitely but he never gave up. He was very optimistic. He was still*-king hard not only for himself but for his family too. He always remembered his father4 beam that he wanted to see him as a successful doctor. He started giving home tuitions for extra learning. He never forgot his aim. Although the circumstances were not in his favour, he faced them with strong will and determination. It was his firm belief on himself and on his hard work that he achieved his goal. He not only became a famous and dedicated doctor but he was also a gold medalist in his university.

Moreover:

i. Standard of living:

Meaning: The degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community. Sentence: Aslam’s standard of living is very high.

Following his dream:

Meaning: Coming after or as a result of dream.

Sentence: Following his father’s dream, he became doctor.

Further his education:

Meaning: Formal education as a private student.

Sentence: She couldn’t continue further her education.

Determined to continue:

Meaning: Strongly motivated to carry on

Sentence: Mrs. Ateeq is determined to continue her husband’s mission.

Believed in hard work meaning:

Trusted in effort

Sentence: Those nations make progress who believed in hard work.

The post AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 207 Autumn 2018 appeared first on Education Tutors.

]]>